Akebia quinata fiveleaf akebia; chocolate vine Lardizabalaceae AKQU*; Bx, cf, rd; - Akebia quinata is a twining woody vine to 12 m or more, sometimes growing as a ground cover, stem slender, new growth green, bark becoming grayish with numerous small, raised lenticels, rooting at nodes when in contact with ground. Leaves alternate, stalk 2-12 cm long, blade palmately compound, leaflets 5, stalks 0.2-2.2 cm long, blades 1-8 […]
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Amur peppervine; porcelain-berry Vitaceae AMBR7,*p; Bx, bg, br, bz, cf, cm, ht, pb, ra, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr, wr; Q, a, cu, dp, f, ft, i, j, wl; K, fl, p; R, bg, bm, c, cl, cs, d, e, fk, hs, jw, mls, ro, sb, sm, sv, u, v, wl, wp; - Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is a woody vine 10-20 m long, tendrils opposite leaves, new growth hairy, older bark tan, flaky (not shredding). Aggressively colonial. Leaves alternate, stalk long, finely hairy, blade 6-12 cm long (Brand 2001), to 9 cm wide (Radford et al. 1968), wide, shallowly three-lobed, to deeply five-lobed, lobe tips pointed, base round-lobed (cordate), surface […]
Amphicarpaea bracteata American hog-peanut Fabaceae AMBR2; Bx, pb, vc; R (DeCandido 2001); - Amphicarpaea bracteata is an annual, twining vine to 1.5 m long, stems very slender, hairy.  Leaves alternate, stalks long, hairy, blade 3-parted, leaflets 2-6 cm long, egg-shaped to rhombic, base broadly rounded.  Flowers of two types: upper flowers are pale purple to white, bilaterally symmetrical, pea-flower-shaped, to1.5 cm long, upper petal (standard) rounded at tip, narrowed at […]
Apios americana wild bean Fabaceae APAM; Bx, bz, pb, sf; Q; R, ev, h, lp, ml, sb, t, wp; - Apios americana is a perennial, herbaceous, twining vine 1-3 m long; colonial from rhizomes with fleshy, edible tubers 1-2 cm wide; Roots have nodules caused by nitrogen fixing rhizobial bacteria (Duke 1983); stipules linear, 0.5-0.6 cm long, deciduous (Radford et al. 1968). Leaves alternate, stalk 2-7 cm long, swollen at base; blade 10-20 cm long, pinnately […]
Aristolochia macrophylla  (A. durior) Dutchman’s pipe Aristolochiaceae ARDU(*) Bx, rd; - Aristolochia macrophylla is a high-climbing, twining vine; bark with distinctive aromatic odor (scratch & sniff); new growth green in winter, older bark gray, striated with numerous elongate lenticels that merge into lines. Leaves large, heart-shaped, to 40 cm long and wide. Flowers dark purplish, irregularly tubular, bent at a sharp angle like an old-fashioned smoking-pipe, to 4 […]
Calystegia sepium  (Convolvulus s.) hedge-bindweed Convolvulaceae CASE13*; Bx, br, bz, pb, sd, sf; NY, hb; Q, a, j, rw; K, fl, ow, p; R, bk, bm, c, cs, fk, pr, se; - Calystegia sepium is a perennial, herbaceous, twining vine, to 3 m long, stems slender, green, branching; colonial from an extensive system of fleshy rhizomes.  Leaves alternate, stalks elongate, blade 5-10 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, arrow-shaped with squared off lobes at base.  Flowers pink-white, often striped, showy, radially symmetrical, funnel-shaped, 4-7 cm (like morning glories), 5-7 cm wide […]
Campsis radicans trumpet creeper Bignoniaceae CARA2*; Bx, pb, wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY (DeCandido 2001); Q, a, j; R, bm, lp, wp; - Campsis radicans is a woody vine to 10 m long, bark on older stems yellowish-gray, shredding, younger stems smooth, pale brown; stems several from base, twining, short aerial roots at nodes adhere very strongly to climbing surface (Scheper 2007); new growth green; winter leaf scars with one central vein scar (Harlow 1946); may cause slight […]
Celastrus orbiculatus Oriental bittersweet Celastraceae CEOR7*p; Bx, bg, br, bz, cf, hi, ht, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, wr, tr; Q, a, cu, dp, f, fr, ft, i, j, rw, tl, vb, wl; K, fl, fs, m, pl; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cg, cn, cp, d, fk, ft, fw, gb, gr, h, hs, jl, js, lc, lp, lt, mls, pm, pr, ro, sm, sv, t, ty, w, w, x; - Celastrus orbiculatus is a large, woody twining, vine, stems to 12 m long; clonal by extensive root sprouts; bark gray, lenticels prominent; leaf scars and axillary buds raised, bud scales sharply pointed, feeling nearly thorn-like (Harlow 1959).  Leaves alternate, 4-7 cm long, 3.5-5.5 cm wide, nearly round or widest above middle, tip pointed, margin with sharp […]
Celastrus scandens American bittersweet Celastraceae CESC; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); NY (DeCandido 2001); Q (DeCandido 2001); R, mm; - Celastrus scandens woody  twining vine, to 7 m long; bark gray, young stems red-brown.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped about twice as long as wide, margin with very small teeth, tip pointed.  Flowers greenish, small, numerous, in terminal clusters, 5-10 cm long (i.e. only at branch tips); pollinated by bees (Ma and Moore 2004).       Fruit yellow, capsule, […]
Clematis terniflora yam-leaved Clematis Ranunculaceae CLTE4*; Bx, br, pb, sd, wv; NY, hb; Q (DeCandido 2001); R, c; - Clematis terniflora is a scarcely woody climbing vine 2-3 m long; bark becoming pale brown, shredding.  Leaves opposite, 5-parted stalks of leaf and leaflets, elongate, twining or sinuous, used for climbing, leaf distantly 5-parted, leaflets hairless, 5-10 cm long (Scheper 2007), leathery, dull, dark green above, paler below, bluntly triangular to egg-shaped, tip blunt to pointed, […]
Clematis virginiana virgin’s bower Ranunculaceae CLVI; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); R (DeCandido 2001);  - Clematis virginiana is a scarcely woody vine to 3 m long, stems slender, 6-12 angled, bark pale brown, shredding, nodes enlarged often with a line between leaf scars (Harlow 1946), spring growth begins early April (Britton 1874). Leaves opposite, stalk to 10 cm long, blade mostly 3-parted, leaflets stalked, blades 2-10 cm long, 1-6 cm wide, […]
Convolvulus arvensis field bindweed Convolvulaceae COAR*; Bx, pb; NY, bl; Q, j; R, cs, hs, pm, w; - Convolvulus arvensis is a perennial, herbaceous  vine, stems to 1.5 m long, branching freely, from buds on deep, spreading roots and rhizomes, root system may covers an area of 6 m wide 9 m deep in suitable soil, climbing or tangled in low vegetation. Leaves alternate, narrow, arrow-shaped, 1-5 cm long, basal lobes triangular but variable. […]
Cuscuta cephalanthi buttonbush dodder Cuscutaceae CUCE; R; - Cuscuta cephalanthi is a parasitic annual vine, stems coarse, yellow, high climbing. Plants lack chlorophyll. Leaves reduced to scales, narrow, oblong, toothed from near base, tips blunt. Flowers white, 0.2 cm, usually 4-parted, petal lobes egg-shaped, blunt-tipped, much shorter than tube, calyx lobes blunt, much shorter than petal tube; inflorescence of compact, crowded clusters. Fruit dry, hollow, a […]
Cuscuta gronovii common dodder Cuscutaceae CUGR; Bx, br, pb, sn, vc; Q, cu, j, tl, u; R, fk, gr, is, jl, jw, lp, t; - Cuscuta gronovii is a parasitic annual, orange-stemmed vine, plants lack chlorophyll, closely entwining host plant stems and entering host by numerous sucker-like haustoria, seedling root system degenerates when haustorial connection to host formed; vines are not photosynthetic but are strongly phototrophic and climb only upward and counterclockwise, forming tangled masses at top of host stem.  […]
Cuscuta obtusiflora var. glandulosa southern dodder; Peruvian dodder Cuscutaceae CUOB; R;  - Cuscuta obtusiflora var. glandulosa is a parasitic annual vine, stem yellow or orange. Leaves none or scale-like. Flowers white, 5-parted, 0.2 cm, in dense clusters, petal lobes egg-shaped, tips blunt, calyx often glandular, lobes rounded, reaching bases of petal lobes. Fruit dry, hollow capsule, rounded, cupped by old flower parts; seeds 1.5 mm. Wetland status: NL. Frequency in NYC: Rare […]
Cuscuta pentagona  (C. arvensis ) field dodder; five angled dodder Cuscutaceae CUPE; Bx, pb; NY; Q, j; R; - Cuscuta pentagona is a parasitic annual vine stems pale, very slender, no chlorophyll. Leaves none. Flowers white, 5-parted, to 0.2 cm, somewhat glandular, petal lobes 0.1 cm, narrow to triangular, about as long as the petal tube, tips long-pointed, usually bent outward with ends bent upward, calyx about as long as petal tube, nearly enclosing it, calyx […]
Cuscuta polygonorum smartweed dodder Cuscutaceae CUPO; Q, a;  - Cuscuta polygonorum is a parasitic annual herb, orange-stemmed vine, closely entwining host plant and entering host by numerous haustoria; vines strongly phototrophic, climbing only upward and counterclockwise, forming tangled masses at top of host stem, seedling root system degenerates when haustorial connection to host formed.  Leaves none or scale-like, alternate.  Flowers white, 4-parted, 0.2 cm, petal lobes […]
Cynanchum louiseae (Vincetoxicum nigrum; Cynanchum n.) Louise’s swallow-wort; black swallow-wort Asclepiadaceae VINI*p; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q a; K, m; R; - Cynanchum louiseae is a perennial, herbaceous, twining vine 1-2 m long, from a large root crown and colonial from rhizomes, usually unbranched.  Leaves opposite, stalk short; blade 5-10 cm long, oblong to egg-shaped, tip long-pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed.  Flowers blackish-purple, radially symmetrical, petal lobes 5, triangular, fleshy, 0.2-0.3 cm long; inflorescence, umbrella-shaped, rather few-flowered; blooming […]
Dioscorea villosa wild yam; colic root Dioscoreaceae DIVI; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu; R, h, gb, gr, lp, ro, sv, t; - Dioscorea villosa is a dioecious perennial monocotyledon vine, colonial from slender rhizomes, stem slender, twining counterclockwise to 5 m long.  Leaves alternate, (the lowermost sometimes whorled), stalk 2-7 cm long, blade heart-shaped, 5-10 cm long, tip long-pointed, base lobed, dull green above, often hairy below, major veins 7-11, palmate, secondary veins netted, finely hairy on veins […]
Echinocystis lobata wild cucumber Cucurbitaceae  ECLO; Bx, br, bz, pb, sf; Q, a, cu, i; R, cs, hs; - Echinocystis lobata is an annual vine with 3-forked, tightly coiled tendrils, stems usually not hairy (Uva et al. 1997). Leaves alternate, deeply 5-lobed, lobes, triangular lobes, tips sharply pointed, veins palmate, hairy on upper surface, typical of squash-family leaves; seedling leaves large, fleshy, oval conspicuous on bare soil of floodplain woodlands. Flowers small, white, 6-parted, radially symmetrical, […]
Euonymus fortunei winter-creeper Celastraceae EUFO*; Bx, br, pb, ra, sf, wv; NY, iw, n; Q, a; R, d, gb, h; - Euonymus fortunei is a trailing evergreen ground cover to climbing shrub, sometimes climbing high on tree trunks; stems rooting, climbing to 20 m, young stems green, minutely warty. Leaves opposite, evergreen, about 2 cm on trailing plants, to 6 cm on climbing, or shrub-like, flowering plants, tip pointed, base broadly wedge-shaped, margin sparsely toothed, veins on […]
Euonymus Genus bittersweet Celastraceae - Euonymus is a genus of shrubs, small trees or vines, twigs often 4-sided. Leaves opposite, deciduous to evergreen. Flowers small, usually greenish to white, 4-6 parted, stamens short growing from a disk-shaped structure, ovary 3-5 parted, stigma sessile. Fruit orange to red, sometimes lobed, opening to reveal seeds covered by a orange to red aril which is attractive […]
Fallopia convolvulus (Polygonum c.) black bindweed Polygonaceae POCO*; Bx, sf; NY, mn; Q, lk; - Fallopia convolvulus is a weedy annual vine to 2 m long from a taproot, stems slender, freely branched from base; stems somewhat rough (scabrous); leaf-sheaths membranous, entire, smooth.  Leaves alternate, stalk rough, elongate, blade to 6 cm long, arrow-shaped to triangular, tip pointed, base lobed, sinus deep, wide, new leaves bluish.  Flowers 0.2 cm wide, green outside, […]
Hedera helix English ivy Araliaceae HEHE*p; Bx, br, cf, hi, pb (s), rd, vc, wv; NY, n, rv, tr; Q, a, ft, u; K, p; R, ah, ar, c, cg, cl, d, gb, h, is, lt, r, ro, wt; - Hedera helix is an evergreen, woody vine, climbing to 30 m high by adventitious roots, or creeping ground cover, rooting in soil.  Leaves alternate, broad, 3-5 palmately lobed, changing shape to rounded or heart-shaped when vine climbs upward, will bloom only when climbing.  Flowers small, green, in rounded clusters. Fruit fleshy, black, 1-2 seeded, probably eaten by […]
Humulus japonicus Japanese hops Cannabaceae HUJA*; Bx, br, sn, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, i; K, m; R, al, wp, t; - Humulus japonicus is an annual vine; stem green, stout, very rough.  Leaves opposite, palmately 5-9 lobed, upper blades 3-5 lobed, hairy, very rough, rather irritating, petiole longer than blade, major veins palmate, secondary veins pinnate, superficially like a vine of Cucurbitaceae but opposite and with more lobes.  Flowers greenish, inconspicuous, dioecious (sexes on different plants), female flowers […]
Humulus lupulus common hops Cannabaceae HULU*; Bx, pb; Q; bv; R; - Humulus lupulus is a perennial vine, stems to 10 m long, rough, colonial from rhizomes. Leaves opposite, deeply 3-lobed, tips pointed, base broadly lobed, upper leaves often broadly egg-shaped, lobeless. Flowers small, greenish, dioecious (sexes on different plants), female spikes to 1 cm, becoming as long as 6 cm in fruit, bracts persistent, entire, glandular at base […]
Ipomoea pandurata wild potato Convolvulaceae  IPPA; R, lp (Aesop Park); - Ipomoea pandurata is a perennial vine from a large, deep tuberous root, stems trailing or slightly twining to 5 m, forking, often purplish. Leaves alternate, heart-shaped, to 15 cm long, tip long-pointed, base deeply lobed. Flowers white with red-purple center, to 8 cm long, 10 cm wide, funnel-shaped, sepals to 2 cm long, oblong to egg-shaped, tips […]
Ipomoea purpurea common morning glory Convolvulaceae IPPU*; Bx, pb, wv; R, c; - Ipomoea purpurea is an annual vine, to 5 m long, stems hairy. Leaves alternate, heart-shaped. Flowers large, 4-6 cm, purple to white, funnel-shaped; petals fused, sepals fused, lobes pointed; blooming July-Sept. Self-pollinating but mostly outcrossing (Motten and Antonovics 1992). Fruit dry, hollow, splitting open to release seeds. Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Tropical America. […]
Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus beach pea Fabaceae LAMA; Q; R; - Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus is a herbaceous perennial vine, colonial from rhizomes, stems to1 m long, stout, winged, usually reclining; stipules leaf-like, broadly egg-shaped 1.5-4 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, symmetrical, base lobed.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, tendril replacing terminal leaflet, leaflets 3-6 pairs, alternate, 3-5 cm long, to about 2 cm wide, oblong to widest above […]
Lathyrus latifolius everlasting pea Fabaceae LALA*; Bx, pb; Q, a, i, j; R, c, e; - Lathyrus latifolius is a herbaceous perennial vine, from rhizomes, stems to 2 m long, pale blue-green, broadly winged, 0.5-1 cm wide; stipules 2.5-4 cm long, narrow, paired at nodes.  Leaves alternate, stalk broadly winged, blade 2-parted, central leaflet replaced by a branched tendril, leaflets lance-shaped to elliptic, narrow 4-8 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, sessile.  Flowers pink-purple, […]
Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOJA*p; Bx, bg, bz, g, hi, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, n, tr; Q, a, bw, cu, dp, f, ft, i, j, tl, wl; K, do, fl, m, ow, p, pl; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cg, cl, cs, d, e, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, hs, is, jl, js, k, lp, lt, mc, mls, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, sm, sv, t, ty, w, wp, wt; - Lonicera japonica is a woody vine, climbing, trailing, bark brown, shredding; colonial from stem layering and root sprouts.  Leaves opposite, ca 5 cm long, entire to toothed or lobed, semi-evergreen, new leaves emerge in early spring, shade tolerant but does not flower or fruit in low light (Robertson et al. 1994).  Flowers pale, dull yellow or white, […]
Lonicera sempervirens trumpet honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOSE; Bx, cm (planted), pb; NY; R, h, gb, w, wp;  - Lonicera sempervirens is a woody vine, bark shreddy, stems hollow.  Leaves opposite, white below, upper leaves fused around stem; leaves expand mid-April (Britton 1874).  Flowers tubular, red & yellow, irregular, insect, also visited by hummingbirds; blooming May-June.  Fruit fleshy, translucent-red, seeds bird dispersed, fruit eaten by songbirds. FACU. Very infrequent. Woodlands.   Wetland status: FACU.  Frequency in NYC:Infrequent . Origin: […]
Lycium barbarum matrimony-vine Solanaceae LYBA*; Bx, pb, wv; NY, hb, rv; Q, a, ft, j; K; R, hs; - Lycium barbarum is a woody vine, often shrub-like, to 6 m long, often prostrate, stems slender, young stems irregularly ribbed, arching or sprawling, nodes often with a short thorn above the main leaf scar, bark pale gray-yellow.  Leaves alternate, but in tight rosettes on flowering branches, lance-shaped to egg-shaped, to 7cm long, 3.5 cm wide, much […]
Menispermum canadense moon seed Menispermaceae MECA; Bx, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, iw, rv; Q, a; R, c, lp; - Menispermum canadense is a slender, climbing, woody vine to 5 m long. Leaves alternate, to 15 cm long, broadly egg-shaped, shallowly 5-lobed, tips blunt, veins palmate, margin smooth, leaf stalks inserted on underside near margin (peltate). Flowers white, regular, small, in elongate clusters in leaf axils, June-July. Fruit fleshy, black, 1 cm in grape-like clusters, pulp […]
Mikania scandens climbing hemp-weed Asteraceae MISC; Bx, pb; Q, j; R, c, gr, r; - Mikania scandens is a perennial, herbaceous vine; stems twining, to 5 m long, usually hairy, roots fleshy.  Leaves opposite, stalked, blade 3-14 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, base heart-shaped, tip pointed, base deeply lobed, veins palmate, margin entire to few-toothed.  Flowers dull pinkish, 4 per head, all radially symmetrical (discoid), no rays, basal bracts (involucre) 4, 0.4-0.5 […]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper Vitaceae PAQU; Bx, bg, br, bz, cf, cm, ht, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, rr, tr; Q, a, cu, f, fr, ft, j, rw, tl, u, vb; K, fl, fs, m, ow, pl, wl; R, ah, ar, bk, bm, c, ca, cg, cl, cs, d, e, ev, fk, gb, gr, h, hs, jl, lp, mc, mls, pm, pr, ro, se, sm, sv, t, ty, w; - Parthenocissus quinquefolia is a woody vine, bark gray, rough, with conspicuous warty lenticels; tendrils opposite leaves, much-branched, branches disk tipped for adhering to bark or other surfaces.  Leaves alternate, long-stalked, blade palmately compound, leaflets 5, stalks none to 1.5 cm long, blades, 6-12 cm long, elliptic to widest above middle, tip pointed, base wedge-shaped, dull green […]
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy Vitaceae PATR*; Bx, bg, pb, up, vc; NY, hb; Q, cu; K; R; - Parthenocissus tricuspidata is a woody vine. Tendrils short, many-branched, tipped with disks.  Leaves alternate, to 20 cm wide, 3-lobed, sometimes 3-parted on young plants, margins often red (Gargiullo pers. obs.) lobe-tips pointed, margins coarsely toothed, leaf base round-lobed.  Flowers greenish, small, inconspicuous, June-July.  Fruit fleshy, blue-black with waxy bloom to 0.8 cm, dispersed by birds, Sept.-Oct. China,  Wetland […]
Parthenocissus vitacea grape-woodbine; thicket creeper Vitaceae PAVI; R, fk; - Parthenocissus vitacea is a woody vine much like P. quinquefolia. Tendrils short, few-branched, tips without expanded disks.  Leaves alternate, long-stalked, blade palmately compound, leaflets 5, stalks none to 1.5 cm long, blades, 6-12 cm long, elliptic to widest above middle, tip pointed, base wedge-shaped, glossy green above, margins coarsely toothed.  Flowers dull white, tiny, 5-parted; inflorescence […]
Phaseolus polystachios wild bean; thicket bean Fabaceae PHPO; Bx, pb, vc; - Phaseolus polystachios is a perennial twining vine, stem to 4 m long.  Leaves alternate, 3-parted, leaflets broadly egg-shaped, terminal leaflet 3- 8 cm long, lateral leaflets asymmetric, rough-hairy above, softly hairy below.  Flowers purple, pea-flower-shaped, about 1cm long, upper petal (standard) round, folded over the others, lower petal (keel) coiled, upper calyx lobes rounded, others broadly triangular, […]
Polygonum aubertii silver lace vine Polygonaceae POAU*; Q; - Polygonum aubertii is a perennial, slender, twining vine to 5 m, somewhat woody, stem usually angled; leaf sheaths membranous, encircling stem. Leaves alternate, heart-shaped, to 9 cm long, basal lobes pointed, margin wavy. Flowers cream-white, about 0.2 cm, broadly 3-winged, widest above, numerous; inflorescences numerous, openly branched; blooming Aug.-Nov. Fruit dry, one-seeded, enclosed by old flower parts, a […]
Polygonum Genus [vines] smartweed Polygonaceae - Polygonum is a genus of annual or perennial vines and herbs (ours). Stipules consist of a membranous sheath below each leaf (ocreae), the upper margins often bristly. Stems vining. Leaves usually alternate, simple (1-parted), margins smooth (entire). Flowers small, petals and sepals alike (tepals). Ovary attached above tepals (superior). Fruit consists of developed seed (achene), flat or 3-sided […]
Polygonum perfoliatum mile-a-minute vine Polygonaceae POPE*p Bx, hi; Westchester; Nassau; Bergan (pc by S. Glenn, BBG);  - Polygonum perfoliatum is an annual vine, from shallow, fibrous roots, stems with backward-pointing spines, (like tearthumb species), growing to 7 m in a season, can grow about 15 cm per day (Mitchell 1995), stem often becoming woody, climbing over other vegetation, forming dense mats; sheath at base of leaf stalk expanded to form a circular, […]
Polygonum sagittatum arrow-leaved tearthumb Polygonaceae POSA Bx, pb, sf; Q, cu; R, h, is, t; - Polygonum sagittatum is an annual vine 0.3-2 m long, often reclining over other plants. Stems with backward-hooked spines (recurved) along angles, often becoming red-purplish in age. Rooting along lower nodes, leaf sheaths rough-textured to 1.3 cm long.  Leaves alternate, stalks on lower leaves 0.5-4 cm long,, upper leaves often nearly stalkless, prickly, blade arrow-shaped 2-8 x […]
Polygonum scandens  (Fallopia s.) climbing false buckwheat Polygonaceae POSC; Bx, sf, wv; Q, cu, j; R, c, pr, sv; - Polygonum scandens is a perennial, slender, twining vine to 5 m, stem usually angled, often red when growing in sun; leaf sheaths membranous, encircling stem. Leaves alternate, heart-shaped, to 13 cm long. Flowers whitish, to 0.2 cm, broadly 3-winged, widest above; inflorescence of unbranched, elongate clusters to 20 cm long, 3 cm wide; blooming and fruiting Aug.-Nov. […]
Pueraria lobata  (Pueraria montana var. lobata)Kudzu-vine Fabaceae Pueraria lobata  kudzu-vine Fabaceae PULO*p; Bx, nb, pb, wv; NY; Q, by, ci, cr, fa, lm, q, (Lamont and Young 2002) u; K, bh, co, gp, gc (Lamont and Young 2002); R, h, ml, sc; - Pueraria lobata is a perennial, stout, herbaceous to woody vine pith white; root system large, fleshy, tuberous, expanding; stems can grow to 10-30 m long in a season, herbaceous stems dying back in fall, colonial from root sprouts, young parts densely tan-hairy; bark brown on larger woody stems, densely covered with corky lenticels; stipules egg-shaped. […]
Rubus flagellaris northern dewberry Rosaceae RUFL; Bx, bg, pb, sf, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, cu, dp, fa, j, wl; K, m, pl; R, ah, c, cl, cp, d, e, ev, fk, gr, js, lp, mls, sm, t; - Rubus flagellaris is a low, colonial shrub, arching and creeping along ground, rooting at stem tips, not climbing, thorns small, curved, base expanded.  Leaves palmately compound, of flowering stems on present years growth 3-parted, leaflets toothed, terminal leaflet egg-shaped, tip pointed, base blunt to slightly lobed.  Flowers white, ca 2 cm, 1-5, flowering stems leafy except near top, […]
Rubus hispidus swamp dewberry Rosaceae RUHI; Bx vc; Q, a, ft; R, ah, an, ar, bd, cl, gb, gr, is, js, lp, sm, t; - Rubus hispidus is a slender, prostrate, barely woody vine; colonial, rooting at tips; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989) hairy and weak small prickles, not thorny, stems biennial, the first year growing vegetatively and rooting at tips (primocanes), the second year developing erect lateral branches that produce inflorescences (floricanes) (Abrahamson 1975). […]
Sicyos angulatus bur cucumber Cucurbitaceae SIAN2; Bx, bg (?), br, bz, pb, wv; NY, hb; Q, cu, f; K, fs, p; R, c, gr, h, is; - Sicyos angulatus is an annual vine, stems sticky-hairy, climbing to over 3 meters by 3-forked tendrils opposite each leaf; seedling leaves very large about 10 cm long, 4 cm wide, fleshy, mid-May. Leaves alternate, broad, with 3-5 shallow, toothed lobes, tips pointed, base deeply, round-lobed.  Flowers whitish, small, petals united, 5-lobed, 0.8-1 cm wide, sexes separate on same […]
Smilax Genus cat-briar; carrion-flower Smilacaceae - Smilax is a genus of woody or herbaceous slender, climbing vines; monocotyledons, arising from a creeping rhizome; stems bearing a pair of tendrils from the base of the leaf stalk (petiole); the woody species armed with straight prickles; young stems green, stems never becoming thicker with age (as with stems of monocotyledons in general). Leaves alternate, simple, veins arising from the […]
Smilax glauca cat-briar Smilacaceae SMGL; Bx, pb, sf, vc; Q, cu; R, ah, bd, c, ca, cb, cl, d, ev, fw, gb, gr, h, is, lp, ro, sm, sv, t; - Smilax glauca is a slender, woody vine, monocotyledon, climbing by tendrils arising in pairs from base of leaf stalk, not climbing very high, prickly, often dense on lower stem, at nodes above, vine, stems often with waxy bloom, green to gray-black, stems of woody monocotyledons do not increase in diameter with age. Leaves alternate, stalk […]
Smilax herbacea carrion-flower Smilacaceae SMHE; Bx, pb, sf, vc; NY; Q, a, cu; R, bm, c, h, is, js, lp, r, ro, w, wp; - Smilax herbacea is a perennial monocotyledon, unarmed, herbaceous vine, to 2.5 m long, stem branched, climbing with tendrils arising from base of leaf stalk.  Leaves alternate, stalk 1-4 cm long, blade broadly egg-shaped to rounded, tip pointed, base lobed to rounded, margins convex, entire, waxy whitish below; major veins parallel, palmate.  Flowers pale yellow-green, radially symmetrical, carrion-scented, […]
Smilax pulverulenta downy carrion-flower Smilacaceae SMPU; Bx, pb (DK), vc; R, c, gb, h, w; - Smilax pulverulenta is a perennial monocotyledon, herbaceous vine, unarmed, climbing by tendrils.  Leaves alternate, green, shiny below, leaf stalks 3-9 cm, blade broadly egg-shaped to rounded, tip pointed, base lobed to rounded, margins convex, entire; major veins parallel, palmate. .  Flowers yellow-green, radially symmetrical, petals 6, 0.4-0.6 cm long; inflorescence of umbrella-shaped clusters of 10-35 flowers, males and females […]
Smilax rotundifolia greenbrier Smilacaceae SMRO; Bx, bg, cf, pb, sf, vc; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, dp, f, ft, j; R, ah, an, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cl, cp, cs, d, ev, fw, gb, gr, h, is, js, k, lp, mls, pm, r, ro, sp, sv, t, ty, v, w; - Smilax rotundifolia is a slender, woody vine, monocotyledon, prickles stout, flattened, straight; colonial from extensive rhizome mat and large tubers; climbs fairly high, stems green, stout to slender, tendrils often paired and branched, arising from base of leaf stalk, stems of woody monocotyledons do not increase in diameter with age.  Leaves alternate, stalk slightly sheathing at […]
Solanum dulcamara bittersweet nightshade Solanaceae SODU*p; Bx, bg, pb, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, n; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977); f, fa, ft, i, j, rw, tl, u, wl; K, fl, m, ow, p; R, bk, bm, c, d, ev, fk, gb, hs, is, js, lp, mls, pr, r, rw, sm, sv, t, wp; - Solanum dulcamara is a vine to 3 m long, slender, shrubby climber, scarcely woody, spreading from rhizomes Above ground stems dying back in winter. Roots sometimes associated with mycorrhizal fungi (Waggy 2009).  Leaves alternate, to 8 x 5 cm, egg-to heart shaped, often with small basal lobes or leaflets.  Flowers purple with yellow anthers, petal lobes to […]
Strophostyles helvola trailing wild-bean; wooly bean Fabaceae STHE; Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, i, j; K, fl; R, c, bm, gr, t;  - Strophostyles helvola is an annual, branching vine to 1 m long, twining in low vegetation.  Leaves alternate, 3-parted, somewhat ivy-like, leaflets 2-6 cm long, egg-shaped, often with side lobes, lateral margins often concave, sparsely hairy below.  Flowers pink-purple, eventually turning green, 0.8-1.4 cm long, pea-flower-shaped, standard folded over other petals, keel petal strongly curved into a beak, […]
Strophostyles umbellata pink wild-bean Fabaceae STUM; Q; R, q; - Strophostyles umbellata is a perennial, twining vine, to 1 m in low vegetation.  Leaves alternate, 3-parted, leaflets 2-5 cm, egg-shaped, not lobed, hairy below, dull dark green above.  Flowers pink, to 1.4 cm long, pea-flower-shaped, keel petal strongly curved into a beak, calyx hairy, irregular, 4-lobed, lowest lobe longer than others; inflorescence of small clusters on a […]
Toxicodendron radicans  (Rhus r.) poison ivy Anacardiaceae TORA; Bx, bg, br, cf, cm, g, pb, rd, sf, sn, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, tr, wr; Q, a, cu, dp, f, fr, ft, j, rb, ri, rw, tl, u, wl; K, fs, m, p, pl; R, ah, an, ar, bg, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cg, cl, cs, d, e, ev, fw, b, fk, gb, gr, h, hs, is, jl, js, k, lc, lp, lt, mc, mls, pm, pr, r, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, x; - Toxicodendron radicans is a woody vine climbing to 15 m by aerial roots dark, hairy, twigs speckled with tiny, raised dots (lenticels); older stems thick, hairy, closely adhering to tree trunks, also forms ground cover; by extensive rhizomes, with erect stems about 30 cm tall or more; sap highly irritating (see below); winter buds gray-brown, pointed, […]
Vitis aestivalis summer grape Vitaceae VIAE; Bx, pb, sf, vc, wv; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977); K; R, c, cl, cs, d, gb, is, lp, mls, sv, wt; - Vitis aestivalis is a high climbing woody vine, bark brown, shredding, new stem reddish-wooly; tendrils or flowers from only 2 successive nodes (missing every 3rd node).  Leaves alternate, rusty or pale wooly on both sides when young, mature leaves wooly below and pale-waxy; hairs cobwebby, often covering entire lower surface, blade broadly egg to heart-shaped, 3-5 […]
Vitis labrusca fox-grape Vitaceae VILA2; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu, j; K; R, bk, bm, c, d, gb, gr, h, lp, pr; - Vitis labrusca is a high climbing woody vine, often with sexes on separate plants (dioecious); bark brown, shredding, twigs densely reddish-wooly, tendrils/flowers on 3 successive nodes. Leaves alternate, densely wooly-felted below, young leaves rusty-wooly, mature leaves gray or rusty-wooly on lower surface; 3-lobed above, base deeply round-lobed, margin prominently toothed; leaves expand mid-late May; winter plant […]
Vitis riparia river bank grape; frost grape Vitaceae  VIRI; Bx; NY, hb, iw; Q, cu; R, c, h, sv; - Vitis riparia is a high climbing; bark brown, shreddy, pith solid at nodes, tendrils missing every third node. Leaves alternate, hairy (not wooly) only along veins or vein axils, blade round in outline, to 20 cm wide, deeply 3-lobed near tip, base round-lobed, green below, mostly hairless, margin toothed, teeth and lobe tips long-pointed. Flowers tiny, green, […]
Vitis vulpina  (V. cordifolia) winter grape Vitaceae VIVU; Q; R; - Vitis vulpina is a high climbing woody vine; bark brown, shredding, twigs mostly hairless, tendrils lacking at every third node, pith interrupted by diaphragms at nodes.  Leaves alternate, to 22 cm long, green below, hairless to slightly hairy along veins or vein axils, heart-shaped to round in outline, slightly 3-lobed to lobeless near tip, base deeply […]
Wisteria floribunda Japanese wisteria Fabaceae (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae) WIFL*p; Bx, bz, cf, vc; NY, ct, iw; Q, a, cu, u; K, pl; R, bm, cg, d, gb, h, js, k, lp, ro, t, wt; - Wisteria floribunda is a high climbing woody vine with stout trunks, twining up large trees, new growth often prostrate, traveling many meters over forest floor, rooting at nodes, bark gray, granular. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, leaflets 13-19, hairless when mature, 4-8 cm egg-shaped, tip long-pointed, base rounded.  Flowers pale blue-purple, 1.5-2 cm, irregular, fragrant, in grape-cluster-like inflorescence to […]
Wisteria frutescens  Atlantic wisteria Fabaceae WIFR(*) Q; R; - Wisteria frutescens  is a woody vine to 12 m long, young stems hairless.  Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, leaflets 9-14, elliptic to oblong, 2-5 cm, tip pointed, base wedge-shaped to rounded, slightly hairy below. Flowers lilac-purple, 1.5-1.8 cm, in clusters 4-10 cm with densely hairy stems; Fruit pod 5-10 cm, hairless (Rehder 1986).  Wetland status: FACW-.  Frequency […]
Wisteria sinensis Chinese wisteria Fabaceae WISI*; Bx, pb; NY; Q, j; K; R; - Wisteria sinensis is a high climbing woody vine.  Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, leaflets 7-13, egg-shaped to narrowly egg-shaped 5-8 cm long, tip abruptly pointed, base broadly wedge-shaped, young leaves hairy, becoming mostly hairless when mature; leaves expand early-mid May; winter plant leafless 150 days (Britton 1874).  Flowers blue-violet, irregular, 2.5 cm, slightly fragrant, in dense, elongate clusters […]