Uvularia perfoliata perfoliate bellwort Liliaceae UVPE; Bx, pb, R;

 

Uvularia perfoliata.www.maryland.sierraclub.org

Uvularia perfoliata.www.maryland.sierraclub.org (Accessed 5/2014).

Uvularia perfoliata is a perennial monocotyledon, summer-green herb, 20-40 cm, becoming taller in fruit, colonial from short rhizomes, most reproduction is vegetative, may have populations of over 200 stems per square meter; 1-2 new segments of rhizome become detached from parent at the end of a growing season increasing colony size; above ground stems thin, forked. 

Leaves alternate, to 9 cm, lance-shaped, leaf base surrounds stem (perfoliate), 2-4 leaves per branch. 

Flowers yellow, 6 petals, glandular-hairy inside, about 2 cm, 1-3 per branch, hanging below leaves, May-June, insect pollinated, self-incompatible, reproduces at about 3 years, (Bierzychudek 1982). 

Fruit dry, 3-sided, few-seeded. Seeds have fatty appendages (elaiosomes) which attract ants that disperse seeds (Kudoh et al. 1999). 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Moist forest understory, in acid soil, shade tolerant. 

Notes: Most stems do not flower in any given season unless there is sufficient light as in a forest gap (Kudoh et al. 1999).