Typha latifolia broad-leaved cattail Typhaceae TYLA; Bx, pb, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), fa, tl; K; R, ah, c, cs, e, fk, gr, is, o, ml, sv, t, v, w;

Typha latifolia.commons.wikimedia.org

Typha latifolia.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 5/2014).

Typha latifolia is a perennial C3 monocotyledon herb (Grace and Harrison 1986), to 3 m tall, colonial from rhizomes. 

Leaves elongate, 0.8-1.5 (2.5) wide, flat, about as long as flowering stem, base sheathing stem, sheath tapered into blade, flat, spongy inside (provides aeration of roots in saturated soil), waxy blue-green. 

Flowers minute, in a dense spike at top of stem, male flowers at top of stem, yellowish, female flowers dark brown, velvety, below, but almost continuous with male flowers, no gap in flower spike, inflorescence narrowly cylindrical, blooms May-July, wind pollinated, self-fertile 

Typha- atifolia.Typha latifolia. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2015.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Typha- atifolia.Typha latifolia. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2015.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 4/2015).

Fruit dry, one-seeded, seeds plumed, wind dispersed during fall and winter. Seeds eaten by water fowl. 

Wetland status: OBL. 

Frequency in NYC: Frequent. 

Origin: Native to N. America, Europe and Northern Asia Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a407. (Accessed 5/216).

Habitat: Clean water to 15 cm deep, slow streams, marshes, roadside ditches, soil pH 5.5-7.5 (USDA 2006). 

Typha latifolia.rhizomes and shoots.gallowaywildfoods.com

Typha latifolia.rhizomes and shoots.Mark Williams.gallowaywildfoods.com (Accessed 3/2017).

Notes: Most parts edible by humans; rhizomes eaten by muskrats. Typha latifolia appears to be displaced by Phragmites in high nutrient sites with very shallow water or saturated soil. Tolerant of fire, heavy metals, thermal pollution. High carbon dioxide uptake for a plant with C3 metobolism. Moderately tolerant of shade, intolerant of strongly brackish water. Inflorescences attacked by Lymnaecia phragmitellaArchips obsoletanaDicymolomia julianalis (Lepidoptera) and Ischnorrhynchus resedae (Hemiptera). The leaves are eaten by the larvae of Arsilonche albovenosa (Noctuidae) and the leaf miners Bellura obliqua and Nonagria oblongaCalendra pertinax (Coleoptera) bores Typha stems and rhizomes. A succession of fungi infect Typha at various stages in its life cycle (Grace and Harrison 1986).