Fagaceae

Castanea dentata  American chestnut Fagaceae CADE; Bx, pb, vc; Q, a; cu; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bd, cb, cl, cp, ev, gb, h, is, k, lp, sv, t, ty; - Castanea dentata was formerly a dominant forest tree to 30 m, now reduced to root sprouts by chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica (Endothia p.), a fungus introduced from Asia about 1904. Roots sprouts often grow large enough to flower and fruit but typically are attacked when mature bark begins to fissure. Young bark dark gray, shiny.  Leaves narrow, about […]
Fagus grandifolia American beech Fagaceae FAGR; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q, a, cu, ft, u; K, p; R, ah, an, ar, bd, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, fw, gr, gb, h, is, k, lp, r, ro, sv, t, w; -     Fagus grandifolia is a tree to 30 m tall; may live 200 years; slow growing; growth pattern determinate (a single bout of stem and leaf growth early in season) (Marks 1975); shallow rooted; often colonial by root sprouts, especially if primary tree is injured; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Lactarius cinereus (family Russulaceae, Basidiomycotina) […]
Fagus sylvatica copper beech/European beech Fagaceae FASY*; Bx, cn, pb; NY ct, iw, n; K; R; -     Fagus sylvatica is a tree similar to F. grandifolia, bark somewhat darker.  Leaves alternate, stalk 0.5-1 cm long, blade 5-10 cm long, 4-6 cm wide (Dirr 1990) egg-shaped to elliptic, tip pointed, base broadly wedge-shaped to rounded, margin more wavy, not sharply toothed, veins 5-9 pairs, buds shorter than American beech; ‘Atroponicea’ Copper beech, (leaves […]
Quercus alba white oak Fagaceae QUAL; Bx, bg, bz, cf, cn?, pb, sf, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr; Q, a, bw, cu, f, rw; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bm, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, ev, gb, gr, fw, h, is, k, lp, lt, pm, r, ro, sm, sv, t, ty, w; -     Quercus alba is a tree to 25 m tall; 100 cm dbh; may live over 300 years (some recorded at over 400 years); (white oak group, subgenus Lepidobalanus); bark light gray, flaky, shallowly furrowed; deep rooted with fine root mats in upper soil, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); winter buds […]
Quercus bicolor swamp white oak Fagaceae  QUBI; Bx, br, pb, vc; NY, ct (D. Burg 2016), hb; Q, cu, hb, wl (planted); R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bd, c, gb, gr, h, is, js, k, lp, mc, ml, ro, sm, sv, t, v, wt; -   Quercus bicolor is a tree to 30 m tall; 80 cm dbh; to 300 years; bark gray, flaky, becoming deeply fissured and flat-ridged in older trees; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus), roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, widest well above middle, with 4-6 pairs broadly rounded (sometimes pointed but not […]
Quercus cerris European turkey oak Fagaceae QUCE*; Bx, vc; NY, ct; K, p; -    Quercus cerris is a tree, red oak group, to 20 m tall, bark dark, with deep, rather regular, rectangular fissures.  Leaves alternate, oblong, pinnately, lobed (coarsely saw-toothed), lobes bristle tipped; dark green above, hairy below.  Flowers catkins, wind pollinated.  Fruit, acorns smooth, about 2.5 cm, with scales of cap elongated like very coarse, tangled hairs.  Wetland status: […]
Quercus coccinea scarlet oak Fagaceae QUCO; Bx, bz, cn, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, n; Q, cu, j (planted); K, p; R, ar, bd, ca, cl, cp, gb, k, lp, sv, t; -     Quercus coccinea is a tree to 25 m tall; about 100 cm dbh; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark, rough with narrow smoother patches, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); terminal winter buds less than 0.6 cm long, hairy, tips often whitish and blunt.  Leaves alternate, hairless, more deeply lobed, than […]
Quercus Genus oak Fagaceae -    Quercus is a  genus of trees or shrubs; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Smith and Read 1997); stipules deciduous.  Leaves alternate, simple, margins entire to deeply lobed, veins pinnate.  Flowers monoecious, tiny, staminate flowers in catkins, pistillate flowers subtended by a scaly structure that develops into the acorn cap; flowers 1-several at the base of the […]
Quercus ilicifolia bear oak; scrub oak Fagaceae QUIL; R;  - Quercus ilicifolia is a shrub to 5 m tall; red oak group, rather densely branched, often shrubby, bark becoming dark, winter buds blunt. Leaves small, to 10 cm long, lobes 5, pointed, upper lobes often with small lobes or toothed, bristle-tipped, finely hairy below, stalk to 3 cm long. Flowers monoecious. Males in catkins. Fruit acorns 1-2 cm […]
Quercus macrocarpa bur oak; mossycup oak Fagaceae QUMA(*); Bx, br, pb; NY, ct; -     Quercus macrocarpa is a tree to 24 m; bark light gray, rough, (white oak group, subgenus Lepidobalanus) deeply furrowed.  Leaves alternate, deeply lobed to 25 cm long, widest above middle, lobes 4-7 per side, blunt, often with secondary blunt lobes.  Flowers monoecious. Males catkins.  Fruit acorn to 4 cm thick, cups bowl shaped, often covering most […]
Quercus marilandica blackjack oak Fagaceae QUMA2; R, cp, lp, ro, sm, sv, t, x; - Quercus marilandica is a tree to 15 m tall; red oak group, (subgenus Erythrobalanus), bark black, fissures blocky, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997). Leaves alternate, wide near top, lobes shallow, 3-5, base rounded, leathery, shiny above tan hairy in veins below.  Flowers green, monoecious, male in catkins, female flowers 1-few together; blooms April-May, […]
Quercus michauxii swamp chestnut oak Fagaceae QUMI; R, kf, w (E. Danielsen 2016); - Quercus michauxii is a tree to 30 m tall. white oak group (Lepidobalanus). Bark light gray, coarsely flaky, shallowly furrowed like that of Q. alba. Leaves alternate, leaf stalks to 3 cm long, hairy below. Blade egg-shaped but widest above middle (obovate), base tapered to stalk, sometimes slightly lobed, 7-11 cm wide, whitish hairy on […]
Quercus montana  (Q. prinus) chestnut oak Fagaceae QUPR; Bx, pb, vc; NY, iw, hb, tr; Q, cu, f; R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, ev, fw, gb, h, k, lp, ro, t, sm, sv;  -     Quercus montana is a tree to 30 m tall; to 120 cm dbh; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus); root system of lateral roots with fine root mat near surface (not as deep rooted as white oak), roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); bark dark, deep furrows with wide, flat ridges.  […]
Quercus palustris pin oak Fagaceae QUPA; Bx, br, bz, cn, ht, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n; Q, a, bz, cu, ft, j, tl; K, gt, ow, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cs, e, ev, h, is, js, gr, gb, is, js, k, lp, lt, mc, mls, o, ok, pm, pr, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, wp, wt, x; - Quercus palustris is a tree to 30 m tall; to 90 cm dbh; lives about 100 years, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); young trees strongly taprooted in well-drained soil, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997), trunk usually single, straight, undivided; lower branches point down, retains dead branches; bark dark gray, slightly furrowed with […]
Quercus phellos willow oak Fagaceae QUPH; Bx, br, sf, vc; Q, f (planted along roads), j (escaped); K; R, ca, cp, d, gb, lp (P.S.6), js, ro (planted along highways, in other parks, naturalized in Van Cortlandt Park); -      Quercus phellos  is a tree to 25 m tall, to 90 cm dbh, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark gray, rough, twigs slender, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, to 12 cm long, 2 cm wide, narrow, unlobed, willow-like, bristle-tipped.  Flowers green, monoecious, male catkins, female flowers 1-few; blooms […]
Quercus prinoides dwarf chinquapin oak Fagaceae QUPR; R; cp, (if still extant), ok, t; - Quercus prinoides is a shrubby tree to 3 m tall, colonial from stolons, white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus). Leaves alternate, widest above middle, to 10 cm long, lobed like those of Q. prinus with 5-8 low, usually rounded teeth per side, base wedge-shaped, bright green above, white-hairy below, leaf stalk to 1 cm. Flowers: male flowers elongate clusters of […]
Quercus robur English oak Fagaceae QURO*; Bx pb; Q, a; NY; ct, ro (1) -     Quercus robur is a tree in white oak group. Bark deeply furrowed, blackish.  Leaves alternate, small to 12 cm long, 6 cm wide with rounded lobes, widest above middle, but usually narrower than native oaks; leaf base lobed; stays green into Nov.-Dec, long after native oaks are brown or leaves fallen.  Flowers monoecious, males […]
Quercus rubra northern red oak Fagaceae QURU; Bx, bg, bz, cn, pb, ra, rd, sf, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, tr; Q, a, cu, f, i, j (planted), wl; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, ev, fw, gb, gr, is, k, lp, lt, mls, r, ro, sv, t, w, wp; - Quercus rubra is a tree to 50 m tall; to 120 cm dbh, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark gray, shallowly furrowed with wide, smooth, flat gray ridges, twigs hairless; growth pattern usually determinate (a single bout of stem and leaf growth early in season) but may flush once more under very favorable conditions […]
Quercus stellata post oak Fagaceae QUST; Bx, pb, R, cp (U. Lorimer 2017), lp,ro, sm, sv, t; -     Quercus stellata is a tree to 16 m; 30 cm dbh; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus), twigs hairy, bark brownish, rough, shallowly fissured, older bark with rectangular blocks, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, to 15 x 10 cm, leathery, young leaves brownish hairy older leaves shiny above, gray […]
Quercus velutina black oak Fagaceae  QUVE; Bx, cn, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, n; Q, a, bd, cu, f, ft, rw; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, b, ca, cb, cg, cl, d, e, fw, h, is, k, lp, r, sm, sv, t, ty; -    Quercus velutina is a tree to about 20 m tall; 70cm dbh; lives 150 years; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark blackish, rough, fissures making squarish, chunky pattern, twigs usually thinly hairy, winter buds 4-angled, densely finely hairy, 0.7-1 cm long; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, with 7-11 shallow, […]
Quercus x brittonii (Q. ilicifolia x marilandica; ferruginea hybrida) Britton’s oak Fagaceae QUXBR; R, pr (planted), ro, t, x; -      Quercus x brittonii is a shrub or small tree.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, leathery; base wedge-shaped; 1-3 lobes each side; dark green above, hairs on veins; grey-green,  yellowish hairy below; good fall color (Hélardot 2015). Flowers: Monoecious, males in catkins. Females solitary or few together. Fruit: Acorns Wetland status: NL Frequency in NYC: Rare, but not […]
Quercus x bushii  (Q. marilandica x velutina) Bush’s oak Fagaceae  QUXBU; R, pr (planted), ro, x; -    Quercus x bushii is a tree to 9 m tall. Twigs stout, densely hairy when young; winter buds 1 cm long. Leaves Alternate; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus), more like Q. marilandica than Q. velutina; stalk 3 cm long, blade 10-13 cm long, egg-shaped, widest near tip, 3-7 lobes; shiny dark green above, slightly yellow-hairy below; base rounded to wedge-shaped; fall […]
Quercus x filialis  (Q. phellos x velutina) hybrid oak Fagaceae QUXFI; R, pr (planted), ro; -     Quercus x filialis is a tree, in the red oak group, possibly only one or two left in NYC. Leaves narrow with variable lobes . Flowers monoecious. males in cakins, females 1 to several together. Fruit acorns.
Quercus x heterophylla  (Q. rubra x phellos) Bartram’s oak Fagaceae QUXHE; R, ro, x; - Quercus x heterophylla is a tree, 16 to 20 m tall or more.  It is in the red oak group,  Leaves stalk 1.2-2.5 cm long; blade 5-8 cm long; lance-shaped, oblong, or elliptical; with 1 to 4 bristle-tipped, shallow lobes; dark green above, paler below, hairy at axils; leaves shape is variable, even on the same tree; Flowers monoecious, small, males in catkins, […]
Quercus x rudkinii  (Q. marilandica x phellos) hybrid oak Fagaceae QUXRU; R, pr (planted), ro, x; -    Quercus x rudkinii is a tree in the red oak group. Leaves very variable, even on the same twig; stalk very short, top blunt with bristle tip; base rounded to slightly lobed; margin entire or with blunt lobes; young leaves hairy, often rusty coloured below. Flowers monoecious, small, males in catkins, females 1-few together. Fruit acorns. Wetland status: NL.  […]