Acer ginnala Amur maple Aceraceae ACGI*; Bx, br, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, cu;  - Acer ginnala is a multi-stemmed shrub or small tree to 7 m, twigs smooth, slender, gray-brown.  Leaves opposite, stalk 4 cm long, blade 4-8 cm long, to 6 cm wide 3-lobed, the center lobe much longer than the lateral lobes, margin doubly toothed, tips sharply pointed, base truncate to slightly lobed, dark green, lustrous above, paler […]
Alnus incana  (A. rugosa) speckled alder Betulaceae ALIN; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); R (DeCandido 2001);  -   Alnus incana is a multi-stemmed shrub to 10 m tall, colonial, shallow-rooted; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989); winter buds stalked; bark brown with prominent, orange to white, warty lenticels, about 0.7 cm long.  Leaves to 12 cm long, oval-elliptic widest near or below middle, tip blunt to pointed, base blunt, margin […]
Alnus serrulata smooth alder Betulaceae ALSE; Bx, vc; Q, a; R, cp, rw, w;  -   Alnus serrulata is a multi-stemmed shrub, to 6 m tall; colonial, forming thickets, winter buds stalked; lenticels small; stipules persistent on younger leaves.  Leaves alternate, 5-12 cm long, elliptic, widest above middle, tip and base blunt, edges finely, regularly toothed, green, mostly hairless below, 8-14 major veins per side (leaves are never green into late […]
Amelanchier arborea serviceberry Rosaceae AMAR; Bx, br (planted), pb, sd (planted); Q, tl (planted), wl (planted); -   Erect shrub or small tree to 20 m tall, trunk to 40 cm diameter; overwintering buds 0.6-1.3 cm long, second bud scale less than half as long as bud (Harlow 1946). Bark smooth, striped gray.  Leaves much less than half grown, folded, at flowering time, densely white-wooly below when young, mature blade to 10 x 5 […]
Amelanchier canadensis shadbush Rosaceae AMCA; Bx, pb, wv; NY, ft, hb; Q, cu, j; K, p; R, al, bd, cl, cn, js, lp, pm, ro, sm, k, t w, wp; -   Amelanchier canadensis is a multi-stemmed, erect, shrub with vase-like habit or sometimes a small tree to 8 m; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989); bark smooth, gray, striped.  Leaves alternate, much less than half grown at flowering time, folded, densely white-wooly below, mature leaves hairless, oblong, to 6 x 2.8 cm, […]
Amelanchier Genus serviceberry; juneberry; shadbush Rosaceae - Amelanchier is a genus of unarmed shrubs or small trees, usually multi-stemmed, ours mostly with smooth gray bark (Gargiullo pers. obs.). Leaves Alternate, entire, margins toothed, in racemes on new growth. Usually matt-green above, paler below. Flowers white to occasionally pink, medium-sized, radially symmetrical, petals, sepals and styles 5; stamens mostly 20 (in ours) shorter than the […]
Amelanchier laevis smooth shadbush Rosaceae AMLA; Q; - Amelanchier laevis is a tall shrub or small tree to 15 m, erect, compact, winter buds 0.9-1.7 cm long.  Leaves elliptic to egg-shaped, to 8 cm long, leaves of flowering stems to 6 cm long, 4 cm wide, emerging with a coppery color, essentially hairless, half grown at flowering time, mature leaves dark green above, somewhat […]
Amelanchier nantucketensis  (A. canadensis x A. spicata, possibly) Nantucket serviceberry Rosaceae AMNA; R, sm (transplanted) t (removed); - Amelanchier nantucketensis Low, colonial shrub, from underground stems (stolons), stems to 1.5 m tall, winter buds 0.5-0.8 cm long, reddish.  Leaves alternate, oblong, to 3 cm long, 2 cm wide, hairless when mature, shiny green above, margin sharply toothed.  Flowers white, petals narrow, to 0.7 cm long, 0.2 cm wide; inflorescence unbranched, to 4.5 cm long, drooping, […]
Amelanchier sanguinea roundleaf serviceberry Rosaceae AMSA; NY, ct (Z. Wang 2016); - Amelanchier sanguinea Shrub, colonial, arching to straggling to a sm all, erect tree, 1-3 m tall, trunks solitary or few together, twigs reddish, winter buds reddish, slender, 0.6-0.7 cm long Leaves alternate, simple, folded lengthwise in bud, more-or less unfolded at time of flowering, pale-wooly below, but nearly hairless; leaf stalks 1-2 cm long, slender; blade 3-7 cm […]
Amelanchier spicata  (A. stolonifera) dwarf serviceberry Rosaceae AMSP; Bx, pb; R, sp, t; -   Amelanchier spicata is a shrub to 1.5 m tall, usually shorter, colonial by underground stems, bark gray, smooth, winter buds 0.5-0.7 cm long dull reddish.  Leaves egg-shaped to elliptic, to 5 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, tip mostly rounded, margin finely toothed, pale below, young leaves white wooly-hairy below, becoming smooth.  Flowers white to about 2 […]
Amorpha fruticosa false indigo Fabaceae AMFR (*); Bx, pb; NY; R, bm, c, cg, h, jl, lc, mls;  - Amorpha fruticosa is a colonial shrub to 4 m tall, branching.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 4-10 (or more) pairs, oblong, to 4 cm, dull green, tip rounded, slightly hairy below, leaf stalk to 5 cm, leaflet stalks very short, hair.  Flowers purple, to 0.6 cm, one petal, folded, in narrow, unbranched, dense clusters 6-20 cm long, May-June.  Fruit pods […]
Aralia elata Japanese angelica-tree Araliaceae AREL*p; Bx, bg, pb, vc, wv; NY, ft, hb; Q, a, cu; R, ah, bk, bm, cs, d, fw, gb, h, lp, r, ro, sv, w, wp; -   Aralia elata is a shrub or small tree to 10 m tall, stems very spiny, stout, sparsely branched, colonial from root sprouts, forms thickets, leaf scars large, narrow, extending more than half way around stem, vein scars five or more in a row within leaf scar not as prickly as A. spinosa.  Leaves alternate, 40-80 cm […]
Aronia arbutifolia  (Pyrus a.) red chokeberry Rosaceae ARAR; Bx, br (planted), sf; Q, j (planted), tl; K, p (planted); R, ah, ar, bd, bm, c, ca, ch, cn, cp, ev, gb, gr, is, js, mc, mls, r, ro, sm, sv, t, wt, x; - Aronia arbutifolia is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, twigs slender brownish, finely wooly.Winter buds often wine red, small, pointed. Leaves alternate, to 7 cm densely pale hairy below, small glands along midrib above and at tips of marginal teeth; fall color bright red.  Flowers white about 0.8 cm wide, petals and […]
Aronia melanocarpa  (Pyrus m.) black chokeberry Rosaceae ARME; Q, j; K, m (planted?), pl; R, cb, cs, gb, h, lp, lt, sp, sv, t, x; -   Aronia melanocarpa is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, twigs smooth, winter buds hairless, dark, or red, pointed. Winter buds with second bud scale half or more length of bud.   Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, widest above middle, dark green above, whitish, smooth below, small dark glands along midrib above […]
Aronia x prunifolia purple chokeberry Rosaceae Q, j (planted); R, ml (Z. Wang 4/2016); - Aronia x prunifolia is a hybrid of A. arbutifolia and A. melanocarpa with purple-black fruit.
Baccharis halimifolia groundsel bush Asteraceae BAHA; Bx, cm (planted), pb; Q, a, bp; fa, ft, j, wl; NY, bl, iw, rr; K, fl, fs, m; R, c, ca, fk, gr, h, mls, ok, pr, sm, t, wp, x;  - Baccharis halimifolia is a shrub 1-3 m tall, bark fibrous gray-brown, new growth green, slightly sticky.  Leaves alternate, stalk short, blade to 6 cm long, 4 cm wide, wedge shaped, upper half coarsely toothed; upper leaves narrow, entire, surface covered with sticky resin, a deterrent to attack by many insects; leaves expand mid May; winter plant leafless […]
Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry Berberidaceae BETH*p; Bx, bg, cf, pb, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, ft; Q, a, cu; K, R, ar, bd, ca, d, gb, h, lp, mls, r, sv;  - Berberis thunbergii is a shrub to 0.3-3 m. tall, multistemmed and much branched, stems spiny, wood bright yellow, bark gray, shredding. Leaves alternate, mostly in dense spirals on very short shoots opposite spines, stalk 0-0.8 cm long, blade 1-3 cm long, 0.6-1 cm wide, spatula- to inversely egg-shaped (obovate), tip rounded, base tapered to stalk; surface […]
Berberis vulgaris common barberry Berberidaceae BEVU*; Q; - Berberis vulgaris is a shrub to 3 m tall, stems spiny, bark gray, freely branched.  Leaves alternate, in small, dense tufts opposite spines, leaf stalk short, jointed, blade widest above middle, 2-5 cm long, margin finely spiny-toothed (Flora of North America 1993+).  Flowers yellow, radially symmetrical; much like those of B. thunbergii; inflorescences unbranched (raceme) to 6 cm […]
Buddleja davidii butterfly bush Buddlejaceae BUDA*; Q, j; R, ca, lp - Buddleja davidii is a soft-wooded shrub, 2-4 m tall, branches elongate, arching, stems angled, white-hairy, 4-sided when young.  Leaves opposite, stalk to 0.5 cm long, blade 4-12 cm long, 0.3-7 cm wide, lance-shaped, pointed at both ends, dull gray-green, wooly below, dark green above, margin finely toothed, buds 2-scaled, gray-green (Dirr 1990).  Flowers purple with orange center, […]
Buxus sempervirens boxwood Buxaceae BUSE*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); - Buxus sempervirens is a shrub to 6 m or more, evergreen, densely branched, twigs 4-sided, finely hairy.  Leaves opposite, stalk very short, blade elliptic, 0.5-1 (sometimes to 3) cm long, egg-shaped or oblong, tip blunt to notched, base abruptly tapered to stalk, surface dark green above, light to yellow-green below; midrib conspicuously whitish, other veins obscure, […]
Calycanthus floridus sweetshrub; Carolina allspice Calycanthaceae CAFL*; Bx, br; Q, a; R (DeCandido 2001); - Calycanthus floridus is a shrub to 3.5 m tall, stems stout, flattened at nodes, aromatic if bruised; densely colonial from rhizomes.  Leaves opposite stalk to 1 cm long, lateral buds partly covered by base; 5-15 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, elliptic to egg-shaped, mostly smooth, underside softly hairy, margin entire (Radford et al. 1968; Seiler 2007).  […]
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea Rhamnaceae CEAM; Bx, pb (if still extant); -   Ceanothus americanus shrub to 1 m tall, 1.5 m wide, much branched; roots able to fix nitrogen; young stems green, becoming brown; resprouts after fire from deep woody root crown (USDA, NRCS 2006; Rook 2004).  Leaves alternate, 3- 8 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, narrowly egg-shaped, tip blunt to acute, base blunt, 3 major veins […]
Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush Rubiaceae CEOC; Bx, bz, pb, vc; Q a, cu; R, ah, bd, ev, gr, h, is, js, lp, ml, r, ro, rw, t - Cephalanthus occidentalis is a shrub to 5 m tall (occasionally taller), stems crooked, bark flaky, dark, young stems speckled with corky, pale dots (lenticels); colonial, probably from root sprouts, often forming dense thickets; leaf scars almost circular, vein scars U or crescent -shaped; stipules linear, persistent, leaving scar across node (Harlow 1946).  Leaves opposite, sometimes in […]
Chionanthus virginicus fringe tree Oleaceae CHVI(*); Bx, br, pb, wv; NY, ct; R, fk; - Chionanthus virginicus is a shrub or small tree to 10 m, bark gray-brown, often peeling, new stems green, old bark ridged, furrowed. Leaves opposite or subopposite, stalk to 2.5 cm long, blade narrowly elliptic, to 20 cm long, 12 cm wide, tip pointed to blunt, base tapered to stalk, dark green, smooth above, paler below, hairy […]
Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush Clethraceae CLAL; Bx, bg, bz, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu, j (planted); R, ah, an, ar, bd, bm, c, cb, ev, gb, gr, h, is, js, lp, ro, sm, sv, t, w; -   Clethra alnifolia is a shrub 1-3 m tall, habit erect, extensively clonal from root sprouts, multistemmed, branches slender and sinuous, bark dark gray, smooth, finely grainy, propagates mainly by clonal spread rather than seed (Jordan and Hartman, 1995); twigs densely pale wooly, hairs star-shaped (use lens); leaf scar U-shaped, with a single protruding, V-shaped […]
Colutea arborescens bladder-senna Fabaceae COAR*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); -   Colutea arborescens is a shrub to 4 m tall, multiple stems; roots harbor nitrogen fixing bacteria (USDA, NRCS 2006).  Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets 7-13, to 3 cm long, oval to widest above middle, tip blunt to notched, surface often dull gray-green, pale below.  Flowers yellow, with red markings, showy, to 2 cm long, pea-flower-shaped, in unbranched, […]
Comptonia peregrina sweet fern Myricaceae COPE; R, lp, sm (transplanted local), t; -   Comptonia peregrina is a shrub 0.3-1.5 m tall, aromatic, much branched, new growth hairy; colonial from rhizomes; stipules present.  Leaves alternate, stalk very short, blade linear to narrowly elliptic, 5-15 cm long, 1-1.8 cm wide, margin deeply, pinnately blunt-lobed, upper surface dark green, pale below.  Flowers inconspicuous, in catkins, sexes on different plants (dioecious); male flowers […]
Cornus alternifolia alternate-leaved dogwood Cornaceae COAL; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, a, cu, f;  - Cornus alternifolia is a shrub or small tree to 6 m tall; roots associated with VA mycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); branches often in horizontal layers, twigs greenish to dark red-purple, glossy, lenticels gray, about 0.1 cm, pith white, leaf scars about 0.1 cm wide, more-or-less triangular, vein scars 3 (use lens), winter buds about […]
Cornus amomum  (C. obliqua) silky dogwood Cornaceae COAM; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, sf, vc; Q, cu, f, j, u; K, p (planted); R, ah, an, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cs, fk, gb, gr, js, lp, lt, mls, mm, ro, sm, t, w, wt; - Cornus amomum is a shrub to 3 m tall, habit arching, young twigs dark red or purple-green, finely gray-hairy near tips, older twigs smooth, pith brown; bark becoming speckled gray, then finely fissured with age; terminal winter buds linear, with 2 scales that do not overlap, tip pointed; leaf scars narrow, horizontal, u-shaped, slightly raised, connected […]
Cornus florida flowering dogwood Cornaceae COFL; Bx bg, pb, up, vc, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, f; K, p; R, ah, an, cl, cl, d, h, w; - Cornus florida is an understory tree or large shrub, to about 10 m, also widely planted; shallow rooted; twigs bluish, often with a waxy bloom, older bark gray with small, square fissures; winter leaf buds with 2 scales meeting edge to edge (valvate), flower buds button-shaped, wider than tall with an abruptly pointed tip; leaf […]
Cornus Genus dogwood Cornaceae - Cornus is a genus of shrubs or small trees (ours).  Leaves mostly opposite (except C. alternifolia), simple; no stipules, margins smooth.  Flowers small, 4-parted, sepals minute, petals small, stigma head-shaped (capitate); inflorescences in umbrella-shaped or head-like clusters, sometimes subtended by large, showy bracts (C. florida).  Fruit fleshy, mostly 1-seeded (a drupe), except C. kousa, an asian horticultural plant. […]
Cornus kousa kousa dogwood; Japanese dogwood Cornaceae COKO*; Bx, pb, vc; R; -   Cornus kousa is a small tree or large shrub, older bark mottled gray and tan, peeling, young stems green often purple-tinged, winter flower buds rounded at base, two silky-hairy bud scales coming to a sharp point, leaf buds sharp, brownish-black, vein scars 3 (use lens), (Petrides 1972).  Leaves opposite egg-shaped to elliptic, to 10 cm […]
Cornus mas Cornelian cherry Cornaceae COMA*; Bx, br, pb; NY, ct, ft, hb; Q, a; K, p; -   Cornus mas is a small tree or multi-stemmed shrub to 6 m tall; bark flaking and peeling, brown; young twigs angled, green, reddish above, winter flower buds in axils rounded, yellow-green brown; leaf buds greenish, silky, vein scars 3 (use lens), Petrides 1972).  Leaves opposite, egg-shaped to elliptic, to 10 cm long, 3 cm wide.  […]
Cornus racemosa  (C. foemina) gray dogwood; red-panicled dogwood Cornaceae CORA; Bx, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, hb; Q, a, cu, wl (planted); R, ah, bm, fk (planted), wt;  - Cornus racemosa is a shrub or small tree to 5 m tall, extensively colonial from root sprouts (often forming extensive sterile colonies in closed canopy woodlands), habit upright, much branched, newest winter twigs orange-brown, older twigs gray, hairless, slender, young nodes ringed by raised leaf base scars, vein scars 3 (use lens); bark smooth, pith […]
Cornus rugosa roundleaf dogwood Cornaceae CORU; Q, f; - Cornus rugosa is a shrub to 4 m tall, often with only one stem, bark gray, twigs hairless, curving upward from one node to the next, (like flowering dogwood) bark green with purplish yellowish green or pinkish dots (lenticels), older stems with tan, corky lenticels, pith white; winter buds with two scales that do not […]
Cornus sericea  (C. stolonifera) red-osier dogwood Cornaceae COSE; Bx, pb (if extant); R, e, w, planted; -   Cornus sericea is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, habit spreading, twigs bright red (green if shaded), smooth; pith, white.  Leaves opposite, narrowly elliptic, to 10 cm long, waxy-white below.  Flowers white, four-parted, small, in flat-topped clusters; May-July.  Fruit fleshy, white, to 0.9 cm, seed dark with yellow stripes. Fruit eaten and seeds dispersed […]
Corylus americana hazelnut Betulaceae COAM2; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu, f; K, p; R, cs, h, is, w; - Corylus americana is a shrub to 3 m tall, twigs hairy, young hairs red.  Leaves alternate, broadly egg-shaped or widest above middle, finely doubly toothed, base rounded to lobed, stalk smooth, expanded mid-May (Britton 1874).  Flowers sexes separate on same plant (monoecious). Male flowers minute, dull yellow, in long catkins, on short stalks, female flowers red, very […]
Corylus avellana European filbert Betulaceae COAV*; Bx, pb; - Corylus avellana is a shrub to 6 m tall, often forming dense thicket of stems, young stems hairy.  Leaves alternate, to 10 long, 7 cm wide, almost round, tip abruptly pointed, base lobed, margin double-toothed, irregular, hairy on both sides, stalk to 1 cm long.  Flowers See C. americana. Fruit as above with bracts slightly longer than nut […]
Corylus cornuta beaked hazel-nut Betulaceae COCO; R, w; - Corylus cornuta is a shrub to 3 m tall, young twigs hairy, older twigs smooth.  Leaves alternate, oblong, coarsely double toothed, stalk hairy.  Flowers sexes separate on same plant (monoecious). Male catkin short, stalkless, female flowers red, small, March-April.  Fruit a nut enclosed in densely hairy bracts with long beak.  Wetland status: FACU-.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  […]
Crataegus coccinea  (C. pedicellata) scarlet hawthorn Rosaceae CRCO; Q; - Crataegus coccinea is a small tree or shrub to 10 m tall, branches thorny.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped to almost round, to 7 cm long, 6 cm wide, with 3-5 pairs shallow lobes, margins toothed, base broad, blunt, young leaves rough-hairy above.  Flowers white, to 2 cm wide, sepals toothed, glandular, anthers pink or red, ca 10, in […]
Crataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn (including C. fontanesiana) Rosaceae CRCR; Q, f (horticultural) ; K, ow, pl; - Crataegus crus-galli is a small thorny tree to 10 m, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Dickinson 1985), bark dark, scaly, densely branched, widely spreading, crown to twice as wide as tall, often multistemmed from trunk damage, stems of two kinds; vegetative long shoots, with internodes 2-4 cm, forming principle stems, and short shoots with internodes […]
Crataegus Genus hawthorn Rosaceae - Crataegus is a genus of shrubs or small trees. Branches usually crooked, bent back and forth in alternate directions (flexuous), thorny.    Leaves alternate, deciduous, simple, margins usually toothed or lobed. Those of vegetative shoots generally larger, more deeply toothed or lobed than leaves of flowering shoots.  Flowers usually white, radially symmetrical (regular), 5-parted, petals deciduous, calyx […]
Crataegus laevigata English hawthorn Rosaceae CRLA*; NY, hb, n (horticultural); - Crataegus laevigata is a  shrubby tree, to 5 m tall, and as wide as tall, often multi-stemmed, branches spreading, bark dark, thorns to 2.5 cm long.  Leaves alternate, to 5 cm long, 5 cm wide, deeply 3-5 lobed, lobe tips blunt to acute, margin irregularly toothed, base truncate to wedge-shaped, stalk to 1.5 cm long.  Flowers white, […]
Crataegus mollis downy hawthorn Rosaceae CRMO; Bx, br; NY, ct; Q, a (horticultural), cu; - Crataegus mollis small tree to 12 m tall, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Dickinson 1985), sparingly thorny, thorns tend to be quite long (ca 2-4 cm), young twigs wooly, becoming smooth, dark brown sprinkled with tiny, pale lenticels; stipules 1.7 cm, asymmetric, curved, toothed along one side, deciduous. Leaves alternate, stalk about 4 cm long, blade […]
Crataegus monogyna one seed hawthorn Rosaceae CRMO*; Bx, pb; Q, a (cultivated); R; - Crataegus monogyna is a small tree or shrub to 10 m (usually much less), densely branched; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Dickinson 1985), spreading, bark dark, thorns to 2.5 cm.  Leaves Alternate, to 5 cm long, broadly egg-shaped in outline, deeply 3-7 lobed, lobes narrow, pointed, margin toothed.  Flowers white, with one style, fragrant, May.  Fruit fleshy, red […]
Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington hawthorn Rosaceae CRPH*; Q, j (planted); K, ow; - Crataegus phaenopyrum is a small tree to 12 m, stems smooth, thorns to 7 cm long, older stems brown, new growth green. Leaves alternate, broadly triangular in outline, to 6 cm long, 5 cm wide, sharply 3-5 lobed (like small maple leaves), margin coarsely toothed, shiny dark green above, paler below, tip pointed, base truncate to […]
Crataegus succulenta fleshy hawthorn Rosaceae CRSU; Q, j (planted); - Crataegus succulenta is a small tree to 5 m tall, sometimes 8 m, twigs with stout thorns 3-4 cm long. Leaves alternate, stalk 1-2 cm long; blade 3-6 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, elliptic to widest above middle, tip pointed, base wedge-shaped shallowly lobed mostly above middle, margin coarsely, doubly toothed, lustrous, dark green above, often […]
Deutzia scabra fuzzy deutzia Hydrangeaceae DESC*; NY; R; - Deutzia scabra is a shrub to 3 m tall, older stems hollow, young bark brown, hairy, old bark peeling.  Leaves opposite, egg-shaped, 10 cm long, 5 cm wide, tip pointed, base rounded, margin toothed, dull green, hairy on both sides.  Flowers white, 2 cm wide, in clusters at ends of stems, June (Dirr 1990).  Fruit a dry capsule.  […]
Diervilla lonicera bush honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae DILO; Bx, pb; Q; - Diervilla lonicera is a shrub to 12 m tall, twigs ridged, base scaly.  Leaves opposite, oblong, to 15 cm long, tip long-pointed, margin finely toothed, fringed with hairs, stalks to 1 cm.  Flowers yellow, becoming reddish, tubular, bilaterally symmetrical, funnel-shaped, to 2 cm long, hairy inside, stamens as long as petal lobes, stigma longer, in clusters of […]
Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian olive Elaeagnaceae ELAN*p; Bx, pb; Q, i, j, tl; K, fl, gw, m, sc; R, fr; cp, e; - Elaeagnus angustifolia is a shrub to 10 m tall, usually thorny; young twigs pale, silvery, older stems glossy dark brown. Leaves alternate, 3-7 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, narrowly lance-shaped, dull silvery-green scaly above, densely pale-silvery-scaly below (Dirr 1990). Flowers yellow, 4-parted, about 1 cm wide, radially symmetrical, fragrant.  Fruit yellow to red sprinkled with silvery scales, 1 cm, […]
Elaeagnus umbellata autumn olive Elaeagnaceae ELUM*p; Bx, br, bs, pb, vc, wv; NY; Q, cu, dp, j, rb, tl, wl; K, fl, gw, m, pl; R, cg, cp, jl, jw, lc, mls, sm; - Elaeagnus umbellata is a shrub to 5 m tall, stems densely reddish-brown and silvery scaly when young becoming gray-brown scaly, new twigs thin, silvery-scaly, winter buds, narrow, silvery-scaly (Gargiullo, personal observation).  Leaves alternate, 3-7 cm long, 1-3 cm wide (Radford et al. 1968), elliptic to egg-shaped, somewhat silvery above when young, mature leaves dull green above, […]
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus  (Acanthopanax s.) five-leaved Aralia Araliaceae ACSI*; Bx, rd, vc; NY, ct, iw, rv; R, ar; - Eleutherococcus sieboldianus is a low, slender arching shrub to 3 m tall, stems often elongate, vine-like, with sets of 1-3 short, downward-pointing prickles at nodes under base of leaf stalk, bark gray with numerous small, raised lenticels  Leaves alternate, sometimes clustered at nodes, stalk to 8 cm, blade palmately compound, 5 or occasionally 7 leaflets, 2.5-3.5 […]
Eubotrys racemosa  (Leucothoe r.) fetterbush Ericaceae EURA; Q, a, cu; R, ah, an, ar, bd, cp, d, gb, h, is, lp, ro, sm, t;  -   Eubotrys racemosa is a shrub 1-4 m tall; colonial from root sprouts; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); bark smooth, gray.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, 3-8 cm long, about 2 cm wide, margin finely toothed.  Flower buds red, in narrow, 1-sided racemes, flowers white, vase-shaped, radially symmetrical, 0.7-0.9 cm long, sepals pointed, 0.2-0.3 cm […]
Euonymus alatus winged euonymus Celastraceae EUAL*; Bx, br, cf, pb, ra, sf, wv; Q, cu, ft; K, p (planted); R, ar, c, d, is, jw; -   Euonymus alatus is a shrub to 2.5 m tall, stems green to pale tan, with corky wings.  Leaves opposite, elliptic, to 6 cm long, almost stalkless, margin toothed, turning bright red or pink in Autumn.  Flowers 4-parted, green, to 0.8 cm wide.  Fruit a purplish capsule, splitting open to reveal bright orange fleshy aril-covered seed, pulp lipid […]
Euonymus americanus strawberry-bush Celastraceae EUAM; Q, f (planted); R; bm (planted), gb (planted), h (planted), t (planted); - Euonymus americanus is a shrub 1-2 m tall, erect to sprawling, twigs slender, green, 4-lined, square in cross-section.  Leaves opposite, stalks 0.1-0.3 cm long, narrow, 3-4 cm long, fall color red.  Flowers greenish-purple, 5-parted, 1-1.2 cm wide, petals narrowed at base; May-June.      Fruit a warty, pinkish capsule, opening to reveal seeds covered by bright scarlet, fleshy […]
Euonymus europaeus spindle tree Celastraceae EUEU*; Bx, br, pb; Q, cu (Greller 1985); R, h; - Euonymus europaeus is a shrub to 7 m; twigs green, slender, opposite, apparently clonal from root sprouts.  Leaves opposite, to 8 cm long, narrow, tip long-pointed, base tapered, margin toothed, stalk to 1.2 cm.  Flowers greenish, about 1 cm wide, in clusters of 3-5 on a stalk to 3 cm long, May.  Fruit red to pink 4-lobed capsule, ca […]
Euonymus japonicus Japanese Euonymus Celastraceae EUJA*; Q, f; -   Euonymus japonicus is an evergreen shrub to 4.5 m tall, stems green, young stems somewhat 4-sided, pith green; buds pointed, narrowly cone-shaped, scales overlapping, green, tinged with red in winter.  Leaves opposite, to 7.5 cm long, 4 cm wide, oval or widest above middle, tip blunt to slightly pointed, base tapered to stalk, margin finely […]
Forsythia x intermedia  (F. viridissima x suspensa) forsythia Oleaceae FOVI*; Bx, cf, pb, NY, ct, iw; Q, j, ri; R, gb; -   Forsythia x intermedia is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from root sprouts; stems arching, greenish or gray-tan, with large central pith, lenticels prominent, warty.  Leaves opposite, egg-shaped to oblong, sometimes 3-parted, margin toothed, leaves expand mid-May, after blooming (Britton 1874).  Flowers bright yellow, to 2.5 cm long, tubular with 4 wide petal lobes, bell-shaped, […]
Frangula alnus  (Rhamnus frangula) European Buckthorn; glossy buckthorn Rhamnaceae RHFR*p; Bx, br, pb, sf; NY ct; Q, a, cu, f, j, wl; K; R, h, pr, sm, t, x;  - Rhamnus frangula is a shrub to 6 m tall, aggressively colonial by root sprouts; stump sprouts copiously when cut; bark gray, speckled with small whitish dots (lenticels), winter buds naked.  Leaves alternate, widest above middle (obovate), entire, to 3-7 cm long, to 4 cm wide, base wedge-shaped, tip abruptly pointed, secondary veins 8-9 per side, pinnate, […]
Gaylussacia baccata black huckleberry  Ericaceae  GABA; Bx, pb; Q, cu; R, ah, an, ar, cp, ev, gr, h, sm, sv, t; -   Gaylussacia baccata is a shrub to 1 m, tall, low, much branched, roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); that increase nutrient uptake; colonial from underground stems.  Leaves alternate, to 5 cm long, with yellowish resin dots both sides, margin entire.  Flowers white-pinkish, sometimes reddish (darker red in bud), narrowly urn-shaped; in rather one-sided, […]
Gaylussacia frondosa tall huckleberry Ericaceae GAFR; R, ev, h, lp, t; - Gaylussacia frondosa is a shrub to 2 m tall, roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991) that increase nutrient uptake, colonial from underground stems. Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, pale blue-green, finely hairy whitish below, resin dots below.  Flowers white, urn-shaped 0.3-0.45 cm long, on elongate slender stalks; in open, pendant, unbranched clusters accompanied […]
Hamamelis mollis Chinese witch-hazel Hamamelidaceae  HAMO; Bx, bg; - Hamamelis mollis is a shrub Much like H. virginiana but Leaves alternate, almost round, woolly-hairy below. Flowers yellow to red, blooms Jan-March. Wetland status: NL. Frequency in New York City: very infrequent. Origin: China (Dirr 1977). Habitat: Horticultural. Overgrown in few natural areas.
Hamamelis vernalis vernal witch-hazel Hamamelidaceae HAVE; Bx, bg; -   Hamamelis vernalis is a shrub Much like H. virginiana but  Leaves narrower than H. virginiana with wedge-shaped (unlobed) base, margin coarsely toothed.  Flowers yellow-red, blooms Jan-March.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in New York City: very infrequent.  Origin: Native to southern Midwestern U.S.; Missouri to Louisiana and Oklahoma (Dirr 1977).  Habitat: Horticultural. Overgrown in few natural areas.
Hamamelis virginiana witch hazel Hamamelidaceae - Hamamelis virginiana is a shrub to 5 m; usually multistemmed, stems often almost horizontal, bark dark gray; leaf scar small, stipule scars present; winter buds hairy, yellowish to tan, slightly stalked, naked (Harlow 1946; Petrides1972).  Leaves alternate, to 15 cm long and broad, wavy-toothed, base uneven.  Flowers yellow, petals 4, (Dirr 1990), to 2 cm long, linear, […]
Hibiscus syriacus rose-of-sharon Malvaceae HISY*; Bx, br, pb; NY, bl; Q, u; K; R; - Hibiscus syriacus is a shrub to 6 m tall; stems erect, branching.  Leaves alternate egg-shaped, 3-lobed, margin toothed.  Flowers white, pink, purple, radially symmetrical, large, showy, petals to 6 cm long, with crepe-like texture, calyx hairy, July-Aug.  Fruit a dry capsule, hairy, angled with many long-hairy seeds. NL (but found growing in part-shaded flood plains).  Frequency in New […]
Hudsonia tomentosa false heather Cistaceae HUTO; Q, bp, j, tl; K, fl, m, pl; - Hudsonia tomentosa is a low, mat-forming evergreen shrub, grayish-green, densely short-wooly.  Leaves alternate, small, scale-like, 0.1- 0.3 cm long, overlapping and appressed to stem.  Flowers yellow, radially symmetrical, 5-parted, about 0.6 cm wide, showy, numerous, flower stalks very short 0-0.3 cm long; blooming May-June.  Fruit dry capsule, few-seeded.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in New York City: Infrequent.  Origin: […]
Hydrangea paniculata panicle hydrangea Hydrangeaceae HYPA*; R, ah; - Hydrangea paniculata is a shrub to 5 m tall, usually less; stems straggling, bark reddish-brown, older bark gray, peeling, branches arching.  Leaves opposite, 8-15 cm long, 3-7 cm wide (Dirr 1977), elliptic, base wedge-shaped, tip pointed, margin toothed.  Flowers white, greenish or bluish in age; of two kinds, fertile flowers numerous, very small, sterile flowers, large, 4-parted […]
Ilex crenata Japanese holly Aquifoliaceae ILCR*; Bx, rd; Q, a, ft, tl; K, p; R, bh, h, t; - Shrub to 7 m tall (more commonly 1-2 m), evergreen shrub to small tree, densely branched, branches short, stiff, compact, new growth green, older bark gray.  Leaves alternate, stalks short, blade stiff, about 2-3 cm long, crowded, shiny dark green above, lighter green below, elliptic or often widest above middle, tip rounded, base tapered, margin slightly […]
Ilex glabra inkberry Aquifoliaceae  ILGL; Bx, sf (planted); Q, j (probably planted); R, gb (planted); - Ilex glabra is a shrub to 3 m tall, evergreen, sexes separate, somewhat colonial, twigs green, flexible, bark gray, smooth.  Leaves alternate, 2-5 cm long, narrow, widest near top, shiny, leathery, tip blunt with 1-3 minute teeth, base wedge-shaped.  Flowers white, small, radially symmetrical, 6-8 parted; June.  Fruit fleshy, black, to 0.5 cm (on female plants); Sept.-Oct., persistent […]
Ilex verticillata winterberry Aquifoliaceae  ILVE; Bx, br (planted), pb, rd, wv; Q, a; K, gt (planted); R, c, h, lp, sm, t; - Ilex verticillata is a shrub to 5 m tall, sexes separate, twigs and bark gray with pale speckles. Leaves alternate, to 9 cm long 2 cm wide, deciduous, elliptic, margin toothed, surface dull, wrinkled; leaves expand mid-May; winter plant leafless 107 days (Britton 1874). Flowers small, white, regular, 4-8 parted, sepals hair-fringed (ciliate), June. Fruit fleshy, red, 0.7 […]
Iva frutescens marsh-elder Asteraceae  IVFR; Bx, pb, sn; NY, iw, wr; Q, a, dp, fa, fr, i, j; K, do, m, pl; R, gr, mc, mls, pr, sm, t; - Iva frutescens is a shrub, 0.5-3.5 m tall, bark rather smooth, most stems tend to die back to base during winter making it rather herb-like.  Leaves opposite below, alternate at branch tips, 4-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, gray-green, rather fleshy, margin sharply toothed; leaves expand mid-May (Britton 1874).  Flowers small, greenish radially symmetrical, tubular, not plumed, […]
Juniperus chinensis Chinese juniper Cupressaceae  JUCH*; Q, j; - Juniperus chinensis is a evergreen conifer tree or shrub, to 20 m tall, 6 m wide, more often a shrub, to about 3 m tall, over 60 cultivars (including the widely spreading “Hetzii” often used for hedges); bark gray-brown, peeling in thin strips.  Leaves gray-green, two kinds, adult leaves in 4 ranks of opposite pairs, scale-like, […]
Juniperus communis dwarf; common juniper Cupressaceae  JUCO; Bx, pb; R; - Juniperus communis is a low aromatic, evergreen conifer shrub to 2 m, forming flat-topped round patches several m wide. Twigs 3-sided.  Leaves needle-like, sharp, to 1.8 cm long, midrib white above, in whorls of 3s, jointed at base.  Flowers: None. Cones in axils, round, to 1.3 cm, berry-like, hard-fleshy, resinous, blue-black with white-bloom, 3-seeded. Foliage eaten […]
Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel Ericaceae  KAAN; Q, cu; R, cp, gb, gr, h, lp, ro, sv, t; - Kalmia angustifolia is an evergreen shrub to 1.7 m tall; colonial from extensive rhizomes, also from stem layering (Mallick 1993); roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae (Berliner and Torrey 1989), taproot on older plants may extend down to 1 m (Allen1991).  Leaves opposite or in whorls of three, evergreen, dull blue-green, often reddish in […]
Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel Ericaceae KALA; Bx, pb, wv; NY, iw; Q, j (planted); R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), cl, d, gb; -   Kalmia latifolia is an evergreen shrub to 3 m tall, often forming thickets; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae (Allen1991); evergreen.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, shiny, 5-10 cm long, leathery, pointed at both ends.  Flowers white-pink, petals fused in an angular bowl shape, 1.5-3 cm wide, in sticky-stemmed clusters at ends of branches, pollinated by […]
Kerria japonica Japanese kerria Rosaceae KEJA*; NY, rv (planted); Q; R; -    Kerria japonica is a shrub to 2 m tall, stems green, faintly striped by vascular bundles, glossy.  Leaves alternate, new leaves with pair of small, linear deciduous stipules at base of petiole; petiole to 1.5 cm, blade to 5 cm long, lance to egg-shaped, tip long-pointed, base blunt, margin doubly toothed, veins impressed above, surface […]
Ligustrum obtusifolium privet Oleaceae LIOB* Bx; Q; K; R; -   Ligustrum obtusifolium is a shrub to 3 m tall, branching opposite, young stems finely hairy.  Leaves opposite, stalk 0.1-0.4 cm long, hairy; blade elliptic to oblong, 2-6 cm long tip pointed to blunt, base wedge-shaped, hairy below, or only so on midrib.  Flowers white, to 1 cm long, numerous; inflorescence 2-3.5 cm long, branched, nodding.  Fruit fleshy, […]
Ligustrum vulgare common privet; European privet Oleaceae LIVU*; Bx, br, pb, rd, sd, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q, cu, j, ri, tl; K, fs, p; R, cg, gb, hs*, ro; LIVU*; Bx, br, pb, rd, sd, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q, cu, j, ri, tl; K, fs, p; R, cg, gb, hs*, ro;  - Ligustrum vulgare is a shrub, to 5 m, much branched, branches opposite, bark gray, young stems minutely gray-hairy.  Leaves opposite, stalk 0.3-1 cm long, blade narrowly egg- to lance-shaped, 3-6 cm long, smooth, secondary veins obscure, stiff, semi-evergreen tip blunt to pointed.  Flowers white, tubular, 4-parted, small, fragrant; inflorescence of small clusters at tips of stems, June.  […]
Lindera benzoin spicebush Lauraceae LIBE; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb (Z. Wang 2017), sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, ft, hb, iw; Q, cu, j; K; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, c, ca, cl, cs, fw, gb, h, is, js, k, lp, pm, r, ro, rw, sp, sv, t, w, wt;  -   Lindera benzoin is a shrub to 5 m tall; sexes on separate plants (dioecious), all parts aromatic (due to terpenes and other compounds) if bruised, much branched, twigs dark, smooth with pale lenticels, bark smooth, dark; winter flower buds round, small but conspicuous (Harlow 1946).  Leaves alternate, stalks to 1 cm long; blade to 12 […]
Lonicera fragrantissima winter honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOFR*; Bx, br, pb; -   Lonicera fragrantissima is a shrub to about 3 m tall, twigs slender, smooth, tangled.  Leaves opposite, semi-evergreen, stalks very short, blade, dark green above, pale gray-green below, rounded, 3-7 cm long, tip pointed, margin finely fringed, stays green into late fall, leafs out early.  Flowers whitish, small, bilaterally symmetrical, lemon-scented, fragrant, small, March-April.  Fruit dark red, fused […]
Lonicera maackii Amur honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOMA*p; Bx, bg, br, bs, bz, pb, ra, rd, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, ri; R, gw, se; - Lonicera maackii is a shrub to 5 m tall, from a large woody burl, extensively shallow-rooted but apparently not colonial (Deering and Vankat 1998); older stems hollow, arching, pith brown, stems and buds gray, hairy, new growth green, hairy, winter buds pale brown, wooly; becoming reproductive at about 2.5 m height (about 5 years old). […]
Lonicera morrowii fly honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOMO*; Bx, pb; Q, cu, ft, j, wl;  - Lonicera morrowii is a shrub to 2 m tall and as wide, forming a tangled mound of branches, young twigs softly hairy, older stems hollow, buds gray, densely hairy. Leaves opposite, stalk 0.2-0.4 cm, densely hairy, blade 3- 5 cm long, elliptic to egg-shaped, tip barely pointed to rounded with a short abrupt point, base rounded, […]
Lonicera tatarica Tatarian honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae LOTA*p; Bx, wv; NY, ft; Q, a, j; K, ow; K; do; R; - Lonicera tatarica is a shrub to 3 m tall, twigs hairless, gray, hollow. Leaves opposite, 3-6 cm, egg-shaped, dark green hairless above, tip pointed, base blunt to slightly lobed, pale to bluish green, hairless below, stalk 0.2-0.6 cm, hairless, leafs out April, grows rapidly, leaf drop later than most native shrubs. Flowers pink to white, sometimes red,bilaterally symmetrical, […]
Lyonia ligustrina male-berry Ericaceae LYLI; R, h, is, lp, t, w; - Lyonia ligustrina is a shrub to 4 m tall, usually much shorter; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991).  Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, widest above middle, tip pointed, margins minutely toothed.  Flowers white, vase-shaped, numerous, to 0.5 cm long; inflorescence umbrella-shaped, branched, at ends of stems; blooms June-July.  Fruit dry, rounded with pale stripes, […]
Lyonia mariana staggerbush Ericaceae LYMA; R, cp, lp (rescued from P.S.6, planted in sand barren), sv, t; - Lyonia mariana is a so 2 m, colonial from root sprouts or rhizomes, roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); bark gray.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, to 6 cm long, blunt, entire, hairy on veins below, leaf stalk to 0.4 cm.  Flowers white, vase-shaped 1.3 cm long; inflorescence elongate with flowers in small clusters along ends […]
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grapeholly Berberidaceae MAAQ*; Q, f;  - Mahonia aquifolium is a shrub to 2 m (mostly to 1 m), evergreen, often colonial from stolons. Leaves alternate, pinnate, to 30 cm long, leaflets 5-9, opposite, to 8 cm long, egg-shaped, margin with spine-tipped teeth appearing very similar to American holly leaves, shiny, dark green above becoming purplish in autumn. Flowers yellow, small, radially symmetrical, sepals […]
Morella pensylvanica  (Myrica p.) northern bayberry Myricaceae MYPE; Bx, cm (planted), pb, sf; Q, a, cu, dp, fr, i, j, rb, tl; K, fl, fs, m, pl; R, ah, bm, c, cg, ch, cp, d, e, fk, jl, js, lc, lp, gr, mls, ok, pr, sb, sm, sv, t, ty; - Morella pensylvanica is a shrub 0.5-2.5 m tall, dioecious (males and females on different plants); extensively colonial from root sprouts, most parts aromatic, young twigs hairy, glandular, older bark gray. Root nodules symbiotic with nitrogen fixing actinomycetes bacterium (Frankia sp.) forming actinorhizae, (Morris et al., 1974). Leaves alternate, 4-8 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, widest above the […]
Philadelphus coronarius mock-orange Hydrangeaceae PHCO*; Bx, cf, pb, vc, wv; NY, ft, sp.; Q, a; R, gb, h, jw, k; - Philadelphus coronarius is a shrub to 4 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, older bark grooved, shreddy, pale, brown, branching opposite, stems arching, rather weak, brittle, young twigs brown, leaf scars horse-shoe shaped, with winter bud in center, vein scars three. Leaves opposite, egg-shaped, 4-8 cm long, tip long-pointed, margin slightly toothed.  Flowers white very fragrant, 2.5-3.5 cm […]
Philadelphus floridus Florida mock-orange Hydrangeaceae PHFL*; Bx, br; - Philadelphus floridus is a shrub to 3 m tall, twigs dark brown, pith white, solid older bark grooved, shreddy, pale, brown, branching opposite, stems arching, rather weak, brittle, young twigs brown, leaf scars horse-shoe shaped, with winter bud in center, under base of petiole; vein scars three. Leaves opposite, egg-shaped, 4-7 cm long, tip long-pointed, base […]
Philadelphus inodorus common mock orange Hydrangeaceae PHIN(*); R, cl, d; - Philadelphus inodorus is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, older bark grooved, shreddy, pale, brown, branching opposite, stems arching, rather weak, brittle, young twigs brown, leaf scars horse-shoe shaped, with winter bud in center, vein scars three.  Leaves opposite to 7 x 3.5 cm, margin toothed to entire, egg-shaped to oblong.  Flowers white, […]
Philadelphus tomentosus Himalayan mock-orange Hydrangeaceae PHTO*; Bx, pb; NY;  - Philadelphus tomentosus is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, older bark grooved, shreddy, pale, brown, branching opposite, stems arching, rather weak, brittle, young twigs brown. Leaves opposite with underside densely soft-hairy, sometimes slightly hairy above; egg-shaped, 4-8 cm long, margin slightly toothed. Flowers fragrant, white, 3 cm diam. in 5-7 flowered unbranched clusters; regular, petals 4, […]
Photinia villosa Oriental Photinia Rosaceae PHVI*; NY, ct; Q, cu;  - Photinia villosa is a shrub or small tree, young twigs finely hairy. Leaves alternate, stalk to 0.5 cm long, blade 3-8 cm long, reverse egg-shaped (obovate), widest above middle, tip long-pointed, base wedge-shaped, veins 5-7 pairs, dark green above, wooly-hairy below, margin finely, sharply toothed, teeth dark or broad-tipped (use lens); autumn foliage orange-red; winter buds […]
Physocarpus opulifolius ninebark Rosaceae PHOP; Q, a; - Physocarpus opulifolius is a shrub to 3 m tall, bark on small, woody twigs dark red-brown, on older stem bark shreds in strips, pale and dark brown.  Leaves alternate, 3-5 lobed to unlobed, to 7 cm long, about half as wide, lobe tips blunt, base blunt to shallowly lobed, margin irregularly toothed, dull, medium green above, […]
Populus Genus poplar Salicaceae - Populus is a genus of trees. Winter buds scaly, often sticky. Stipules (leaf-like appendages at the base of the leaf) often deciduous. Leaves deciduous, egg-shaped to more-or-less triangular (deltoid). Margins toothed to lobed. Leaf stalk often flattened. Flowers small, dull, in drooping catkins that mature before tree leafs out. Each flower set in a cup-shaped disk Fruit […]
Prunus maritima beach plum Rosaceae PRMA; Q, j, tl; K, m, pl; R, bm, cg, ch, gw, hs; - Prunus maritima is a shrub to 2.5 m tall, sprawling, angular, much-branched, bark black, rough.  Leaves alternate, 4-7 cm long, ca half as wide as long, upper surface dull, puckered (rugose), lower surface hairy, margin toothed.  Flowers white, about 1 cm wide, petals to 0.6 cm long, widest above middle, narrowed to base (cuneate) sepals 0.25 cm […]
Prunus tomentosa Manchu cherry; Nanking cherry Rosaceae PRTO*; Q, tl;  - Prunus tomentosa is a shrub to 3 m tall, spreading, twigs velvety-hairy, older bark dark red-brown with small yellow speckles (lenticels).  Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, 3.7 cm wide, hairy above, dark, dull green, paler, densely velvety-hairy below, tip pointed, base blunt, margin irregularly toothed, surface puckered by deeply impressed veins, leaf stalk to 0.4 […]
Ptelea trifoliata hoptree; wafer-ash Rutaceae PTTR; Bx, br, pb; NY, ct; - Ptelea trifoliata is a shrub to about 8 m tall. Leaves 3-parted, margins not toothed (entire), leaflets stalkless. Flowers small, green, May-June. Fruit becoming dry, 2 cm wide, 1-seeded, nearly flat, with a broad circular wing. Wetland status: FAC. Frequency in NYC: Rare (NYS S1S2 E). Origin: Native. Habitat: Possibly planted. Moist soil, in undisturbed areas, soil pH […]
Pyracantha coccinea firethorn Rosaceae PYCO*; Q, j (planted); - Pyracantha coccinea is a spiny shrub to 2 m tall, sometimes to 6 m tall, spines 1-1.5 cm long, young stems finely gray-hairy. Leaves alternate, stalk to 0.5 cm long, blade 2-4 cm long, narrow, lance-shaped, tip pointed, base tapered, margin finely toothed. Flowers dull white to 0.8 cm wide, radially symmetrical, in dense dome-shaped clusters 3-4 […]
Pyrus sieboldii  (Malus s.; M. toringo; Pyrus toringo) Toringo crabapple Rosaceae  PYSA*; Bx, br, cn, sf; Q, wl; K; - Pyrus sieboldii is a shrub with spreading branches, twigs hairy. Leaves alternate, stalks hairy, 0.6-1.8 cm long, egg-shaped to elliptic, 2.5-6 cm long, leaves of shoots 3-5 lobed, tip long-pointed, margin sharply toothed, young leaves hairy on both sides. Flowers pink in bud becoming white, about 2 cm wide, calyx hairy, stalks about 2 cm, hairy. […]
Quercus ilicifolia bear oak; scrub oak Fagaceae QUIL; R;  - Quercus ilicifolia is a shrub to 5 m tall; red oak group, rather densely branched, often shrubby, bark becoming dark, winter buds blunt. Leaves small, to 10 cm long, lobes 5, pointed, upper lobes often with small lobes or toothed, bristle-tipped, finely hairy below, stalk to 3 cm long. Flowers monoecious. Males in catkins. Fruit acorns 1-2 cm […]
Quercus prinoides dwarf chinquapin oak Fagaceae QUPR; R; cp, (if still extant), ok, t; - Quercus prinoides is a shrubby tree to 3 m tall, colonial from stolons, white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus). Leaves alternate, widest above middle, to 10 cm long, lobed like those of Q. prinus with 5-8 low, usually rounded teeth per side, base wedge-shaped, bright green above, white-hairy below, leaf stalk to 1 cm. Flowers: male flowers elongate clusters of […]
Rhamnus cathartica common buckthorn Rhamnaceae RHCA* Bx, br, bz, pb, sn; Q, a, ri, wl; R, sm; - Rhamnus cathartica is a shrub to 6 m tall, some branches ending in short thorns, (thorns appearing to be in branch axils), twigs brown to gray, leaf scars  often nearly opposite; winter buds with overlapping scales (Harlow 1946), stipules present, small, linear, hairy, eventually deciduous.  Leaves opposite to subopposite, sometimes alternate, stalk 0.6-2.5 cm, blade broadly […]
Rhododendron periclymenoides  (R. nudiflorum) pinkster azalea Ericaceae RHPE; Bx, pb, rd, wv; Q, a; R, an, ar, bd, ca, gb, d, ev, h, is, lp, lt, ml, r, sv, w; - Rhododendron periclymenoides is a shrub to 2 m tall, somewhat colonial by root sprouts, roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); branched above, young branches tend to be in distinctive, umbrella-shaped pattern at ends of older stems, bark gray, twigs not hairy, winter bud scale hairless. Leaves alternate, but often tightly spiraled at ends […]
Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea Ericaceae RHVI; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu; R, ah, ar, bd, cb, cp, gr, h, is, lp, pm, ro, sm, t, wt; - Rhododendron viscosum is a shrub 1-2 m tall, colonial from root sprouts; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); twigs slender, hairy when young, spiraled at ends of erect branches, like upward-facing umbrella ribs, winter flower buds large, pale greenish.  Leaves alternate, to 6 cm, widest above middle, often tightly spiraled at ends of […]
Rhodotypos scandens black jetbead Rosaceae RHSC*p; Bx, br, pb, rd, up, wv; NY ct, iw; Q, a, cu; K, p; R, d, w; - Rhodotypos scandens is a shrub to 2 m tall, stems arching, green when young, turning brown with orange lenticels, stipules linear, densely hairy, about 0.1-0.2 cm long, winter buds small, with overlapping scales, slightly stalked, leaf scar broadly triangular with 3 vein scars Leaves opposite, stalk 0.3-0.5 cm long, often hairy, blade 4-8 cm long to […]
Rhus aromatica fragrant sumac Anacardiaceae RHAR; Bx, br (planted), pb; NY, ct (planted); Q, a (possibly planted); K, fl (possibly planted); R, h (planted). - Rhus aromatica is a shrub to 2 m, often dioecious, densely colonial from root sprouts, twigs hairy when young, fragrant when bruised.  Leaves alternate, 3-parted, leaflets, toothed, young leaves softly hairy. Autumn color red to orange.  Flowers pale yellow petals 5, about 0.3 cm long in erect clusters of catkins about 2 cm long, blooms March-April, flower […]
Rhus copallina shining; winged sumac Anacardiaceae RHCO; Bx, cm (planted), pb, g, sn, wv; NY, bl, hb; Q, a, cu, fr, i, j, rb, tl, vb; K, fl, m, pl; R, bk, bm, c, ca, cg, ch, cl, cs, e, fk, gr, hs, jl, js, jw, k, lp, mc, mls, ok, pr, sb, sm, sv, t, ty, v, w, wt, x;  - Rhus copallina is a shrub or small tree to 6 m tall; colonial, often forming broad, domed mound-shaped colonies with smaller, younger stems on outer edges, sap milky-sticky, bark gray with darker lenticels, twigs finely hairy (Harlow 1946), stout but more slender than other Rhus sp., pith greenish-white.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, to 35 cm long, leaflets 11-23, 3-8 […]
Rhus glabra smooth sumac Anacardiaceae  RHGL; Bx, bz, pb, vc; NY, wr; Q, a, cu, ft, j, wl; K, fl; R, ah, bm, c, cl, cp, cs, d, fk, gb, jl, k, lp, mls, pr, sb, sm, sv, ty; - Rhus glabra is a shrub or small tree to 6 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, sparsely branched, twigs stout, hairless, new growth pale green to purplish with waxy bloom, older stems tan-brown. Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 11-31, to 10 cm long, pale below, hairless, margin toothed, leaves expand in early May; autumn color red-orange; winter […]
Rhus typhina  (R. hirta) staghorn sumac Anacardiaceae RHTY; Bx, pb, sn, sv (Torrey 2017), vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, wr; Q, a, cu, j, wl; K, do; R, c, ca, gr, e, is, js, sm; - Rhus typhina is a shrub or small tree to 10 m tall, colonial from root sprouts; twigs stout, pith large, yellowish, branches, petioles and leaf midrib very hairy. Leaves pinnate, leaflets toothed, pale below; autumn color red-orange. Flowers tiny, greenish, sexes on separate plants (clones), blooms May-July; inflorescence about 15 cm long. Fruit velvety, red, about 0.2 cm […]
Ribes sativum  (R. rubrum) garden red current Grossulariaceae RIHI*; Bx, g; Q, cu; R, sk; - Ribes sativum is a shrub to 1.5 m tall, apparently extensively colonial, branches unarmed, young stems hairy, bark gray.  Leaves alternate (no stipules), rounded in outline, 3-7 cm wide, often wider than long, 3-5 palmately lobed, base lobed, dark dull green above, paler, hairy below, margins blunt-toothed.  Flowers greenish-brown, 5-parted, petals shorter than sepals, in unbranched, dangling, clusters […]
Rosa canina dog rose Rosaceae ROCA*; Q, j; - Rosa canina is a prickly shrub to 3 m tall, branches arching; stipules wide above.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 5-7, 2-4 cm long, elliptic, margin toothed.  Flowers white to pink, 4-5 cm wide, clusters of 1-3, floral base smooth, sepals lobed, deciduous.  Fruit hard achenes enclosed in fleshy, bright red rose hip (hypanthium),1.5-2 cm long, elliptic (Rehder 1986).  […]
Rosa carolina pasture rose Rosaceae ROCA ; Bx, pb; Q, cu, j; R, c, sm; - Rosa carolina is a prickly shrub, Low, slender, to 90 cm tall, stems from stolons, usually single, thorny between nodes, thorns slender, cylindrical, stipules narrow, fused along leaf stalk with free, flaring tips, margins sometimes with glandular tipped teeth.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 3-7, toothed, margin sometimes glandular; new leaves expand early May; winter plant leafless […]
Rosa Genus rose Rosaceae - Rosa is a genus of prickly shrubs; stipules large, attached to the leaf stalk. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, often prickly on veins of back. Flowers conspicuous, pink, red, white occasionally yellow. Radially symmetrical, sepals elongate, often persistent; ovary enclosed in a cup-like structure (hypanthium), with a constricted orifice, stamens numerous, longer than orifice of hypanthium, ovaries numerous. […]
Rosa multiflora multiflora rose Rosaceae ROMU*p; Bx, bg, br, cf, g, hi, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw, n; Q, a, bz, cu, dp, f, fr, ft, j, rw, tl, u, wl; K, fl, fs, ow, p, pl; R, ah, ar, bd, bg, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cp, cs, e, ev, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, hs, is, js, lp, lt, mc, mls, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, se, sm, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt;  - Rosa multiflora is a prickly shrub to 3 m tall, arching, sometimes climbing; colonial from root sprouts and layering (Young 1996); stems green (reddish in sun), smooth, arching or climbing, thorny, foliage semi-evergreen (Robertson et al. 1994), stipules toothed, fringed by glandular hairs (use lens).  Leaves alternate, blade pinnate, leaflets 5-11, 1.5-3 cm long, elliptic, margin […]
Rosa palustris swamp rose Rosaceae ROPA; Bx, pb, vc; Q; R, h; - Rosa palustris is a very prickly shrub to 2 m tall; colonial from long rhizomes; thorns 0.3-0.6 cm, only at nodes.  Leaves alternate, pinnate with 7 leaflets, rachis softly hairy, leaf teeth 0.5 mm. Stipules narrow, fused the sides of the leaf stalk. Flowers pink, petals 2-3 cm long, flower base (hypanthium) and calyx covered with stalked glands, appearing […]
Rosa rugosa wrinkled rose Rosaceae RORU*; Bx, pb; K, fl, m pl; Q, j, tl; R, lc, mls, ok (planted); - Rosa rugosa is a prickly shrub to 2 m tall, robust, in dense clumps, very thorny and bristly, young stems hairy. Leaves alternate, , pinnately compound, leaflets 7 or 9, 2.5-5 cm long, surface puckered (rugose), dark green. Flowers pink to white, large, petals 3-5 cm long, flower base (hypanthium) nearly smooth, flower stalks (pedicels0 bristly-glandular; blooming […]
Rosa setigera climbing prairie rose Rosaceae ROSE(*); Bx, pb, wv;  - Rosa setigera is a prickly shrub, stems climbing to 6 m tall, prickles relatively sparse, broad-based, curved back, in pairs or solitary along internodes; stipules very narrow, with glandular hairs along margin. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, leaf stalk glandular-hairy; leaflets 3 or 5, narrowly egg-shaped, to 10 cm long, glossy, hairless, veins impressed above, paler, sometimes […]
Rosa virginiana Virginia rose Rosaceae ROVI; Bx, pb; Q, tl; K, pl; R, c, cp, mm, ok, sm; - Rosa virginiana is a prickly shrub, to 2 m tall, slightly colonial; 2 prickles at nodes, base flattened, often half as long as prickle, few or no prickles along internodes; stipule margins usually with glandular tipped teeth. Leaves alternate, pinnate with 7-9 leaflets, margin toothed, teeth about 0.1 cm high. Flowers pink, showy, to 7 cm wide, […]
Rubus allegheniensis common blackberry Rosaceae RUAL; Bx, bg, pb, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, ft, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, dp, f, ft, i, j, u, wl; K, fl, fs, p; R, ah, al, ar, bk, c, ca, cl, cp, cs, d, e, fw, gb, gr, h, hs, is, jl, k, lp, mls, pm, pr, r, sm, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt, x; - Rubus allegheniensis is a prickly, arching shrub to 3 m tall; colonial; stems stout, prominently ridged, young stems finely glandular-hairy, sometimes glandular, thorns along main stems fairly straight, bases long, flattened side to side, canes upright to arching, green to dark red.  Leaves alternate, palmately compound, 5 leaflets, hairy below, terminal leaflet egg-shaped, about 15 cm […]
Rubus discolor Himalayan blackberry Rosaceae RUDI*; Bx, br; K, ow; R, js, ok; - Rubus discolor is a prickly shrub, Stems to several m long, prostrate, growing flat along open ground or scrambling, (not erect and arching like R. allegheniensis) coarse, almost round in cross section or vaguely ribbed, armed with flattened, curved prickles, primary canes finely hairy at tips.  Leaves alternate, palmately compound, whitish-wooly below, bright green above, leaves […]
Rubus Genus blackberry; bramble Rosaceae - Rubus is a genus of shrubs; stems biennial and usually prickly. First year stems (primocanes) are unbranched and do not flower. Second year stems (floricanes) develop branches which flower. Leaves mostly palmately compound, those of primocanes are compound those of floricanes are often mixed, with both simple and compound leaves, margins usually toothed or lobed. Flowers most […]
Rubus idaeus var. idaeus red raspberry Rosaceae RUID*; R; - Rubus idaeus var. idaeus is an arching shrub, stem to 2 m tall, armed with slender-based prickles; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989).  Leaves alternate, palmately compound with 3-5 leaflets, softy gray-hairy below, margins toothed.  Flowers petals white to greenish, shorter than sepals.  Fruit of fleshy 1-seeded drupes, red at maturity, to 1.5 cm […]
Rubus laciniatus evergreen blackberry Rosaceae RULA*; Bx, pb, sf; NY, ct, hb, n; Q, cu; K, dh; R, fk, gr, pr; - Rubus laciniatus is an arching, prickly shrub. Stems coarse, often reddish, ribbed like R. allegheniensis, to several m long, scrambling, often vine-like habit, usually not erect, strongly armed with curved, flattened, long-based thorns.  Leaves alternate, evergreen, appearing more “ornate” than R. allegheniensis, palmately compound, leaflets hairy, green below, usually 5, lobed or divided, margin toothed, largest ca 5 cm, stalk strongly […]
Rubus occidentalis  (R. leucodermis) black raspberry Rosaceae RUOC; Bx, cf, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct; Q, a, cu, f, fa, ft, rw; k, p; R, ah, bk, bm, cs, d, h, is, js, sp, sv, v, w; - Rubus occidentalis is an arching, prickly shrub to 2m, colonial, stems erect or arching upward, rooting at tips, bluish-whitened, unridged, thorny; roots associated with VA mycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988).  Leaves alternate, compound, 3 leaflets. Flowers white, in clusters; blooms May.  Fruit fleshy, turns red, then black, of multiple 1-seeded drupes, fruit, falls off receptacle; ripens June. Bird dispersed. […]
Rubus odoratus purple-flowering raspberry Rosaceae RUOD; Bx, pb, sf, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu (Greller 1985); R, gb (planted); - Rubus odoratus is a shrub to 2 m tall, stems dark-glandular hairy, widely branched, thornless. Leaves alternate, broad, to 20 cm wide, with 3-5 triangular lobes, irregularly toothed. Flowers pink-purple to 6 cm wide, sepals densely purple-glandular-hairy; blooms June-Aug. Fruit red, 1 cm wide, dryish, bland, individual fruitlets often falling separately; ripens July-Sept. Wetland status: NL. Frequency in […]
Rubus pensilvanicus Pennsylvania blackberry Rosaceae RUPE; Q; - Rubus pensilvanicus is an arching, prickly shrub to 3 m tall, colonial, stems stout, prominently ridged. Much like R. allegheniensis but stems of inflorescence without glandular hairs.  Leaves alternate, palmately compound, 5 leaflets, terminal leaflet egg-shaped, about 15 cm long, widest at or below middle, margin toothed, thorns of leaf stalks and midribs hooked. Flowers white, 2 cm wide in racemes on […]
Rubus phoenicolasius wineberry Rosaceae RUPH*p; Bx, bg, br, cf, hi, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ft, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, f, ft, u; K, p; R, ah, bm, gb, ev, mls, r, wp; - Rubus phoenicolasius is a shrub to 2 m tall; stems arching, densely red-hairy, sticky, with a few prickles.  Leaves alternate, 3-parted, densely white wooly below.  Flowers white, sepals red-hairy; inflorescence branched.  Fruit about 1 cm wide, of numerous 1-seeded red, fleshy, translucent drupes; detaches from base when ripe; bird dispersed.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in NYC: Frequent.  Origin: […]
Salix bebbiana beaked; bebb willow Salicaceae SABE; Q, cu (Greller 1977); K; - Salix bebbiana is a shrub or small tree 2-5 m tall, one to several stems, twigs slender, brownish-hairy, older bark gray-brown, furrowed stipules small to none. Leaves alternate, 4-8 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, elliptic to egg-shaped, pointed at both ends, margin coarsely toothed to almost entire, gray-hairy on both sides, at least when young, whitish-waxy, […]
Salix discolor pussy willow Salicaceae SADI; Bx, br, pb; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), dp, fa, fr, j, tl, u; K, gt, p; R, ah, an, bd, bm, c, ca, cb, d, fk, gr, h, js, lp, mls, pm, pr, ro, sb, t; - Salix discolor is a shrub or small tree 2-5 m tall, usually multi-stemmed, branches low, bark gray, old bark irregularly fissured, twigs stout, young twigs hairy; winter buds to 1 cm, dark, covered by a single scale, somewhat flattened.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, 4-10 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, dark green above, mature leaves waxy-white or bluish-white […]
Salix eriocephala diamond willow Salicaceae SAER; R, sb; - Salix eriocephala is a stout shrub or small tree 2-12 m tall, usually multiple with stems, new growth pale green, densely wooly-hairy, older twigs brown, stipules crescent-shaped, 0.5-1.5 cm, persistent, like those of S. nigra.  Leaves alternate, stalk to 1.4 cm, blade 7-15 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, oblong to lance-shaped, tip pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, […]
Salix exigua  (S. interior) sandbar willow Salicaceae SAEX(*); Q, j, tl; K, m, sc;  - Salix exigua is a shrub to 3 m tall, extensively colonial, many thin stems, bark reddish-brown, new growth whitish-hairy, becoming green and smooth, stipules tiny, or none.  Leaves alternate, linear, 5-14 cm long, 0.5-1.4 cm wide, pointed at both ends, margin with distant, tiny, spine-like teeth, new leaves hairy becoming smooth, both sides pale gray-green, plants […]
Salix Genus willow Salicaceae - Salix is a genus of shrubs, or, less often, trees. Leaves alternate, simple, margins toothed or entire. Flowers very small without petals or sepals in erect to spreading catkins (not drooping). dioecious (males and females on separate plants). Fruit dry, capsules opening in 2 parts (valves) to release numerous small seeds each with long white hairs that aid in […]
Salix humilis upland willow Salicaceae SAHU; R; - Salix humilis is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial; twigs yellowish to brown, hairy, stipules narrow. Leaves alternate, narrow, widest above middle, to 10 cm long, 2 cm wide, tip pointed, margin entire to wavy, slightly turned under, dark green above, often finely hairy, waxy-pale below, gray-hairy (when young), wrinkled, leaf stalk to 0.7 cm. […]
Salix lucida shining willow Salicaceae SALU; Bx, pb; R;  - Salix lucida is a shrub to 6 m tall, to 12 cm diameter (dbh), bark brown, smooth, twigs brown and buds shiny brown; young twigs and leaves reddish-hairy; stipules to 0.5 cm, persistent kidney-shaped with glands along margin. Leaves alternate, lance-shaped, to 15cm long 4 cm wide, tip long-pointed, margin glandular-toothed, green on both sides, paler […]
Salix purpurea “Streamco” basket willow; purple osier Salicaceae SAPU*; Bx, br; Q, cu (Greller 1977); R; - Salix purpurea is a shrub to 2.5 m tall, many-stemmed, slender, greenish-yellow, occasionally purplish, hairless, no stipules.  Leaves alternate, linear or wider above middle, to 7 cm long, 1 cm wide, margin toothed toward tip pointed, base tapered, stalk short, dull dark green above, waxy dark blue-green below, tending to be subopposite at tips of twigs.  […]
Salix sericea silky willow Salicaceae Bx, pb; - Salix sericea is a shrub to 4 m tall, twigs brittle at base, brown, slender, young twigs densely hairy, nodes remaining hairy; stipules narrow to 1 cm. Leaves alternate, to 10 cm long, 5 cm wide, tip long-pointed, base wedge-shaped, margin closely glandular-toothed, dark green, hairy above, waxy-pale, finely hairy below. Flowers with sexes on separate plants […]
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis elderberry Caprifoliaceae SACA2; Bx, bz, pb, sf, vc; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, fa, i, u, wl; K; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cs, d, e, gb, gr, h, js, lp, lt, mc, mls, pm, pr, r, ro, sm, sv, t, w, wp, wt, x; - Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis is a shrub to 4 m tall, arching, spreading, open habit, internodes long, young stems green, nodes ridged, woody stems with white pith, bark pale gray with raised speckles (lenticels); winter buds scaly, conical, leaf scars broad, conspicuous.  Leaves opposite, pinnate,  leaflets 5-11, variable, lower leaflets often 3-parted, sharply toothed, tip tapered […]
Spiraea alba var. latifolia  (S. latifolia) meadowsweet Rosaceae  SPAL; Bx; pb; Q, hl; R; - Spiraea alba var. latifolia is a shrub, to 2 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stems slender, twigs brown, bark shredding. Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, widest above middle, tip barely pointed, base tapered to stalk, margin doubly toothed, almost hairless. Flowers white, tiny, 5-parted with many stamens; inflorescence pyramidal, branched, dense; blooms June- Aug. Fruit dry, persistent, […]
Spiraea prunifolia bridal-wreath; spiraea Rosaceae SPPR*; NY, iw; - Spiraea prunifolia is a shrub to 3 m tall, stems slender, brown, twigs zigzag, very thin, new growth pale grayish. Leaves alternate, egg-shaped to elliptic to 5 x 2 cm, tip pointed, margin toothed, dark green above, finely hairy below, stalk to 0.3 cm. Flowers white, double, to 0.8 cm wide more-or-less ball-shaped with numerous short petals, […]
Spiraea tomentosa hardhack; steeplebush Rosaceae SPTO; Bx, pb, wv; Q, i, j; K; R, bd, lp, ro, h, k, sv; - Spiraea tomentosa is a shrub to 1 m tall; twigs wooly, delicate; colonial from root sprouts.  Leaves alternate, to 5 cm long, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, pale or rusty wooly below, veins conspicuous.  Flowers pink, 0.3 cm wide; inflorescence dense, terminal, to 15 cm long, branched, narrow; blooms July-Sept.  Fruit small hairy capsule, brown, persistent through winter; seeds very […]
Staphylea trifolia bladder-nut Staphyleaceae STTR; Bx, pb, vc; NY, hb, iw; R cr (U. Lorimer 2017); - Staphylea trifolia is a shrub to 5 m, stems erect, bark gr eenish-striped.  Leaves opposite, 3-parted, leaflets oblong, elliptic or egg-shaped, to 1- cm long, margin toothed, terminal leaflet long-stalked, stalks of lateral leaflets short to none.  Flowers greenish-white, bell-shaped, to 1 cm long, calyx petal-like, nearly as long as petals; inflorescence of drooping clusters to 10 […]
Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry Caprifoliaceae SYAL*; NY, Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, a, cu; - Symphoricarpos albus is a shrub to 1 m tall, branching opposite, twigs thin, bark shreddy, much like S. orbiculatus but pith becoming hollow.  Leaves opposite, egg-shaped to oval, 2-3 cm.  Flowers pink, bell-shaped, 4-5 lobed, calyx very short, inflorescence of pairs or a few together, to 0.8 cm; blooms May-July.  Fruit fleshy, white, a drupe, to 1.5 cm wide, with […]
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus coralberry Caprifoliaceae SYOR(*); Q; R, w; - Symphoricarpos orbiculatus is a shrub to 2 m tall, branching opposite, twigs thin, hairy, gray-brown, older stems with shreddy bark, pith brownish, continuous, base of twigs with small overlapping scales.  Leaves opposite oval to egg-shaped, dull dark bluish green above, pale waxy green, hairy below, 2-4 cm, blunt at both ends.  Flowers small, bell-shaped, to 0.4 cm, stalkless, […]
Symplocos tinctoria sweet leaf; horse sugar Symplocaceae SYTI(*); Q, cu (probably planted); - Symplocos tinctoria is a shrub to 5 m tall, semi-evergreen, somewhat colonial from root-sprouts (suckers).  Leaves alternate, inversely lanceolate, to 15 cm long, tip pointed, tapered to base, margin few-toothed, surface dark green, paler, finely hairy below.  Flowers yellow, radially symmetrical, fragrant, 5-parted, petals fused near base, lobes 0.7-0.9 cm long, stamens numerous, more conspicuous than corolla, […]
Syringa vulgaris common lilac Oleaceae SYVU*; Bx, pb; Q, wl; R, c, jw; - Syringa vulgaris is a shrub to 6 m tall, usually multi-stemmed, stems stout, somewhat sinuous, new bark shiny, brown, older bark gray, slightly shredding stems. Leaves opposite, egg to heart-shaped, to 10 cm long, tip pointed, base blunt to lobed, dark bluish-green, expand late April-early May (Britton, 1874). Flowers purple to white, 1 cm wide, tubular with […]
Taxus baccata common yew Taxaceae TABA*; Bx, ra; R, gb, h; - Taxus baccata is a shrub to 20 x 6 m, evergreen Gymnosperm, twigs greenish, bark reddish brown flaky; scales of winter buds blunt, not keeled, persistent at base of new twigs.  Leaves spiraled but appearing ranked when growing in shade and on horizontal branches, flattish, needle-like, dark green above, paler with 2 tan bands below, tip […]
Taxus canadensis American yew Taxaceae TAAM; Bx, pb; R; (Most likely mis-identified); - Taxus canadensis is a shrub to 2 m tall, Gymnosperm, evergreen, stems straggling, ascending. Leaves spiraled but appearing flatly 2-ranked along twig flat, needle-like to 2 cm long, 0.2 cm wide, abruptly pointed tip sharp, midrib slightly elevated; scales of winter buds keeled (Rehder 1986). Flowers: None. Male and female cones on different plants (dioecious). Fruit: […]
Taxus cuspidata Japanese yew Taxaceae TACU*; Bx, cf, pb, wv; NY, bl; Q, a; K; R, is; - Taxus cuspidata is an evergreen, Gymnosperm, dense shrub to 13 x 13 m, twigs reddish, bark reddish brown, flaky. Those grown from seed have a single trunk with sparse foliage, young trees are quite shade tolerant (Del Tredici 2010) Leaves spiraled, but appearing ranked, ascending to form a ‘V’ shaped profile on twig, flattish, needle-like, 0.2-0.3 […]
Toxicodendron vernix  (Rhus v.) poison sumac Anacardiaceae TOVE; R; - Toxicodendron vernix is a shrub to 5 m tall, often branched from base, bark smooth, gray, young stems with waxy bloom.  Leaves alternate, leaf axis often red, blade pinnate, 7-13 leaflets, to 5 cm long, oblong to elliptic, pointed at both ends, margin entire; autumn foliage red-orange (like that of poison ivy).  Flowers small greenish; inflorescence axillary, […]
Ulex europaeus gorse Fabaceae ULEU*; R; - Ulex europaeus is a spiny, densely branched shrub to 2 m tall; stems terminating in a spine.  Leaves numerous, crowded, all reduced to spines, to 1.5 cm long, no normal leaves, except in young plants.  Flowers bright yellow, pea-flower-shaped, to 2 cm, in branched clusters.  Fruit pods to 2 cm long, wooly-hairy, with 2-4 seeds.  Wetland status: NL.  […]
Vaccinium angustifolium lowbush blueberry Ericaceae VAAN; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), cb, ch, gb, h, k, r, w; - Vaccinium angustifolium is a low shrub to 60 cm tall, extensively clonal by stolons; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991; Berliner and Torrey 1989); densely branched; twigs green or reddish, crooked, young bark smooth, older bark gray-brown fibrous; winter buds reddish, elliptic, tip pointed, ca 3 mm, leaf scars very small, hardly […]
Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry Ericaceae VACO; Bx, bz, pb, vc; Q, a, cu, i, j, tl; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, ca, cb, ch, cl, d, ev, gb, gr, is, h, js, k, lp, lt, pm, ro, r, sm, sp, sv, t, wt;  - Vaccinium corymbosum is a shrub 1-3 m tall, in clumps (crown-forming); roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, that increase nutrient uptake (Allen1991); stems angular, crooked, older bark gray, flaky, fibrous; twigs green to red.  Leaves alternate, 3-8 cm long 1.5-4 cm wide, egg-shaped, often entire, often white-waxy below, sometimes hairy, fall color bright red; […]
Vaccinium Genus blueberry Ericaceae - Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991; Berliner and Torrey 1989). No stipules. Leaves alternate, simple, margins sometimes toothed. Ours mostly deciduous except V. macrocarpon. Flowers white, sometimes pink in bud; radially symmetrical, 4-5 parted, petals usually fused, corolla urn-shaped or sometimes lobed to below middle; stamens 8-10, shorter […]
Vaccinium macrocarpon cranberry Ericaceae VAMA; R, cp (U. Lorimer 2017), k; - Vaccinium macrocarpon is an herb-like, trailing, evergreen shrub; roots associated with highly specialized ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991); stems very slender, elongate, intricately branching, forming mats, flowering branches ascending.  Leaves alternate, leathery, elliptic to 1.5 cm long 0.8 cm wide, tip blunt, whitish below, stalkless, often reddish during winter.  Flowers white (pink), 1 cm wide, petals deeply 4-lobed, […]
Vaccinium pallidum  (V. vacillans) early lowbush blueberry Ericaceae VAPA; Bx, pb; NY, ft; Q, cu; R, ah, ar, bd, ca, cl, cp, gb, ev, h, is, k, lp, sm, sv, t, v, wp; - Vaccinium pallidum is a low shrub to 80 cm tall; colonial from underground stems, roots associated with highly specialized Ascomycota ericoid mycorrhizae, (Allen1991). Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, to 5 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, pale green above, whitish-waxy below, leathery, few or no teeth.  Flowers white, cylindrical to urn-shaped, to 0.8 cm long, calyx and flower stalk whitish-waxy; […]
Vaccinium stamineum deerberry Ericaceae VAST; R, h, lp; - Vaccinium stamineum is a shrub to 1.5 m tall, diffusely branched; young twigs hairy. Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, to 10 cm long, finely hairy, whitish below, margins entire, tip pointed. Flowers greenish-white often with purplish caste, 5-lobed, to 0.6 cm, open, petal lobes spreading, stamens longer than petal lobes, flowers drooping on thin stalks, in unbranched clusters amid […]
Viburnum acerifolium maple-leaved viburnum Caprifoliaceae VIAC; Bx, bg, bz, pb vc, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, f; K, p; R, ah, ar, bd, ca, cl, cs, d, gb, h, is, k, lp, lt, r, sv, w; - Viburnum acerifolium is a shrub to 2 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, diffuse; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989); twigs hairy, leaf scars opposite, narrow, winter buds pointed, scales 2-3 pairs, lowest pair short (Harlow 1946).  Leaves opposite, to 12 cm long, 3-lobed, tip pointed, base rounded to lobed, margin toothed, […]
Viburnum dentatum arrow-wood Caprifoliaceae VIDE; Bx, bg, br, bz, cm (planted), pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, ft, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, f, j, tl, u, wl; K; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, is, js, lp, lt, mc, mls, pm, pr, r, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt, x; - Shrub to 5 m tall, branches arching, rooting at tips, colonial; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989); bark dark; twigs hairless, winter buds pointed, scales 2-3 pairs, lowest pair almost 1/2 as long as bud (Harlow 1946).  Leaves opposite, sharp toothed, veins fan-like, impressed; leaves expand mid-late May; winter plant leafless 177 […]
Viburnum dilatatum linden viburnum Caprifoliaceae VIDI*; Bx, br, pb, rd; NY, iw; Q, a, cu; - Viburnum dilatatum Shrub to 3 m tall, erect, bushy, young branches brown hairy, lenticels orange, winter buds with two scales, densely hairy.  Leaves opposite, stalk to 0.6-1.6 cm, blade 6-12 cm long, rounded to broadly egg-shaped, sometimes widest above middle, tip abruptly pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, hairy on both sides, margin coarsely toothed, veins […]
Viburnum Genus viburnum Caprifoliaceae - Viburnum is a genus of shrubs or small trees.  Leaves opposite, simple, margins often toothed or lobed.  Flowers white, small, 5-parted, tubular at base, petal lobes bell-shaped (campanulate) to horizontally spreading (rotate), sepals fused at base, stamens 5, longer than petal lobes; inflorescences of umbrella-shaped clusters.  Fruit fleshy, 1-seeded (a drupe), usually blue, black or red. Dispersed by […]
Viburnum lantana wayfaring tree Caprifoliaceae VILA*; Bx, br, wv; Q, a, cu; R; - Viburnum lantana is a shrub to 5 m, young stems and winter buds densely gray-hairy, buds not covered by scales (naked).  Leaves opposite, semi-evergreen, stalk densely whitish-wooly, blade oblong to egg-shaped, to about 17 cm long, 7 cm wide, tip pointed to blunt, base round to lobed, surface dark green, wrinkled by deeply impressed major and […]
Viburnum lentago nanny-berry; sheep-berry Caprifoliaceae VILE; Bx, pb, wv; Q, a, cu, f; R, h (also planted);  - Viburnum lentago is a shrub to 10 m. tall, mostly hairless, stems gray-brown with fine, raised lenticels, new shoots gray-green; terminal winter buds dull, finely scaly, gray-pink to dark gray-brown, 1-2 cm long, leaf buds about 0.4-0.6 cm long, narrowly lance-shaped, with two opposite scales that do not overlap; leaf scars U-shaped. Leaves opposite, stalks to […]
Viburnum molle softleaf arrowwood; black alder Caprifoliaceae VIMO(*); R; - Viburnum molle is a shrub to 4 m tall, bark flaking, twigs pale gray. Leaves opposite, stalk 1.5-3 cm, blade 6-12 cm long, almost round, tip long-pointed, base lobed, margin coarsely toothed, dark green above, paler, finely hairy below. Flowers white, small, in clusters 3-8 cm wide on a long stalk. Fruit fleshy, blue-black, 1 cm long, flattened […]
Viburnum nudum possum-haw Caprifoliaceae VINU; R, pm, cp, t, (also off 440 & Chain-Ponds); - Viburnum nudum is a shrub to 4 m tall, young stems often slightly brown scaly new growth red-brown, older twigs gray; terminal buds oblong, about 1.5 cm long, leaf buds 0.3-0.6 cm long, flattened, 2-scaled, tip blunt, reddish-brown to grayish brown, grainy-scaly, flower buds about 1 cm long at twig tips; leaf scar horizontally “v” […]
Viburnum opulus var. americanum  (V. opulus var. trilobum; V. trilobum) American cranberry bush Caprifoliaceae VITR; Bx, bg (planted), sd; - Viburnum opulus var. americanum is a shrub, to 4 m tall; stems gray-brown, smooth, winter buds green, two-scaled. Leaves opposite, maple-leaf-shaped, 3-lobed, margin toothed, 4-12 cm long, tip pointed, base blunt, dark green above, paler, finely hairy below, stalks 1-2 cm. The native species has leaf stalks (petioles) with stalked, dome-shaped glands, higher than wide, and longer […]
Viburnum opulus var. opulus  (V. opulus) European cranberry bush Caprifoliaceae  VIOP*; Bx, br, pb, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q, cu, wl; R, cl, gb, js (planted); - Viburnum opulus var. opulus is a shrub, to 4 m tall, stems gray-brown, smooth; winter buds green, two-scaled. Leaves opposite, maple-leaf-shaped, 3-lobed, toothed, 4-12 cm long, tip pointed, base blunt, dark green above, paler, finely hairy below, stalks 1-2 cm, with several disk-like, flattish or concave-topped, unstalked glands near top and two small, linear stipules at […]
Viburnum plicatum doublefile viburnum Caprifoliaceae VIPL*; Bx, bg, br, pb, rd, vc; NY, iw; Q, cu, f;  - Viburnum plicatum is a shrub to 3 m tall, new growth hairy, old bark gray-brown with tiny orange dots (lenticels).  Leaves opposite to 10 cm long, to 8 cm wide, broadly egg-shaped to rounded, tip abruptly pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, underside with cushions of tiny hairs (stellate-pubescent), (use lens), secondary veins numerous, evenly spaced, parallel, […]
Viburnum prunifolium blackhaw viburnum Caprifoliaceae VIPR; Bx, br, bz, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, ft, j, wl; K, p; R, ah, ca, cl, cn, d, fw, gb, gr, h, is, jw, lp, r, sv, t, w, wp, wt;  - Viburnum prunifolium is a shrub to 5 m tall, tree-like habit usually with one main trunk, older bark dark, fissures square, habit stiff, upright, branches tending to be at right angles to axis; winter buds with 2 scales that do not overlap, rusty-mealy, about as wide as twig, bluntly pointed.  Leaves opposite to 8 cm long, […]
Viburnum setigerum tea viburnum Caprifoliaceae VISE*; NY, iw; - Viburnum setigerum is a shrub to 4 m tall; multi-stemmed, erect. Leaves opposite, 7-15 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, tip long pointed, base round to slightly lobed, dull blue-green, margin toothed. Flowers white, in flat-topped clusters to 5 cm wide; blooms May. Fruit bright red, fleshy, about 0.8 cm. Wetland status: NL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: […]
Viburnum sieboldii Siebold viburnum Caprifoliaceae VISI*; Bx, br, pb, rd, vc, wv; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, u; - Viburnum sieboldii is a shrub to 6 m tall; usually a small tree, colonial by root sprouts; open habit, branches stout, new growth green, finely hairy, older twigs pale gray-brown, leaf scars connected around stem, winter buds brown, oblong with two bud-scales as long as the bud.  Leaves opposite, stalk 0.8-1.5 cm, blade oblong, 6-12 cm […]
Weigela floribunda weigela Caprifoliaceae WEFL*; Q, j; R; - Weigela floribunda is a shrub to 3 m tall, branches stout, twigs finely hairy. Leaves opposite, stalk very short, to 0.5 cm; blade more-or-less elliptic, 7-10 cm long, tip long pointed, base wedge-shaped, hairy below, margin finely toothed. Flowers pink and white, to dark red, funnel-shaped, tubular, 3 cm long, finely hairy outside, petal lobes much shorter than tube, […]
Xanthorhiza simplicissima yellow-root Ranunculaceae XASI; NY, ct; Q (USDA, NRCS 2010); - Xanthorhiza simplicissima is a small shrub 30-50 cm tall, wood yellow. Leaves in dense clusters at ends of stems alternate, pinnate, stalks elongate, leaflets 5, narrowly egg-shaped, deeply toothed and lobed, tips pointed. Flowers purple-green, 5-parted, sepals petal-like, 0.3 cm long, tips pointed, petals none; oval, flat, fleshy, nectar-bearing staminodea 0.1 cm long on stalks in a […]
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis  (Xanthoxylum c.) Southern prickly ash; Hercules club Rutaceae ZACL(*); K, p; - Zanthoxylum clava-herculis is a shrub or small tree, 3-15 m tall, trunks with large, broad-based prickles and corky knobs. Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 5-19, lance-shaped, sides unequal. Flowers yellow-green, sexes separate; in large, branched clusters. Fruit 0.5 cm, pitted. Wetland status: NL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Delaware and south. Habitat: Overgrown horticultural specimen.