Scirpus

Scirpus americanus (Schoenoplectus a; Scirpus olneyi) Olney threesquare; chairmaker’s rush Cyperaceae SCAM; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q, a, cr, j, tl, u; R, bm, c, e, gr, lp, t;

Perennial, C3 plant (Kresovich et al. 1982) to 2 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stem sharply 3-angled, stout, to 1 cm near base, with concave sides, dark slightly blue-green. Leaves few, blade less than 10 cm long, to 1 cm wide. Flower spikelets 2-15, sessile, in dense cluster, brown, appearing to arise from side of stem; inflorescence bract solitary erect 1-4 cm, appearing as a continuation of stem, no empty scales at base of inflorescence; blooms and fruits July-Sept. (Hough 1983). Wetland status: FACW+. Frequency in NYC: Frequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Open areas with saturated soil or shallow water, pond edges, wet ditches, freshwater marshes. Photo: Schoenoplectus americanus.Nelson DeBarros @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scirpus atrovirens black bulrush Cyperaceae SCAT; Bx, pb, sf; NY, ct; Q, ri, u, wl; R, c, d, e, h, k, js, lp, mm;

Perennial, tufted, to 1.5 m, dark green, rhizomes short, tough; stems 3-sided. Leaves of flowering stems as many as ten, mostly below middle, to 1.8 cm wide; lower sheaths with short cross-veins (septate-nodulose). Flower spikelets egg-shaped 0.2-0.8 cm, scales to 0.2 cm, blackish with green midrib ending in point; inflorescence usually open, branched once or twice, heads rounded, crowded, often pale whitish green, becoming much darker at maturity; fruit (achenes) very pale, 3-sided, 0.1 cm; blooming and fruiting June-Sept. Seeds eaten by mice and some birds (Hilty 2006). Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Occasional. Origin: Native. Habitat: Wet meadows, often along path edges, moist to wet bright forest understories, ditches, marshes and pond edges, soil pH 4-8 (USDA, NRDC 2010). Quite shade tolerant (personal observation). Notes: Plants eaten by muskrats (Hilty 2006). Photo: Scirpus atrovirens.Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

Scirpus cyperinus wool-grass Cyperaceae SCCY; Bx, pb; Q, j; K, m; R, ah, h, gb, gr, is, k, t, v, w;

Perennial, C3 sedge (Bryson and Carter 1977) to 2 m, clumped, forming dense tussocks from short, tough rhizomes, stems upright, sparsely colonial from short rhizomes. Leaves alternate, linear, 0.3-1 cm wide, bright green, rigid, basal leaves apparently resprouting in late fall, semi-evergreen (Gargiullo personal observation); base of leaf sheaths green to brown; inflorescence bracts leaf-like, unequal, tips drooping. Flower spikelets 0.3-0.6 cm, egg-shaped, rusty-brown, numerous, clustered, bristles elongate, collectively making inflorescence appear wooly when mature; inflorescence stalks branched, open; blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct. Seeds eaten by numerous water fowl and other birds, also small mammals Wetland status: FACW+. Frequency in NYC: Occasional. Origin: Native. Habitat: Open freshwater marshes, wet, low nutrient soil, pH 4.8-7.2 (USDA, NRDC 2010). Notes: Stems and roots eaten by muskrats (Martin et al. 1951). Photo: Scirpus cyperinus.Mac H. Alford.www.plantsystemarics.org (Accessed 5/2014).

 

Scirpus pendulus (S. lineatus) drooping bulrush Cyperaceae; SCPE; Bx, pb;

Perennial C3 plant (Bryson and Carter 1977) to 1.5 m tall, tufted, stems rigid, erect. Leaves 5-10, 0.3-1 cm wide, widely separated. Flower spikelets 0.6-1.3 cm long, one in each cluster stalkless, the others on stalks, often drooping, scales about 0.2 cm, tip pointed, central green stripe, sides reddish-brown, 6 bristles, curled, achene pale purple-brown to brown, bluntly 3-sided, about 0.1 cm long with a small, sharp beak; inflorescence at top of stem, branched several times; blooming and fruiting June-Aug. Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Marshes, wet meadows, soil pH 4.9-7 (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Scirpus pendulus.Donald Cameron.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scirpus pungens (Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens; S. americanus misapplied) Common threesquare Cyperaceae SCPU; Q, j, u; R, bm, lp, t;

Perennial C3 plant (Bryson and Carter 1977) 15 cm to 1.5 m tall, colonial from rhizomes; stems 3-sided sides slightly convex to slightly concave. Leaves all near base, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, blade elongate or sometimes reduced; inflorescence bract erect, 2-15 cm, appearing as a continuation of stem. Flower spikelets 1-6, stalkless, in a dense cluster, brown, appearing to arise from side of stem, 1-2 smaller scale-like bracts at base of inflorescence, appearing as empty scales, (apparently very similar to S. americanus but smaller and more slender); blooming and fruiting May-Aug. Wetland status: FACW+. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Wet open areas, ditches, soil pH 3.7-7.5, Moderately tolerant of salt, fire, intolerant of shade (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Scirpus pungens.Michael Terry. 2014 Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora.www.vaplantatlas.org.. (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

Scirpus robustus (Schoenoplectus r.; Bolboschoenus r.; Scirpus maritimus) saltmarsh bulrush Cyperaceae SCRO; Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, i; R, vi;

Perennial C3 plant (Bryson and Carter 1977) 60 cm to1.5 m tall, colonial from tuber-bearing rhizomes, stems stout, sharply, 3-sided. Leaves alternate, to 1 cm wide, dark green, longer than the inflorescence, top edge of leaf sheath dark, usually rounded upward with a conspicuously striated or wavy pattern just below the dark upper edge. Flowers dry, papery, very small, petals and sepals reduced to 6 bristles, each flower covered by a brown, finely hairy scale with elongate, 0.2 cm, curved bristle from the cleft tip; flowers densely arranged, 5-20 on each spike, spikes to 3 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, egg-shaped to cylindrical; inflorescence compact with spikes all stalkless or some in clusters of 1-3 on stalks to 4 cm long; inflorescence subtended by 2-4 leaf-like bracts, elongate, very unequal, the longest to 40 cm; blooming and fruiting July-Oct. Fruit dry 1-seeded (achene) glossy brown to black, about 0.3 cm long, broadest near truncate top with minute appendage. Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: High salt marsh, or near brackish water. Notes: Roots eaten by muskrats, seeds eaten by numerous songbirds and water fowl (Martin et al 1951). Tolerant of anaerobic soil, alkali, salt, soil pH 6.4-8.4, moderately tolerant of fire, intolerant of shade (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Scirpus robustus.Gary P. Fleming.2014. Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg. www.vaplantatlas.org.

 

 

Scirpus validus (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani; Scirpus lacustris; Schoenoplectus lacustris) soft-stem bulrush Cyperaceae SCVA; Bx, pb; NY, ct (planted); Q, i (planted), j; R;

Perennial C3 plant (Bryson and Carter 1977) 1-3 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stems soft, easily crushed between fingers. Leaves few, mainly toward base, with well developed sheath, usually no blade. Flower spikelets oval, reddish-brown, 0.5-0.9 cm long, scales overlapping; Inflorescence to 6 cm, loose, often drooping, open, branching, bract erect, 2-10 cm like a continuation of stem above insertion of inflorescence; blooming and fruiting June-Sept.; fruit a dry nutlet (achene), probably water dispersed. Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Open marshes, shallow water. Notes: Seeds eaten by waterfowl and songbirds, stems and rhizomes eaten by muskrats. Planted in wetland mitigations and restorations, soil pH 5.4-7.5, tolerant of fire, intolerant of shade, salt (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Scirpus

 

 

validus.Vic Ramy.Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. U. Florida.ifas.ufl.edu (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secale cereale annual rye Poaceae SECE*; Bx, pb; Q; R, ar;

Annual or biennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 60 cm to 1.2 m tall, cm, usually pale gray-green, branched from base. Leaves alternate, flat, 0.3-0.7 cm wide. Flower spikelets 2-flowered, borne flat against the axis of the spike along either side; glumes 0.8-1.5 cm, keeled, hairy on keel and veins, lemmas 1-1.6 cm, awn 2-7 cm, at tip; inflorescence a spike, 6-15 cm long, stout, nodding, bristly; Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Eurasia. Habitat: Planted for temporary erosion control on restoration sites. Generally not persisting. A poor competitor, soil pH 4.5-8.2 (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Secale cereale.R.A. Howard. @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. Copyright © Smithsonian Institution. (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Setaria Genus foxtail grass Poaceae

Annual or perennial C4 grasses, stems usually in tufts. Leaves mostly along stems, various. Flower spikelets swollen, shiny, with a single fertile floret, lower floret sterile; outer scale of the fertile floret (lemma) often textured with small wavy ridges (rugulose); each spikelet subtended by 1-numerous bristles, these persistent after spikelet is shed; inflorescence appearing spike-like, but with many very short branches (a dense panicle). Photo: Setaria viridis.Patrick J. Alexander, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

Setaria faberi giant foxtail grass Poaceae SEFA*; Bx, cm, cn, pb; Q, lk; R, gb, lp, pr;

Annual, a C4 plant, robust, 50 cm to 2 m tall branching from near base, sheaths hairy along margins, ligule a dense band of hairs, about 0.1 cm long. Leaves 15-30 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, rough on both sides, sparsely long-hairy above, hairs warty-based. Flower spikelets 2 flowered (only one fertile) to 0.3 cm, above (usually) 3 pale bristles, about 1.5 cm long, in very short branched clusters, self pollinated; inflorescence a cylindrical, long-bristled spike, nodding from near base, to 6-20 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, including bristles, axis hairy; blooms and fruits July-Oct. Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals. Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Origin: Asia. Habitat: Pioneer on bare ground, disturbed edges, roadsides, good quality fill, piles of soil at construction sites. Notes: Much like S. viridis but usually larger. Plants eaten by rabbits (Martin et al 1951). Photo: Setaria faberi.Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora.Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Setaria geniculata (Setaria parviflora; Chaetochloa geniculata) knotroot Poaceae SEGE; Bx, pb; Q; R;

Perennial C4 grass (Rubio et al. 2010) 0.30 to 1.2 m tall, sparsely colonial from knotty short, branching rhizomes or stolons to 4 cm long, stems slender, wiry at base (Hitchcock 1950), 1-several; sheaths smooth. Leaves to 25 cm long, 0.2-0.8 cm wide, raspy textured above. Flower spikelets 0.2-0.3 cm; inflorescence spike cylindrical, 3-10 cm long, green to yellow-tan, axis hairy, bristles below each spikelet 4-12, 0.2-1.2 cm long, finely barbed, yellow to purplish, spreading outward; July-Oct. Wetland status: FAC. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Moist to dry, open habitats, salt marsh edges. Photo: Setaria geniculata (S. parviflora).Courtesy W. J Hayden,.University Richmond.chalk.richmond.edu (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

 

Setaria glauca (S. lutescens; S. pumila; Chaetochloa glauca) yellow foxtail-grass Poaceae SEGL*; Bx, pb, sn; NY, bl; Q, a, f, ft, j; R, ar, c;

Annual C4 grass (Downton 1971), tufted, 30-100 cm, erect to prostrate from fibrous roots, branching from base, stems somewhat flattened; sheath hairless (smooth), flattened, keeled; ligule a dense band of short hairs to 0.3 cm. Leaves alternate, to 30 cm long 0.4-1.0 cm wide, blade twisted in a loose spiral, rough above, usually loosely hairy at base on inside, hairs with swollen bases (Hitchcock 1950). Flower spikelets to 0.3 cm, second glume only ½ as long as the sterile lemma, which looks like a third glume on the flat side of the finely wrinkled, green to purplish fertile lemma; inflorescence spike-like, stiffly, cylindrical, 5-10 cm, erect, axis bristly-hairy, bristles 4-12 below each spikelet, yellow, 0.3-1 cm long yellow to tan at maturity; blooms and fruits July-Oct. Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals (Martin 1951). Seeds germinate May-June. Wetland status: FAC. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent in natural areas. Origin: Eurasia. Habitat: Common along roadsides, late summer-autumn, open, disturbed areas. Often forming large stands on open soil (not adequately represented by samples collected). Very common first year successional annual plant, requires high nitrogen soils, very intolerant of shade (Gregg 1972), intolerant of salt, fire, drought; soil pH 5-7 (USDA, NRCS 2010). Notes: Plants eaten by rabbits (Martin 1951). An alternate host to the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica longicornis (Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera). It is infected by the fungi: Claviceps purpurea (ergot, Ascomycotina); downy mildew, Sclerospora graminicola; brown root rot, Pythium graminicola, (water molds, Mastigomycotina); the smut Ustilago neglecta (Basidiomycotina) (Agrios 1988; Steel et al. 1983). Host of the rusty plum aphid (Hysteroneura setaria) first discovered on yellow foxtail (Hilty 2006). Photo: Setaria glauca.Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

Setaria italica foxtail millet Poaceae SEIT*; R;

Annual C4 grass (Downton 1971), much like S. viridis but coarser. Leaves 0.5-3 cm wide. Flower spikelets 0.3 cm, fertile lemma smooth, shining, bristles green, brown, or purplish, grain dropping free of glumes inflorescence spike wider, 10-30 cm long, 0.7-3.5 cm wide, appearing densely shallow-lobed, tip often nodding. Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Old World. Habitat: An old and once a widely cultivated form of S. viridis, with many cultivars (Hitchcock 1950). Open habitats, roadsides. Photo: Seteria italica.R.A. Howard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.courtesy Smithsonian Institution (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Setaria verticillata bristly foxtail Poaceae; SEVI2*; NY, rr; R;

Annual C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) to 1 m tall, much like the above. Leaves alternate, 10-25 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, rough on both sides, sheath margins hairy near top. Flower spikelets about 0.2 cm, first glume 1-veined, fertile lemma wrinkled horizontally; inflorescence erect, yellow-green to purplish 5-15 cm long, axis hairless, clusters of spikelets are whorled and spaced further apart along axis especially near base, making spike appear somewhat lobed, one barbed bristle below each spikelet, 0.4-0.7 cm long; self pollinated; blooms and fruits July-Oct. Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals (Martin et al. 1951). Seeds germinate May-June. Wetland status: FAC. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Old World. Habitat: Open, disturbed sites, roadsides. Notes: Intolerant of shade. Notes: plants eaten by rabbits (Martin et al. 1951). A host to the nematodes Meloidogyne sp. and Pratylenchus pratensis and an alternate host for mosaic viruses of wheat and barley (Steel et al. 1983). Photo: Setaria verticillata.Joseph.DiTomaso.New England Wildflower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org.bugwood.org (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

Setaria viridis green foxtail-grass Poaceae SEVI*; Bx, cn, pb; NY, bl, ct, hb, mn, rr; Q, i, j, lk; K, fs, lf, pl; R, bm, cs, hs, jl, js, ty, w;

Annual C4 grass (Downton 1971), 20 cm to 1 m tall (usually no more than 40 cm), base bent, often tufted, branched, rooting at lower nodes; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, at least in young plants (Douglas at al. 1985); margin of sheath bristly, overlapping, inner margin membranous, ligule a fringe of hairs to 0.2 cm long, fused at base. Leaves to 15 (rarely to 30) cm long, 1.2 cm, flat, rough above, light green, tip long-pointed, nodding, midrib prominent below, hairless, slightly rough on both sides (Hitchcock 1950). Flower spikelets, on very short stalks, green, 1.6-2.5 mm, each spikelet above 1-3 pale bristles, about 0.8 cm long (often apparently more if some spikelets aborted), first glume 1/3 length of spikelet, second glume almost as long as spikelet; inflorescence a cylindrical spike to 15 cm long, 2 cm wide, secondary spikes smaller, erect but often nodding at tip, axis densely hairy; wind and self pollinated; blooms and fruits July-Oct. Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals (Martin et al. 1951). Since bristles remain on axis after seed is shed, they are probably not involved in seed dispersal. Seeds can survive in soil for up to 21 years, but after 3 years germination rate drops to 50% (Douglas at al. 1985). Seedlings emerge in April-May (Keever 1979). Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Occasional in natural areas. Origin: Eurasia. Habitat: Common roadside weed, on fill, along sidewalks, other disturbed open areas; Intolerant of shade. Notes: plants eaten by rabbits (Martin et al. 1951). Responds to shading with increase in height. Requires 16 hrs. of light for optimum growth and reproduction. S. viridis is considered to be the ancestral species of the genus. A large number of insects apparently feed on green foxtail grass. These include true bugs (Hemiptera); aphids, cicadas, planthoppers (Homoptera); leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), leaf miners, root maggots and other flies (Diptera); grasshoppers (Orthoptera) and parasitic wasps that prey on plant feeding insects (Hymenoptera). Preyed by the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus spp. Infected by the fungi: gray leaf-spot, Piricularia grisea and Fusarium equiseti, (soil fungi, Deuteromycotina); downy mildew, Sclerospora graminicola, brown root rot, Pythium graminicola, and P. debaryanum (water molds, Mastigomycotina). Also infected by a number of mosaic diseases and other crop viruses (Agrios 1988; Douglas et al. 1985). Photo: Setaria viridis.Wendy VanDyk Evans.U. Georgia. Bugwood.org.www.forestryimages.org. (Accessed 6/2014).

 

 

 

Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass Poaceae SONU; Bx, pb; NY, ct (planted); Q, i, j; R, c, gb, sm, sv, wp;

Perennial, C4 grass (Downton 1971), tufted, persistent into winter, about 1.5 m tall, colonial from short rhizomes. Leaves alternate, 0.5-1 cm wide. Flower spikelets gold-brown, to 0.8 cm, fuzzy, with long bent bristle ca. 1 cm long; blooms late spring (USDA, NRCS 2010) Seeds ripe Sept. dispersed through winter. Wetland status: UPL. Frequency in NYC: Occasional in dry grassland areas with thin, native soil, subject to frequent burning, such as the serpentine barrens of Staten Island. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Open, dry soil pH 4.8-8 (USDA, NRCS 2010). A tall-grass prairie grass with Andropogon, Schizachyrium, and Panicum virgatum. At present, may or may not occur spontaneously in NYC. Reported to be common in Staten Island meadows, early 1900s (Hollick and Britton 1930). Frequently planted in grassland restorations (Gargiullo personal observation). Photo: Sorghastrum nutans.Elaine Haug @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.Courtesy Smithsonian Institution (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh cordgrass Poaceae SPAL; Bx, hi, pb; NY iw; Q, a, fr, i, j, vb; K, do, fl, fs, m, pl; R, am, c, go, gr, h, lc, mc, pr, sm, sp, t, v, wp, wt;

Perennial C4 grass (Boyle and Patriquin 1981), 50 cm to 2.5 m tall, clonal from long, soft, stout rhizomes; stems large, coarse, fleshy, spongy, often to 1 cm diameter, sulfurous when bruised; disintegrates quickly in winter. Leaves alternate, flat, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, smooth, thick, tough. Flowers dry, papery, spikelets about 1 cm long, 1-flowered; inflorescence narrow, pale tan, shaggy, 10-30 cm, spikes 5-10 cm long, appressed to inflorescence axis; blooms and fruits July-Oct. (Hough 1983). Fruit dry 1-seeded. Seeds eaten by songbirds and waterfowl (Martin et al. 1951). Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Frequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Low salt marshes (midtide to mean high water) and along tidal creeks where salt water regularly inundates plants and soil is always saturated. Salt tolerant. Tolerates fire, salt, soil pH 3.7-7.9, intolerant of shade (USDA, NRCS 2010). Notes: The peat formed by Spartina roots stabilizes shore areas and decreases the destructive force of storm tides and wave action. It also moves oxygen into its root zone and may support bacteria that degrade oil contamination from spills. Spartina detritus is the major carbon source for salt marsh dwellers. It supports the entire salt marsh food web from bacteria to fish. Rhizomes and new shoots eaten by geese and muskrats (Martin et al. 1951; Bergen et al. 2000). L. Photo: Spartina alterniflora in flower.© Gary P. Fleming.2014.Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg. www.vaplantatlas.org. R. Photo: Spartina.alterniflora.USFWS.www.nps.gov (both accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spartina cynosuroides big cordgrass Poaceae SPCY; Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, i; K, pl; R;

Perennial C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 1-3 m tall, stems coarse, colonial from long stout rhizomes. Leaves alternate, 0.8-2 cm wide, with rough, cutting margins. Flower spikelets overlapping, dry, papery; inflorescence dense with numerous, crowded, one-sided spikes; blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct.(Hough 1983). Fruit dry 1-seeded. Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Salt marshes and brackish water, Salt tolerant. soil pH 5.8-7.5 (USDA, NRCS 2010). Photo: Spartina cynosuroides. Hyun Jung Cho.Mississippi Aquatic Plants Website.jcho.masgc.org (Accessed 5/2014).[contact 9/26/14]

 

Spartina patens salt-meadow cordgrass Poaceae SPPA; Bx, pb; Q, a, dp, fa, fr, i, j; K, fl, fs, m, pl; R, am, c, gr, lc, mc, mls, ok, pr, sm;

Perennial C4 grass (Day et al. 2001) 30 cm to 1 m tall, densely colonial from slender rhizomes, new growth arising from matted plants of previous season, stems fine, wiry. Leaves 4-30 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, inrolled; tawny to reddish in winter. Flowers dry, papery; spikelets 0.9-1.3 cm, closely overlapping along one side of spike; inflorescence purplish, spikes 2-7, 1.5-5 cm long, spreading, not appressed to inflorescence axis; blooming and fruiting July-Oct. (Hough 1983). Fruit dry 1-seeded. Seeds eaten by songbirds and water fowl (Martin et al. 1951). Wetland status: FACW+. Frequency in NYC: Occasional. Origin: Native. Habitat: Common in high salt marsh, above mean high tide. Forms a flattened, lawn-like expanses of salt meadow. Sometimes found in upper borders of salt marsh or narrow beaches above high tide line, where it tends to grow more erect and robust (Gargiullo personal observation). Very often mixed with Distichlis spicata, which is gray-green, has wider leaves that are ranked along the stem and a tan inflorescence. Notes: Salt marshes are important buffers against storms (see S. alterniflora). Plants eaten by Canada geese (Martin et al. 1951). Dominant plant of high marsh, mean high water to mean high high water (spring tide) and above. Soil pH 4-8. Tolerant of drought and salt; brackish to ocean water 35ppt salt. Intolerant of shade. L Photo: Spartina patens in flower.Ben Kimball.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org. R. Photo: Spartina patens.meadow.Marilee Lovit.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

 

 

 

Spartina pectinata prairie cord-grass Poaceae; SPPE; Bx, pb; R;

Perennial C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 1-2 m tall, stems 0.5-1 cm diameter at base, erect, colonial from long rhizomes. Leaves 30-80 cm long, 0.8-1 cm wide or more, margins very sharply, cutting-raspy. Flower spikelets closely overlapping on 2 sides of a 3-sided axis, 1-flowered, about 1-1.3 cm long, awn 0.3-1 cm from tip of second glume; glumes bristly on keel; inflorescence 20-40 cm long, of 7-27 spikes often appressed to axis, 2-11 cm long, 0.5-0.8 cm wide, including awns; blooming and fruiting July-Sept. Wetland status: OBL. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Wet, open habitats, freshwater meadows, marshes.

Photo: Spartina pectinata.Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (Accessed 5/2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenopholis obtusata prairie wedge-grass Poaceae; SPOB; R;

Annual or short-lived perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), 20-120 cm tall, stems tufted or solitary; ligules about 0.2-0.3 cm, membranous, fringed. Leaves less than 10 cm long, 0.2-0.8 cm wide. Flower spikelets 2-flowered, flattened, glumes keeled, unequal, first to 0.1-0.3 cm long, second 0.1-0.4 cm, broader, lemmas about 0.2-0.4 cm; ; inflorescence to 20 cm long; blooms and fruits May-July. Wetland status: FAC-. Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. Habitat: Dry to wet soil, meadows, streambanks, shores, soil pH 5-7.5 (USDA, NRDC 2010). Notes: Symbiotic with the endophytic fungus Epichloë amarillans (Schardl and Leuchtmann 1999). Photo: Sphenopholis obtusata.John Hilty.www.illinoiswildflowers.info (Accessed 5/2014).