References – page

Aarssen, L.W. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds. 50. Hypochoeris radicata L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 61: 365-381.

Aarssen, L.W., I.V. Hall, K.I.N. Jensen. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 76. Vicia angustifolia L., V. cracca L., V. tetrasperma (l.) Schreb. and V. villosa Roth. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66:711-737.

Abrahamson, W. G. 1975. Reproduction of Rubus hispidus L. in different habitats. Am. Midl. Nat. 93(2): 471-478.

Abrahamson, W. G. and M. Gadgil. 1973. Growth form and reproductive effort in goldenrods (Solidago, Compositae). Am. Nat. 107: 651-661.

Abrams, M. D. and F. K. Seischab. 1997. Does the absence of sediment charcoal provide substantial evidence against the fire and oak hypothesis? J. Ecology 85:373-375.

Agrios, G. N. 1988. Plant Pathology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, New York.

Aiken, S. G., P. R. Newroth and I. Wile. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 201-215.

Aliscioni, S. S., L. M. Giussani, F. O. Zuloaga, and E. A. Kellogg. 2003. A Molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): Tests of monophyly and phylogenetic placement within Panicoideae. American J. Botany 90(5): 796-821. (Accessed 2012).

Allaby, M. (ed.). 1998. A dictionary of plant sciences, second ed. Oxford University Press. New York.

Allaby, M. 1998. A dictionary of plant science. Oxford University Press, New York.

Allee, L.L. 2000. Giant Hogweed. IPC News newsletter of the invasive plant council of NYS. 2(4): 4.

Allen, M. F. 1991. The ecology of mycorrhizae. Cambridge University Press.

Altland, J. 2006. Cardamine hirsuta. Weed Management in Nursery Crops. Oregon State University. North Willamette Research & Extension Center. (Accessed 2007).

Anderson, R. C. and O. L. Loucks. 1973. Aspects of the biology of Trientalis borealis Raf. Ecology 54(4): 799-808.

Anella, L. B. and T. H. Whitlow. 2000. Photosynthetic response to flooding of Acer rubrum seedlings from wet and dry sites. Am. Midl. Nat. 143: 330-341.

Anonymous. 2004. Free Floating Plants. Lemna minor. Washington State Department of Ecology (Accessed 2007).

Antonovics, J., D. Stratton, P. H. Thrall and A. M. Jarosz. 1996. An anther-smut disease (Ustilago violacea) of fire-pink (Silene virginica): Its biological relationship to the anther-smut disease of white campion (Silene alba). Am. Midl. Nat. 135: 130-143.

Apfelbaum, S. I. and C. E. Sams 1987. Ecology and control of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Natural Areas J. 7(2): 9-17.

Askins, R. A. 2002. Restoring North America’s Birds: Lessons from Landscape Ecology.Yale U. Press. (Accessed 5/2015).

Auchmoody, L.R. and H. C. Smith. 1993. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experimental Station Research paper NE-678

Auchmoody, L.R., H. C. Smith and R. S. Walters. 1993. Acorn production in northern red oaks stands in northwestern Pennsylvania. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experimental Station Research paper NE-680

Austin, D. F. 2000. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulaceae) in North America-from medicine to menace. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(2): 172-177.

Bacone, J., F. A. Bazzaz and W. R. Boggess. 1976. Correlated photosynthetic responses and habitat factors of two successional tree species. Oecologia (Berl.) 23:63-74.

Bailey, L. H., E. Z. Bailey and staff or the Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus III. Macmillan Co. New York.

Bais, H. P, Walker, T.S., Stermitz, F.R., Hufbauer, R.A. and Vivanco, J.M. 2002. Enantiomeric dependent phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of (±)-catechin; a rhizosecreted racemic mixture from Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). Plant Physiology 128: 1173-1179.

Baker, F. S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. J. Forestry 47: 179-181.

Baldwin B. G., D. H. Goldman , D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken. 2012. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Balter, H. and R. E. Loeb. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-379.

Barbour, M. G, J. H. Burk and W. D. Pitts. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. (2nd ed.) The Benjamin /Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. Reading MA.

Barden, L. S. 1987. Invasion of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an exotic, annual, shade tolerant, C4 grass, into a North Carolina floodplain. Amer. Midl. Nat. 118(1): 40-45.

Barden, L.S. 1996. The linear relation between stand yield and integrated light in a shade adapted annual grass, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123(2): 122-125.

Barden, L.S. and J. F. Matthews. 1980. Change in abundance of honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and other ground flora after prescribed burning of a Piedmont forest. Castanea 45: 257-260

Barnes, W. J. 1999. The rapid growth of a population of reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and its impact on some river bottom herbs. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(2): 133-138.

Barnett, R. J. 1977. The effect of burial by squirrels on germination and survival of oak and hickory nuts. Amer. Midl. Nat. 98(2): 319-330.

Barney, J. N. and A. DiTommaso. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 118. Artemisia vulgaris L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 83:205-215.

Barrett L.I. 1931. Influence of forest litter on the germination and early survival of chestnut oak, Quercus montana, Willd. Ecology XII(3): 476-484.

Barrett, S. C. H. and K. Helenurm. 1981. Floral ratios and life history in Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). Evolution 35(4): 752-762.

Barringer, K. 2004. New Jersey pinweeds (Lechea, Cistaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131:261-276. (Accessed 2005).

Bartlett, T. (ed.). 2007. Bombus terricola. BugGuide. Iowa State University Entomology.; (Accessed 2007).

Basinger, M. A. 2002. Vascular flora of Thompson Woods, Jackson County, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 95: 21-36. (Accessed 2012).

Baskerville, C. A. 1982. The foundation geology of New York City. Reviews in Engineering Geology 5:95-117.

Baskerville, C. A. 1994. Bedrock and engineering geology maps of New York County and parts of Kings and Queens Counties, New York, and parts of Bergen and Hudson Counties, New Jersey. USGS Misc. Investigations map Series I-2306

Baskin, J. M. and C. C. Baskin. 1978. A contribution to the germination ecology of Rumex crispus L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105(4): 278-281.

Bassett, I. J. and C. W. Crompton. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 11. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and A. psilostachya DC. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 463-476.

Bassett, I. J. and C. W. Crompton. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds. 32. Chenopodium album L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58: 1061-1072.

Bassett, I. J. and C. W. Crompton. 1982. The biology of Canadian weeds. 55. Ambrosia trifida L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 62: 1003-1010.

Basset, I.J. and D.B. Munro. 1985. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 67. Solanum ptychanthum Dun., S. nigrum L. and S sarrachoides Sendt. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 401-414.

Bassett, I. J. and D. B. Munro. 1986. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 78. Solanum carolinense L. and S. rostratum Dunal. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 977-991.

Basset, I.J. and D.B. Munro. 1987. The biology of Canadian weeds. 81. Atriplex patula L., A. prostrata Boucher ex DC., and A. rosea L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 67: 1069-1082.

Bassett, I. J., C.W. Crompton, and D. W. Woodland. 1977. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 21. Urtica dioica L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 57: 491-498.

Baxter, J. W. S.T. A. Pickett, M. M. Carreiro, and J. Dighton. 1999. Ectomycorrhizal diversity and community structure in oak forest stands exposed to contrasting anthropogenic impacts. Can. J. Bot. 77: 771-782.

Bazzaz, F. A. V. Paape, and W. R. Boggess. 1972. Photosynthetic and respiratory rates of Sassafras albidum. Forest Sci. 18: 218-222.

Beattie, A. J. and D. C. Culver. 1981. The guild of myrmecochores in the herbaceous flora of West Virginia forests. Ecology 62(1): 107-115.

Beattie, A. J. and N. Lyons. 1975. Seed dispersal in Viola (Violaceae): adaptations and strategies. Amer. J. Bot. 62(7): 714-722.

Berenbaum, M. 1981. Patterns of furanocoumarin distribution and insect herbivory in the Umbelliferae: Plant chemistry and community structure. Ecology 62(5):1254-1266.

Bergen, A., C. Alderson, R. Bergfors, C. Aquila, and M. Matsil. Restoration of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh following a fuel oil spill, New York City, NY. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 185-195.

Berliner, R. and J. G. Torrey. 1989. Studies on mycorrhizal associations in Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. Can. J. Bot. 67:2245-2251.

Bertin, R. I. 1982. Floral biology, hummingbird pollinations and fruit production of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans, Bignoniaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 69(1): 122-134.

Bertin, R. I. and O. D. Sholes. 1993. Weather, pollination and phenology of Geranium maculatum. Am. Midl. Nat. 129: 52-66.

Best K. F. and G.I. McIntyre. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 9. Thlaspi arvense. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 279-292.

Best, K. F., G. G. Bowes, A.G. Thomas, M.G. Maw. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 39 Euphorbia esula L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 651-663.

Bhowmik, P.C. and J. D. Bandeen. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 19. Asclepias syriaca L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: 579-589.

Bierzychudek, P. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytol. 90: 757-776.

Bierzychudek, P. 1984. Determinants of gender in Jack-in-the-pulpit: the influence of plant size and reproductive history. Oecologia (Berlin) 65: 14-18.

Bills, G. F., G. I. Holtzman, and O. K. Miller, Jr. 1986. Comparison of ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete communities in red spruce versus northern hardwood forests of West Virginia. Can. J. Bot. 64: 760-768.

Blackmore, S. and E. Tootill (eds). 1984. The Penguin Dictionary of Botany. Penguin Books, New York, NY.

Blanke, V., C. Renker, M. Wagner, K. Füller, M. Held, A. J. Kuhn, and F. Buscot. 2005. Nitrogen supply affects arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Artemisia vulgaris in a phosphate-polluted field site. New Phytologist 166:981-992.Wiley Online Library. http://online library. (Accessed 2015).

Blossey, B. 2002. Phragmites: Common reed. Morphological differences between native and introduced genotypes. Cornell University. (Accessed 2004).

Boeken, B. and C. D. Canham. 1995. Biotic and abiotic control of the dynamics of gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa) shrub thickets. J. Ecology 83: 569-580

Boning, R.A. and T. L. Bultman. 1996. A test for constitutive and induced resistance by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to an insect herbivore: impact of the fungal endophyte, Acremonium coenophialum. Am. Midl. Nat. 136: 328-335.

Boring, L. R. and W. T. swank. 1984. The role of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) in forest succession. J. Ecology 72: 749-766.

Borror, D.J. and R. E. White. 1970. A field guide to the insects. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.

Bothwell, P. 2002. Personal communication. NOAA, Storm Prediction Center in Norman, OK.

Boyle, C. D. and D. G. Patriquin. 1981. Carbon Metabolism of Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Relation to that of Associated Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria. New Phytologist. 89 (2): 275-288.

Brand, M. H. 2001. UConn Plant Database of Trees Shrubs and Vines. University of Connecticut. (Accessed 2005).

Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Blakiston, Philadelphia.

Brewer, R. 1980. A half-century of changes in the herb layer of a climax forest in Michigan. J. Ecology 68: 823-832.

Briand, C. H. and C. L. Soros. 2001. Spatial variation of prickle abundance on leaves of the devil’s walking stick (Aralia spinosa; Araliaceae) during trunk-building phase. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128(3): 219-225.

Britton, N. L. 1874. When leaves expand. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 6: 235-237.

Brower, L. P. 1972. Ecological chemistry of the palatability-cardiac glycoside spectrum in Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, and Asclepias milkweeds. American Zoologist 12:712-713.

Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z. 1964. Birds, butterflies and plant poisons: a study in ecological chemistry. Zool. (New York) 49:137-159.

Brown, L. 1976. Weeds in winter. W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York.

Brown, L. 1979. Grasses an identification guide. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.

Brown, W. V. and B. N. Smith. 1975. The Genus Dichanthelium (Gramineae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 102 (1): 10-13.

Broyles, S. B. and R. Wyatt. 1988. Asclepias syriaca in Georgia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 115(4): 297-298.

Brundrett, M. C. and B. Kendrick 1988. The mycorrhizal status, root anatomy, and phenology of plants in a sugar maple forest. Can. J. Bot. 66: 1153-1173.

Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.’ URL (Accessed 2005).

Bryson, C. T. and R. Carter. 1977. Weedy sedges (Cyperaceae) of the world. USDA-ARS, Southern Weed Science Research Unit. Stoneville, MS and Valdosta GA. (Accessed 2004).

Buell, M F., H. F. Buell, and J. A. Small. 1954. Fire in the history of Mettler’s woods. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 253-255.

Burns, R. M. and B. H. Honkala. 1990. Silvics of North America, Vol. 2, hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Forest Service, USDA, Washington, DC. (Accessed 2002).

Butcko, V. and R. J. Jensen. 2002. Evidence of tissue-specific allelopathic activity in Euthamia graminifolia and Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 148(2): 253-262.

Byers, D. L. and J. A. Quinn. 1998. Demographic variation in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in four contrasting habitats. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125(2): 138-149.

Byrne, R. and J. H. McAndrews. 1975. Pre-Columbian purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in the New World. Nature 253: 726–727.

CABI 2015. Copyright © 2015 CABI. CABI is a registered EU trademark.

Cadenasso, M.L., S.T.A. Pickett, and P.J. Morin. 2002. Experimental test of the role of mammalian herbivores on old field succession: Community structure and seedling survival. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3): 228-237.

Cain, M. L., H. Damman, and A. Muir. 1998. Seed dispersal and the Holocene migration of woodland herbs. Ecol. Monographs 68(3): 325-347.

Campbell, D. R. 1985. Pollinator sharing and seed set of Stellaria pubera: competing for pollination. Ecology 66(2): 544-553.

Cane, J. H., G. C. Eickwort, F. E. Wesley, and J. Spielholz. 1983. Foraging, grooming and mating behaviors of Macropis nuda (Melittidae) and use of Lysimachia ciliata oils (Primulaceae) in larval provisions and cell linings. Amer. Midl. Natur. 110: 257-264. (Accessed 2002).

Canham, C.D. 1990. Suppression and release during canopy recruitment in Fagus grandifolia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117(1): 1-7.

Canham C.D. and O.L. Loucks. 1984. Catastrophic wind throw in the presettlement forests of Wisconsin. Ecology 65(1): 803-809.

Carr, D. E. and L. E. Banas. 2000. Dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructive): effects of and consequences for host (Cornus florida) demography. Am. Midl. Nat. 143: 169-177.

Carreiro, M. 1999. Lecture from a course in Microbial Ecology. Louis Calder Center, Fordham university, New York.

Carroll, G. 1988. Fungal endophytes in stems and leaves: from latent pathogen to mutualistic symbiont. Ecology 69(1): 2-9.

Catling, P.M. and I. Dobson. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 69. Potamogeton crispus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 655-668.

Cavers, P. B., M. I. Heagy, and R. F. Kokron. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 217-229.

Center for Plant conservation. 2007. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Cerros-Tlatilpa, R., R. Columbus. 2009. C3 photosynthesis in Aristida longifolia: Implication for photosynthetic diversification in Aristidoideae (Poaceae). American J. Botany 96(8):1379-87 (Accessed 2014).

Chabot, B. F. and D. J. Hicks. 1982. The ecology of leaf life spans. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:229-259.

Charest, C. and C. Potvin. 1993. Maternally induced modification of progeny phenotypes in the C4 weed Echinochloa crus-galli: An analysis of seed constituents and performance. Oecologia 93(3): 383-388.

Cheah, C. A. S-J. and M. S. McClure. 1998. Life history and development of Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a new predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Environmental Entomology 27(6):1531-1536.

Cheplick, G. P. 1993. Sibling competition is a consequence of restricted dispersal in an annual grass. Ecology 74(7): 2161-2164.

Cheplick, G. P. 2004. Symbiotic Fungi and Clonal Plant Physiology. New Phytologist 164 (3): 413-415

Cheplick, G. P. and V. M. Wickstrom. 1999. Assessing the potential for competition on a coastal beach and the significance of variable seed mass in Triplasis purpurea. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(4): 296-306.

Chmielewski, J. G. and J. C. Semple. 2001a. The biology of Canadian weeds. 113. Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom [Aster lanceolatus Willd.] and S. lateriflorum (L.) Löve & Löve (Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt.]. Can. J. Plant Sci. 81(4): 829-849.

Chmielewski, J. G. and J. C. Semple. 2001b. The biology of Canadian weeds. 114. Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) Nesom (Aster pilosus Willd.). Can. J. Plant Sci. 81(4): 851-865.

Chmielewski, J. G. and J. C. Semple. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 125. Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) Nesom (Aster ericoides L. ) and S. novae-angliae (L.) Nesom (A. novae-angliae L.). Can. J. Plant Sci. 83: 1017-1037.

Cid-Benevento, C. R. 1986. Distributional limits of old-field and woodland annual herbs: the relative importance of seed availability and interference from herbaceous vegetation. Am. Midl. Nat. 117(2): 296-306.

Cid-Benevento, C. R. 1987. Relative effects of light, soil moisture availability and vegetative size on sex ratio of two monoecious woodland herbs: Acalypha rhomboidea (Euphorbiaceae) and Pilea pumila (Urticaceae). Bull Torrey Bot. Club 114(3): 293-306.

Cipollini, D. 2002. Variation in the expression of chemical defenses in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in the field and common garden. Amer. J. Bot. 89(9): 1422-1430.

Cipollini, M. L. and D. J. Levey. 1997a. Why are some fruits toxic? Glycoalkaloids in Solanum and fruit choice by vertebrates. Ecology 78(3): 782-798.

Cipollini, M. L. and D. J. Levey. 1997b. Antifungal activity of Solanum fruit glycoalkaloids: implications for frugivory and seed dispersal. Ecology 78(3): 799-809.

CITES Secretariat. 2007. the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CH-1219 Châtelaine, Geneva Switzerland CITES. (Accessed 2008).

Clark, J. S. 1997. Facing short-term extrapolation with long-term evidence: Holocene fire in the north-eastern US forests. J. Ecology 85: 377-380.

Clark, J. S. and P.D. Royall. 1996. Local and regional sediment charcoal evidence for fire regimes in presettlement north-eastern North America. J. Ecology 84: 365-382.

Clark, L. G. and R. W. Pohl. 1977. Agnes Chase’s first book of grasses (4th ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

Clay, K. 1984. The effect of the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon (Clavicipitaceae) on the reproductive system and demography of the grass Danthonia spicata. New Phytol. 98: 165-175.

Clay, K. 1990. Fungal endophytes of grasses. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:275-295.

Clay, K. and A. Leuchtmann. 1989. Infection of woodland grasses by fungal endophytes. Micologia 81(5): 805-811.

Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase – The Online World Grass Flora. [accessed 08 November 2006; 15:30 GMT]* (Accessed 9/2016).

Cleland, R. E. 1926. Meiosis in the pollen mother cells of Oenothera biennis and Oenothera biennis sulfurea. Genetics 11: 127-162. (Accessed 2007).

Clemants, S. E. 1990. Juncaceae (Rush Family) of New York State. R. S. Mitchell (ed.) Contributions to a Flora of New York State VII. Bulletin No. 475. New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, Albany, New York.

Clemants, S. E. New York City Checklist, New York Metropolitan Flora. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. (Undated, unpublished)

Clemants, S. (ed.). 1999. New York Metropolitan Flora: Woody plant workbook. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY. (Accessed 2007).

Clements, D.R., M.K. Upadhyaya, and S.J. Bos. 1999. The biology of Canadian weeds. 110. Tragopogon dubius Scop., Tragopogon pratensis L., and Tragopogon porrifolius L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79: 153-163.

Clements, D.R, D. E. Cole, S. J. Darbyshire, J. King, and A. McClay. 2004a. The biology of Canadian weeds. 128. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84; 343-363.

Clements, D.R., A. DiTommaso, S.J. Darbyshire, P.B. Cavers, and A D. Sartonov. 2004b. The biology of Canadian weeds. 127. Panicum capillare L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 327-341.

Cobb, B. 1956. A field guide to the ferns. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.

Cody, W. J. and C.W. Crompton. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 15. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 1059-1072.

Cody, W. J. and V. Wagner. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds. 49. Equisetum arvense L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 61: 123-133.

Coladonato, M. 1993. Mitchella repens. In: Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). (Accessed 2007).

Collins, B.R. and K. H. Anderson. 1994. Plant Communities of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ.

Collins, B.S., K. P. Dunne, and S.T.A. Pickett. 1985. Responses of forest herbs to canopy gaps. In S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White (eds.) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.

Collins, B.S. and J. A. Quinn. 1982. Displacement of Andropogon scoparium on the New Jersey Piedmont by the successional shrub Myrica pensylvanica. Amer. J. Bot. 69(5): 680-689.

Connecticut Wildflowers. 2007. Connecticut Botanical Society. (Accessed 2007).

Conrad, J. 2006. Milkweed Flowers. Backyard Nature. (Accessed 2008).

Converse, C. K., 1995. The Element Stewardship abstract, Lonicera tatarica. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN 55414.

Coombes, A. J. 1985. A Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

Cornell U. 1997. Biocontrol insects feed on purple loosestrife. Brochure. (more info.: Dr. B. Blossy, Dept. Natural Resources, Fernow Hall, Cornell U. Ithaca, NY 14853)

Costea, M., and F. J. Tardif. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 126. Amaranthus albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L. Can. J. plant Sci. 83: 1039-1066.

Costea, M., S. E. Weaver and F. J Tardif. 2004. The biology of Canadian weeds. 44. Amaranthus retroflexus L., A. powellii L., and A. hybridus L. Can. J. plant Sci. 84: 631-668.

Costelloe, B. H. 1988. Pollination of Gentiana andrewsii. Ohio J. Sci. 88(4): 132-138. (Accessed 2005).

Covell, C. V. Jr. 1984. A field guide to the moths, Eastern North America. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York.

Cowperthwaite, A. C., M. D., PH. D. 2003. Lycopus virginicus. In A Text-Book of Materia Medica. Characteristic, Analytical, and Comparative. (Accessed 2004).

Cramer, J. M., M. L. Cloud, N. C. Muchhala, A. E. Ware, and B. H. Smith. 2003. A test of the bicolored fruit display hypothesis: Berry removal with artificial fruit flags. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130(1): 30-33.

Crompton, C. W. and I. J. Bassett. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 65. Salsola pestifer A. Nels. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 379-388.

Crompton, C. W., I. V. Hall, K. I. N. Jensen, and P. D. Hildebrand. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 83. Hypericum perforatum L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 149-162.

Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England. Hill and Wang. New York. (Accessed 2015).

Crow, T. R. 1988. Reproductive mode and mechanisms for self-replacement of northern red oak (Quercus rubra)-a review. Forest Sci. 34(1): 19-40.

Cruden, R.W., A. M. McClain and G. P. Shrivastava. 1996. Pollination biology and breeding system of Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123(4): 273-280.

Cypher, B. L. and E. A. Cypher. 1999. Germination rates of tree seeds ingested by Coyotes and Raccoons. Am. Midl. Nat. 142(1): 71-76.

Dale H. M. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds. 5. Daucus carota. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54:673-685.

Darbyshire, S. J. and J. Cayouette. 1989. The biology of Canadian weeds. 92. Danthonia spicata (L.) F. Beauv. In Roem. & Schult. Can. J. Plant Sci. 69: 1217-1233.

Darbyshire, S. J., R. Hoeg, and J. Haverkort. 1999. Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79: 671-682.

Darley-Hill, S. and W. C. Johnson. 1981. Acorn dispersal by Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). Oecologia (Berlin) 50:231-232.

Daughtrey, M. L. 1998. Anthracnose and powdery mildew: two new threats to flowering dogwood. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 8 (5): 27.

Dave’s Garden. 2007. Waltham, MA. (Accessed 2007).

Davidson, S. E. and R. T. T. Forman. 1982. Herb and shrub dynamics in a mature oak forest: a thirty-year study. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109(1): 64-73.

Davis, M. B. 1969. Climatic changes in southern Connecticut recorded by pollen deposition at Rogers lake. Ecology 50(3): 409-422. In Real, L. A. and J.H. Brown (eds). 1991. Foundations of ecology: classic papers with commentaries. Univ. Chicago Press. Chicago.

Davis, M. B. 1981. Quaternary history and the stability of forest communities. In D.C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin (eds.) Forest Succession, concepts and application. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Day, F. P., E. R. Crawford, and J. J. Dilustro. 2001. Above ground plant biomass change along a coastal barrier island dune chronosequence over a six-year period. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128(3): 197-207.

Day, G.M. 1953. The Indian as an ecological factor in the eastern forest. Ecology 34(2): 329-346.

DeCandido, R. 2001. Recent changes in plant species diversity in Pelham Bay Park, Bronx County, New York City, 1947-1998. Ph.D. Dissertation, The City University of New York.

DeCandido, R. A. A. Muir, and M. B. Gargiullo. 2004. A first approximation of the historical and extant vascular flora of New York City: Implications for native plant species conservation. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 13(3): 243-251.

Decker, K. L. M. and R. E. J. Boerner. 1997. Ca:Al ratio effects on growth and competitive interactions of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124(4): 286-296.

Deering, R. H. and J. L. Vankat. 1998. Forest colonization and developmental growth of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. Am. Midl. Nat. 141(1): 43-50.

Delacourt, P.A. and H. R. Delacourt. 1998. The influence of prehistoric human-set fires on oak-chestnut forests in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 63(3): 337-345.

Del Tredici, P. 2010. Wild Urban Plants of the Northeast: A Field Guide. Comstock Publishing Associates a division of Cornell University Press. Ithaca & London.

Desrochers, A. M., J. F. Bain, and S. I. Warwick. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 89. Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 1053-1068.

Diamond, A., and J. Hsu. 2004. Web of Species: Biodiversity at Wellesley College and in New England. (Accessed 2005).

Dickinson, T.A. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 68. Crataegus crus-galli L. sensu lato. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 641-654.

Dillon, E. S. and L. S. Dillon. 1972. A manual of common beetles of North America. Dover Publications, Inc. New York

Dirr, M. A. 1990. manual of woody landscape plants. Stipes Publishing Co. Champagne, IL.

Doohan, D. J. and T. J. Monaco. 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds. 99. Viola arvensis Murr. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72: 187-201.

Douce, G. K., D. J. Moorhead, C. T. Bargeron. 2007. Project Coordinators, The University of Georgia.

Douglas, B. J., A. G. Thomas, I. N. Morrison, and M. G. Maw. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 70. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 669-690.

Downie, N. M. and R. H. Arnett Jr. 1996. The beetles of northeastern North America. The Sandhill Crane Press. Gainesville, FL.

Downton, W. J. S. 1971. Check list of C4 species. In Hatch, M. D., C. B. Osmond and R. O. Slatyer (eds.). Photosynthesis and Respiration. Wiley-Interscience. New York.

Dreyer, G. D., L. M. Baird and C. Fickler. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: Comparisons of reproductive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114(3): 260-264.

Duke J. A. 1983. Lucerne Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. In 1996. Center for New Crops & Plant Products. Purdue University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, West Lafayette. (Accessed 2005).

Drooz, A.T. (ed.). 1985. Insects of Eastern Forests. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1426. Washington , D.C.

Duncan, W. H. and M. B. Duncan. 1987. Seaside Plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Dupouey, J. L., E. Dambrine, J. D. Laffite, and C. Moares. 2002. Irreversible impact of past land use on forest soils and biodiversity. Ecology 83(1): 2978-2984.

Eckardt, N. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract, Elaeagnus umbellata. The Nature Conservancy. (Accessed 2005).

Eckardt, N. 1995a. Element Stewardship Abstract. Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip). The Nature Conservancy. Minneapolis, MN 55414. (Accessed 2005).

Eckardt, N. 1995b. Element Stewardship Abstract. Daucus carota (wild carrot). The Nature Conservancy. Minneapolis, MN 55414. (Accessed 2005).

Edwards, J. 1984. Spatial pattern and clone structure of the perennial herb, Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 3(1): 28-33

Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1997. Invasion of deciduous forest preserves in the New York metropolitan region by Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124(2): 210-215.

Eickmeier, W. G. and E. E. Schussler. 1993. Responses of the spring ephemeral Claytonia virginica L. to light and nutrient manipulations and implications for the “vernal dam” hypothesis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(2): 157-165.

Epstein, A. H., J. H. Hill and J. J. Obryki. 1993. Rose Rosette Disease. Iowa State University Extension, Pm-1532, Ames Iowa.

Evans, J. E. and N. Eckardt. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract. Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose). The Nature Conservancy. Minneapolis, MN 55414. (Accessed 2006).

Evans, K. 2007. Plant Diseases. Utah State University Extension. (Accessed 2008).

Fairbrothers, D. E. and J. R. Gray. 1972. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Gramineae) in the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 97-100.

Farmer, C. 2007. Skye Flora. (Accessed 2007).

Fern, K. 2004. Plants for a Future: Edible, Medicinal, and useful plants for a healthier world. Database. (Accessed 2007).

Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray’s Manual of Botany (8th ed.). Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.

Fertig, B. 2001. Importance of prey derived and absorbed nitrogen to new growth; preferential uptake of ammonia or nitrate for three species of Utricularia. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA. (Accessed 2007).

Fewless, G. 2006. Herbarium. Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. (Accessed 006).

Flanagan, L. B. and W. Moser. 1985. Flowering phenology, floral display and reproductive success in dioecious, Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Oecologia (Berlin) 68: 23-28.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds.  1993+.  Flora of North America North of Mexico.  14+ vols.  New York and Oxford. and (Accessed 2006).

Forrester, J.A. and J.R. Runkle. 2000. Mortality and replacement patterns of an old-growth Acer-Fagus woods in the Holden Arboretum, Northeastern Ohio. Amer. Midl. Nat. 144(2): 227-242.

Freiday, D. 2002. New Jersey mammals then and now. New Jersey Audubon 28(4): 15-17.

Gagné, R. J. 1989. The plant-feeding gall midges of North America. Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, New York.

Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W. Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Verdon and K.N. Hines.  2007. Natives For Your Neighborhood. The Institute for Regional Conservation, Miami.

Garcia, D., M-J. Bañuelos, and G. Houle. 2002. Differential effects of acorn burial and litter cover on Quercus rubra recruitment at the limit of its range in eastern North America. Can. J. Bot. 80: 1115-1120.

Gargiullo, M. B. and E. W. Stiles. 1991. Chemical and nutritional differences between two low-quality, bird-dispersed fruits: Ilex opaca and Ilex verticillata. J. Chem. Ecol. 17:1091-1106.

Gargiullo, M. B. and E. W. Stiles. 1993. Development of secondary metabolites in the fruit pulp of Ilex opaca and Ilex verticillata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 120(4): 423-430.

Gibson, D. J. G. Spyreas and J. Benedict. 2002. Life History of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an invasive grass in southern Illinois. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3):207-219.

Gilliam, F. S. and M. R. Roberts (eds.). 2003. The herbaceous layer in forests of eastern North America. Oxford University Press. New York.

Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the United States and adjacent Canada. Hafner Press for the New York Botanical Garden. New York.

Gleason, H.A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY.

Global Invasive Species Database. 2005. Invasive Species Specialist Group. (Accessed 2006).

Goetz, R. J., T. N. Jordan, J.W. McCain, and N. Y. Su. 2007. Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets. Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University. (Accessed 2009).

Goldberg, D.E. 1987. Seedling colonization of experimental gaps in two old-field communities. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114(2):139-148.

Goldberg, D.E. and T.E. Miller. 1990. Effects of different resource additions on species diversity in an annual plant community. Ecology 71(1): 213-225.

Goldman, M. B., P. M. Groffman, R. V. Pouyat, M. J. McDonnell, S. T. A. Pickett. 1995. Methane uptake and nitrogen availability in forest soils along an urban to rural gradient. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27: 281-286.

Good, N. F. 1968. A study of natural replacement of chestnut in six stands in the Highlands of New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95(3): 240-253.

Gould, A. M. A. and D. L. Gorchov. 2000. Effects of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on the survival and fecundity of three species of native annuals. Am. Midl. Nat. 144: 36-50.

Grace, J. B. and J. S. Harrison. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 73. Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha x glauca Godr. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 361-379.

Grant, M. C. and J. Antonovics. 1978. Biology of ecologically marginal populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum. I. Phenetics and dynamics. Evolution 32(4): 822-838

Gregg, W. P. Jr. 1972. Ecology of the Annual Grass Setaria lutescens on Oldfields of the Pennsylvania Piedmont. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 124: 135-196 Academy of Natural Sciences Article Stable URL: (Accessed 2006).

Greller, A. M. 1977. A vascular flora of the forested portions of Cunningham park, Queens County, New York, with notes on the vegetation. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104:170-176.

Greller, A. M. 1979. A vascular flora of the forested portion of Cunningham Park, Queens County, New York, Corrections and additions-I. Bull Torrey Bot. Club 106:45

Greller, A. M. 1985. A vascular flora of the forested portion of Cunningham Park, Queens County, New York; corrections and additions-II. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(3): 312.

Greller, A. M. 1988. Deciduous forest. In Barbour, M.G, and W. D. Billings (eds). North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Greller, A. M. 2006. Book Review of; S. Clemants and C. Gracie. 2006. Wildflowers in Field and Forest: a Field Guide to the Northeastern United States. In J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133(3): 495-497.

Greller, A. M. and O. L. Garcia. 1986. Variation in canopy composition of the forest of Alley Park, Queens, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113(1): 36-41.

Greller, A. M., D.C. Locke, V. Kilanowski and G. E. Lotowycz. 1990. Changes in vegetation composition and soil acidity between 1922 and 1985 at a site on the North Shore of Long Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117(4): 450-458.

Greller, A. M., M. K. Panuccio, C. M. Durando. 1991. A vascular flora of the forested portion of Cunningham park, Queens County, New York: Corrections and additions-III. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118(3): 330-332.

Greller, A. M., V. Dankel, and D. C. Locke. 2006. Habitat observations of Geum vernum in Kings Point Park, Long Island, and a discussion of the species potential invasiveness in New York State. Urban Habitats: An electronic journal on the biology of urban areas around the world. December 2006. (Accessed 2007).

Grime, J. P. 1965. Shade tolerance in flowering plants. Nature 208: 161-163.

Gross, K. L. and M. L. Kromer. 1986. Seed weight effects on growth and reproduction in Oenothera biennis L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113(3): 252-258.

Gross, R. S., P.A. Werner and W. R. Hawthorn. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 38. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. and A. lappa L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 621-634.

Gross, R. S. and P.A. Werner. 1983. Relationship among flowering phenology, insect visitors, and seed-set of individuals: experimental studies on four co-occurring species of goldenrod (Solidago: Compositae). Ecol. Monographs 53: 95-117.

Gundale, M. J. 2002. Influence of exotic earthworms on the soil organic horizon and the rare fern Botrychium mormo. Conservation Biology 16(6): 1555-1561.

Haemig P.D. 2005 Ecology of the Beaver. ECOLOGY.INFO #13.

Hagood, E. S. Jr. 2007. Weed Identification Guide. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Virginia Tech. (Accessed 2009).

Hall, I.V. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 7. Myrica pensylvanica Loisel. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 163-169.

Hall, I.V., L. E. Aalders and C. F. Everett. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 16. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: 147-156.

Hall, I.V., L.P. Jackson and C. F. Everett. 1973. The biology of Canadian weeds. 1. Kalmia angustifolia L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 53: 865-873.

Hall, I.V., R.A. Murray and L.P. Jackson. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds. 2. Spiraea latifolia. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54: 141-147.

Hall, I.V., E. Steiner, P. Threadgill, and R. W. Jones. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 84 Oenothera biennis L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 163-173.

Hall, I.V., G. W. Wood, and L.P. Jackson. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds. 30. Pyrus melanocarpa (Michx.) Willd. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58: 499-504.

Haller, W. T.. 2007. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants. University of Florida, IFAS (Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences). (Accessed 2007).

Halvorson, W. L. and P. Guertin. 2003. Fact Sheet for: Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Lut. ex Janchen. Fact Sheet. USGS Weeds in the West project: Status of Introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks. U.S. Geological Survey / Southwest Biological Science Center Sonoran Desert Field Station University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. (Accessed 2006).

Hammen, S. C L. 1993. Density-dependent phenotypic variation in the hay-scented fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(4): 392-396.

Handel, S. N. 1978. New ant-dispersed species in the genera Carex, Luzula, and Claytonia. Can. J. Bot. 56: 2925-2927.

Handel, S. N. 1983. Pollination ecology, plant population structure, and gene flow. In L. Real (ed.) Pollination Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Handel, S. N., S.B. Fisch and G.E. Schatz. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108(4): 430-437.

Hanlon, T. J., C. E. Williams, W. J. Moriarity. 1998. Species composition of soil seed banks of Allegheny plateau riparian forests. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125(3): 199-215.

Hannan, G. L. and H. A. Prucher. 1996. Reproductive biology of Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae), an early flowering perennial of Eastern North America. Am. Midl. Nat. 136: 267-277.

Harborne, J. B. 1988. Introduction to ecological biochemistry (3rd ed.). Academic Press. London.

Hardt, R. A. and R. T. T. Forman. 1989. Boundary form effects on woody colonization of reclaimed surface mines. Ecology 70(5): 1252-1260.

Harlow, W.M. 1946. Fruit and twig key to trees and shrubs. Dover Publications, Inc. New York.

Harrington, H. D. and L. W. Durrell. 1957. How to identify plants. Swallow Press, Ohio University Press, Athens, OH.

Haslam, S.M. 1970. The performance of Phragmites communis Trin.: I in relation to water-supply. Ann. Bot. 34: 867-877.

Haslam, S.M. 1971. Community regulation in Phragmites communis Trin. monodominant stands. The Journal of Ecology 59 (1): 65-73.

Hauser, A. Scott. 2008. Pinus resinosa. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: (Accessed 2012).

Hawthorn, W. R. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds. 4. Plantago major and P. rugelii. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54: 383-396.

Hedberg, A. M., V. A. Borowicz, and J. E. Armstrong. 2005. Interactions between a hemiparasitic plant, Pedicularis canadensis L. (Orobanchaceae), and members of a tallgrass prairie community. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132 (3): 401-410.

Hélardot, J.-L. 2015. Oaks of the World. (Accessed 4/2016).

Heneghan, L., C. Clay, and C. Brundage. 2002. Rapid decomposition of buckthorn litter may change soil nutrient levels. Ecological Restorations 20(2): 108-111.

Hicks, D. J. and B. F. Chabot. 1985. Deciduous forest. In B. F. Chabot and H. A. Mooney (eds.) Physiological ecology of North American plant communities. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Hicks, D. J., R. Wyatt and T. R. Meagher. 1985. Reproductive biology of distylous partridgeberry, Mitchella repens. Amer. J. Bot. 72(10): 1503-1514.

Hickman, J. C. (ed.). 2007. The Jepson Flora Project. The University and Jepson Herbaria. University of California at Berkeley. (Accessed 2012).

Hightshoe, G. L. 1988. Native trees, shrubs, and vines for urban and rural America. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

Hill, L. L., J.C. Foote, B.D. Erickson, C.E. Cerniglia, G.S. Denny, 2006. Echinacea purpurea supplementation stimulates select groups of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota. J. Clinical Pharm. Ther. 2006 ;31(6):599-604. (Accessed 2007).

Hilty, J. A. 2006. Illinois Wildflowers. (Accessed 2014).

Hinsley, S. R. 2004. Malvaceae Info. (Accessed 2014).

Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States (2nd ed.). Dover Publications, Inc. New York.

Holdrege, C. 2000. Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus). The Nature Institute. In Context 4: 12-18. (Accessed 2005).

Hollick, C. A. and N. L. Britton. 1930. Unpublished survey of the Flora of Richmond County, New York.

Holthuijzen, A. M. A. and T. L. Sharik. 1985. Colonization of abandoned pastures by eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Can. J. For. Res. 15: 1065-1068

Holthuijzen, A. M. A., T. L. Sharik, and J. D. Fraser. 1987. Dispersal of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) into pastures: and overview. Can. J. Bot. 65: 1092-1095.

Horsley, S. B. and D. A. Marquis. 1983. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction. Can. J. For. Res. 13: 61-69.

Horton, J. L. and H. S. Neufeld. 1997. Photosynthetic responses of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, a shade tolerant, C4 grass, to variable light environments. Oecologia 114: 11-19.

Horton, J. L., R. Fortner, and M. Goklany. 2010. Photosynthetic characteristics of the C4 invasive exotic grass Miscanthus sinensis Anderson growing along gradients of light intensity in the Southeastern United States. Castanea 75(1): 52-56. (Accessed 2012).

Hoshovsky M. C. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract Ailanthus altissima. The Nature Conservancy, The Nature Conservancy, California Field Office, San Francisco, CA 94103. (Accessed 2005).

Hoshovsky M. C. 1995a. Element Stewardship Abstract Verbascum thapsus (common mullein). The Nature Conservancy, California Field Office, San Francisco, CA 94103. (Accessed 2005).

Hotchkiss, N. 1967.Underwater and Floating-leaved Plants of the Untied States and Canada.Resource Publication 44. in  N. Hotchkiss. 1972. Common Marsh Plants of the United States and Canada.Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014.

Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ.

Houston, D. R. and J. T. O’Brien. 1983. Beech bark disease. Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 75. U.S. D.A. Forest Service. pubs/fidls/beechbark/fidl-beech.htm (Accessed 2006).

Howe, S. T., W. G. Abrahamson, and M. J. Zivitz. 1994. Disintegration of clonal connections in Solidago altissima (Compositae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(4): 338-344.

Hughs J. W. and T. J. Fahey. 1988. Seed dispersal and colonization in a disturbed northern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 115(2): 89-99.

Hume, L., J. Martinez, K. Best. 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 60. Polygonum convolvulus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 959-971.

Hunter, J.C. and J. A. Mattice. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape. 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3): 220-227.

Hutchinson, I., J. Colosi and R.A. Lewin. 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds. 63. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and S. oleraceus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 64: 731-744.

Hutchinson, T. F. and J. L. Vankat. 1997. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in Southwestern Ohio forests. Cons. Biol. 11: 1117-1124.

Hutchinson, T. F. and J. L. Vankat. 1998. Landscape structure and spread of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) in southwestern Ohio. Am. Midl. Nat. 139: 383-390.

Hyatt, L. A. 1998. Spatial patterns and causes of overwinter seed mortality in Phytolacca americana. Can. J. Bot. 76: 197-203.

Inderjit and C. L. Foy.1999.Nature of the interference mechanism of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). Weed Technology 13:176-182. PestinfoWiki. (Accessed 3/6/2015). (Accessed 2006).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (Accessed 2012).

Invasive Species Team. 2007. Invasive plant Species. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison WI. (Accessed 2007).

Isachsen, Y. W., E. Landing, J.M. Lauber, L.V. Rickard, W.B. Rogers (eds.). 2000. Geology of New York: A simplified account (2nd edition) New York State Museum Education Leaflet 28. The State Education Dept., University of the State of New York. Albany.

Iverson, L., D. Ketzner and J. Karnes. (undated). Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820 (Accessed 2012).

Jackson, L L. and C. L. Dewald. 1994. Predicting evolutionary consequences of greater reproductive effort in Tripsacum dactyloides, a perennial grass. Ecology 75(3): 627-641.

Jacobs, S.W.L. 2001. Review of leaf anatomy and ultrastructure in the Chenopodiaceae (Caryophyllales). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128(3): 236-253.

Janzen, D. H., P.S. Martin. 1982. Neotropical anachronisms: the fruit the Gomphotheres ate. Science 215: 19-27.

Jenkins, M. A. and P. S. White. 2002. Cornus florida L. mortality and understory composition changes in western Great Smoky Mountains National Park. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3): 194-206.

Jennersten, O. and D. H. Morse. 1991. The quality of pollination by diurnal and nocturnal insects visiting common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Am. Midl. Nat. 125: 18-28.

Jianhua, Z. and M. A. Maun. 1991. Establishment and growth of Panicum virgatum L. seedlings on a Lake Erie sand dune. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118(2): 141-153.

Johnson, E. W. and R. Matarazzo. 2004. A field survey of the significant flora of Blue Heron Park, Staten Island, N.Y. Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Unpublished.

Johnson, O. and D. More. 2005. Guide Delachaux des Arbres d’Europe. Delachaux et Niestlé SA, Paris

Johnson, P. S. 1993. Perspectives on the ecology and silviculture of oak-dominated forests in the central Technical Report NC-153

Johnson, W. C. and C. S. Adkisson. 1985. Dispersal of beech nuts by blue jays in fragmented landscapes. Amer. Midl. Nat. 113(2): 319-324.

Johnson, W. T. and H. H. Lyons. 1991. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. 2nd ed. Comstock Publishing Assoc., Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca, NY.

Jones, A. G. 1978. Observations on reproduction and phenology in some perennial Asters. Am. Midl. Nat. 99: 184-197.

Jordan, R. A. and J. M. Hartman. 1995. Safe sites and the regeneration of Clethra alnifolia L. (Clethraceae) in wetland forests of central New Jersey. Amer. Midl. Nat. 133: 112-123.

Jordan, R. A. and J. M. Hartman. 1996. Effects of canopy opening on recruitment in Clethra alnifolia L. (Clethraceae) populations in central New Jersey wetland forests. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 123(4): 286-294.

Jung, M. J., G. I. Liao, C.S. Kuoh. 2005. Phryma leptostachya a new record in Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 46:239-244. (Accessed 2006).

Keever, C. 1979. Mechanisms of plant succession on old fields of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Bull. Torrey Bot. club 106(4): 299-308.

Keever, C.1983. A retrospective view of old-field succession after 35 years. Am. Midl. Nat. 11 (2): 397-403.

Kemper Center for Home Gardening. Missouri Botanical Garden. PlantFinder. 2007. (Accessed 2008).

Kenny, N. T. 1996. A test of the general-purpose genotype hypothesis in sexual and asexual Erigeron species. Am. Midl. Nat. 136:1-13.

Kikukatsu Ito, K., T. Ito, Y. Onda and M. Uemura. 2004. Temperature-Triggered Periodical Thermogenic Oscillations in Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus). Plant and Cell Physiology, 2004, Vol. 45 (3): 257-264. (Accessed 2009).

Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Prentice-hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Kiviat, E. 1994. Reed, sometimes a weed. News from Hudsonia, Bard College Field Station, Annandale, NY. 10(3):4-6.

Klemow, K. M. and D. J. Raynal. 1986. Demography of the polycarpic herbaceous perennial Asclepias tuberosa (butterflyweed) in a chronically unproductive site. Am. Midl. Nat. 115: 374-385.

Klemow, K. M., D. R. Clements, P. F. Threadgill, and P. B. Cavers. 2002. The biology of Canadian weeds. 116. Echium vulgare L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82: 235-248.

Klots, A. B. 1951. A field guide to the butterflies of North America East of the Great Plains, Peterson Field Guide series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Knapp, L. B. and C.D. Canham. 2000. Invasion of an old-growth forest in New York by Ailanthus altissima: sapling growth and recruitment in canopy gaps. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(4): 307-315.

Kostel-Hughs, F., T. P. Young, M. M. Carreiro and J. D. Wehr. 1996. Experimental effects of urban and rural forest leaf litter on germination and seedling growth of native and exotic Northeastern tree species. Society for Ecological Restoration, 1996 International Conference, Paved to Protected: Restoration in the Urban/Rural Context. June 17-22, 1996, p. 67.

Koukoura, Z. 1998. Decomposition and nutrient release from C3 and C4 plant litters in a natural grassland. Acta Oecologica 19(2): 115-123. (Accessed 2012).

Kourtev, P. S., W. Z. Huang and J. G. Ehrenfeld. 1999. Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics in soils under exotic and native plant species. Biological Invasions. 1: 237-245.

Kresovich, S., C. K. Wagner, D. A. Scantland, S. S. Groet, W. T. Lawhon. 1982. The utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomas energy development. Solar Energy Research Institute. For the U. S. Dept. of Energy. Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042.

Krischik, V. A. and R. F. Denno. 1990.Patterns of growth, reproduction, defense, and herbivory in the dioecious shrub Baccharis halimifolia (Compositae). Oecologia 83: 182-190.

Kudo, G. and K. Ito. 1988. Rhizome development of Phragmites australis in a reed community. Ecol. Res. 3: 239-252.

Kudoh, H., H. Shibaike, H. Takasu, D. F. Whigham and S. Kawano. 1999. Genet structure and determinants of clonal structure in a temperate deciduous woodland herb, Uvularia perfoliata. J. Ecology 87: 244-257.

Lamont, E.E. and S. M. Young. 2002. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range-2001. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4): 363-371.

Lapin, E., J. Randall and M. Marks. 1993. Element Stewardship Abstract Phragmites australis. The Nature Conservancy. (Accessed 2006).

LeBlanc, D. C. 1998. Interactive effects of acid deposition, drought, and insect attack oak populations in the Midwestern United States. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 1184-1197.

Lee, T. F. 1986. The seaweed handbook. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Lefkowitz, A. and A. M. Greller. 1973. The distribution of tree species on the uplands of Cunningham Park, Queens County, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 100 (5): 313-318.

Lemna, W. K. and C. G. Messersmith. 2009. The biology of Canadian weeds. 94. Sonchus arvensis L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 509-532.

Levin, D. A., G.P. Howland, and E. Steiner. 1972. Protein polymorphism and genic heterozygosity in a population of the permanent translocation heterozygote, Oenothera biennis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 69 (6): 1475-1477. (Accessed 2007).

Levine, C. 1995. A guide to wildflowers in winter. Yale Univ. Press. New Haven.

Levy, M. and D. A. Levin. 1975. Genic heterozygosity and variation in permanent translocation heterozygotes of the Oenothera biennis complex. Genetics 79: 493-512. (Accessed 2007).

Li, M., D. A. Wedin, and L. L. Tiezen. 1999. C3 and C4 photosynthesis in Cyperus (Cyperaceae) in temperate eastern North America. Can. J. Bot. 77: 209-218.

Likens, G.E., F. H. Borman, N. M. Johnson, D. W. Fisher, and R. S. Pierce. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecological Monographs 40(1): 23-47. In Real, L. A. and J.H. Brown (eds). 1991. Foundations of ecology: classic papers with commentaries. Univ. Chicago Press. Chicago.

Lincoff, G. H. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to the Mushrooms. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Lincoln, R.J., G. A. Boxshall and P.F. Clark. 1983. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics. Cambridge University Press. New York.

Lippok, B., A. A. Gardine, P. S. Williamson and S. S. Renner 2000. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae). American Journal of Botany 87:898-902. (Accessed 2007).

 Little, E. L. 1985. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees. Alfred A. Knopf. New York.

Little, L. R. and M. A. Maun. 1996. The ‘Ammophila problem’ revisited: a role for mycorrhizal fungi. J. Ecology 84: 1-7.

Lohman, D. J., A R. Zangerl and M. R. Berenbaum. 1996. Impact of floral herbivory by parsnip webworm (Oecophoridae: Depressaria pastinacella Duponchel) on pollination and fitness of wild parsnip (Apiaceae: Pastinaca sativa L.). American Midland Naturalist 136 (2):407-412.

Lotowycz, G. E. and B. H. Conolly. 2004. Illustrated Field Guide to Shrubs and Woody Vines of Long Island. Waterline Books. Hardwick, MA.

Lovell, J. H. 1918. The Flower and the Bee. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

Lovett-Doust, J., L. Lovett-Doust and A. T. Groth. 1990. The biology of Canadian weeds. 95. Ranunculus repens. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 1123-1141.

Lovett-Doust, L., A. MacKinnon, and J. Lovett-Doust. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 71. Oxalis stricta L., O. corniculata L., O. dillenii Jacq. ssp. dillenii and O. dillenii Jacq. ssp. filipes (Small) Eiten. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 691-709.

Ludwig, J. and S. Wondzell, additions by J. Anderson. 2010. Species plant checklist for the NSF/LTER Jornada sites. Department of Agricultural Communications, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM. (Accessed 2012).

Luken,  J. O. 1987. Interactions between seed production and vegetative growth in staghorn sumac, Rhus typhina L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 14(3): 247-251.

Luken, J. O. 1990. Gradual and episodic changes in the structure of Rhus typhina clones. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117(3):221-225.

Luken, J. O. and J. W. Thieret. 1996. Amur honeysuckle, its fall from grace. BioScience 46(1): 18-24.

Lutz, H. J. 1943. Injuries to trees caused by Celastrus and Vitis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70(4): 436-439.

Lyon, D. L. 1992. Bee pollination of facultatively xenogamous Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119(4):368-375.

Ma, J. and G. Moore. 2004 Celastrus scandens Celastraceae. United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service. (Accessed 1/2008)

Macior, L. W. 1968. Pollination adaptation in Pedicularis canadensis. Am. J. Bot. 55(9): 1031-1035.

Macior, L. W. 1970. The pollination of Dicentra cucullaria. Am. J. Bot. 57(1): 6-11.

MacDonald, M. A. and P. B. Cavers. 1991. The biology of Canadian weeds. 97. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Can. J. Plant Sci. 71: 149-166.

Maddison, D. R. and K. S. Schulz (eds.) 2004. The Tree of Life Web Project. Internet address: (Accessed 2005).

Magee, D. W. 1981. Freshwater Wetlands: a guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. U. Mass Press. Amherst.

Magness, J.R., G.M. Markle, C.C. Compton. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States. Interregional Research Project IR-4, IR Bul. 1 (Bul. 828 New Jersey Agr. Expt. Sta.). In 1996. Center for New Crops & Plant Products. Purdue University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, West Lafayette, IN. (Accessed 2011).

Mal, T. K., J. Lovett-Doust, L. Lovett-Doust, and G. A. Mulligan. 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds. 100. Lythrum salicaria. Canadian J. Plant Sci. 72: 1305-1330.

Mal T. K. and L. Narine. 2004. The biology of Canadian weeds. 129. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud. Canadian J. Plant Sci. 84: 365-396.

Mal, T. K., J. Lovett-Doust and L. Lovett-Doust. 1997. Time-dependent competitive displacement of Typha angustifolia by Lythrum salicaria. Oikos 79: 26-33.

Malecki, R. and B. Blossey. 2007. In Weeden, C. R., A. M. Shelton, and M. P. Hoffmann. Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America. Cornell University.

Malik N. and W. H. Vanden Born. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 86. Galium aparine L. and Galium spurium L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 481-499.

Malik N. and W. H. Vanden Born. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 86. Galium aparine L. and Galium spurium L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 481-499.

Mallik, A. U. 1993. Ecology of a forest weed of Newfoundland: vegetative regeneration strategy of Kalmia angustifolia. Can. J. Bot. 71: 161-166.

Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. 2006. Pest Management, weeds. Stork’s bill. (Accessed 2012).

Marinelli, J. (ed.). 1998. Some Plants and their Pollinators.” The Brooklyn Botanic Garden Gardener’s Desk Reference. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn New York. (Accessed 2002).

Marks, P. L. 1975. On the relation between extension growth and successional status of deciduous trees of the northeastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102(6): 172-177.

Marks, P. L. 1983. On the origin of the field plants of the northeastern United States. The American Naturalist. 122(2): 210-228.

Marks, P.L. and S. Gardescu. 1998. A case study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) as a forest seedling bank species. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125(4): 287-296.

Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, A. L. Nelson. 1951. American Wildlife & Plants A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. Dover Publications, Inc. New York.

Martin, Sr. C. M. 1965. An ecological history of Geranium maculatum. Am. Midl. Nat. 73: 111-149.

Matlack, G. R. 1994. Plant species migration in a mixed-history forest landscape in eastern North America. Ecology 75(5): 1491-1502.

Maun, M. A. and S. C.H. Barrett. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 77. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 739-759.

Mayio, A. 1997. Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual. EPA 841-B-97-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water 4503F.

McAuslane, H. J. 2001. Oleander aphid scientific name: Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae). University of Florida. Publication Number: EENY-247. (Accessed 2011).

McCarthy, B. C. and S. L. Hanson. 1998. An assessment of the allelopathic potential of the invasive weed Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Castanea 63 (1): 68-73.

McClure, M. S. and C. A. S.-J. Cheah. 1999. Reshaping the ecology of invading populations of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in eastern North America. Biological Invasions 1: 247-254.

McCormick, J.F. and R.B. Platt. 1980. Recovery of an Appalachian forest following the chestnut blight or Catherine Keever-you were right! Am. Midl. Nat. 104(2): 264-273.

McDonnell, M. J. 1986. Old field vegetation height and the dispersal pattern of bird-disseminated woody plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 113(1): 6-11.

McDonnell, M. J. and S. T. A. Pickett. 1990. The study of ecosystem structure and function along urban-rural gradient: an unexploited opportunity for ecology. Ecology 71: 1231-1237.

McDonnell, M. J. and E. W. Stiles. 1983. The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia (Berlin) 56: 109-116.

McDonnell, M. J., E. W. Stiles, G. P. Cheplick and J. J. Armesto. 1984. Bird-dispersal of Phytolacca americana L. and the influence of fruit removal on subsequent fruit development. Amer. J. Bot. 71(7): 895-901.

McDonnell, M. J., S. T. A. Pickett, P. Groffman, P. Bohlen, R. V. Pouyat, W. C. Zipperer, R. W. Parmelee, M. M. Carreiro, and K. Medley. 1997. Ecosystem processes along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems 1: 21-36.

McKnight, K. H. and V. B. McKnight. 1987. Mushrooms. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

McNeill, J. 1977. The biology of Canadian weeds. 25. Silene alba (Miller) E.H.L. Krause. Can. J. Plant Sci. 57: 1103-11

Meadows, R. E. and K. Saltonstall. 2007. Distribution of native and introduced Phragmites australis in freshwater and oligohaline tidal marshes of the Delmarva Peninsula and southern New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134(1):99-107.

Medley, K. E. 1997. Distribution of the non-native shrub Lonicera maackii in Kramer Woods, Ohio. Physical Geography 18(1): 18-36.

Medline Plus. 2007. A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of health. (Accessed 2012).

Meekins, J. F. and B. C. McCarthy. 2000. Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability. J. Ecology 88:447-463.

Mehrhoff, L. J., J. A. Silander, Jr., S. A. Leicht, E. S. Mosher and N. M. Tabak. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. URL: (Accessed 2007).

Mergen, F. 1959. A toxic principle in the leaves of Ailanthus. Botanical Gazette 121:32-36.

Mersereau, D. and A. DiTommaso. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds.121. Galium mollugo L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 83: 453-466.

Meyer, G. A. 1993. A comparison of the impacts of leaf- and sap-feeding insects on growth and allocation of goldenrod. Ecology 74(4): 1101-1116.

Michalski, S. G. and W. Durka. 2010. Pollen and ovule production in wind-pollinated species with special reference to Juncus. Plant Syst. Evol. 286:191–197.

Milne, L. and M. Milne. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. Alfred A, Knopf, New York.

Minoletti, M. L. and R.E.J. Boerner. 1993. Seasonal photosynthesis, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics, and resorption in the wintergreen fern Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(4): 397-404.

Mitchell, R. S. 1986. A checklist of New York State Plants. Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York. Albany, New York.

Mitchell, R. S. 1995. Mile-a minute weed in New York State. New York Flora Association Newsletter 6(3):1-2

Mitchell, R. S. and J. K. Dean. 1978. Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family) of New York State. R. S. Mitchell (ed.) Contributions to a Flora of New York State I, Bulletin No. 431, New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York, Albany, New York

Mitchell, R. S. and G. C. Tucker. 1997. Revised checklist of New York State Plants. Bulletin No.490. New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York. Albany, New York.

Miyanishi, K. and P. B. Cavers. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 40. Portulaca oleracea L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 71: 791-801..

Miyanishi, K., O. Eriksson, and R. W. Wein. 1991. The biology of Canadian weeds. 98. Potentilla aserina L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 71: 791-801.

Montgomery, J. D. and D. E. Fairbrothers. 1992. New Jersey Ferns and Fern-allies. Rutgers University Press.

Moore, G. 2006. New York Metropolitan Flora Project. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, NY.

Moore, M. R. and J. L. Vankat. 1986. Responses of the herb layer to the gap dynamics of a mature beech-maple forest. Amer. Midl. Nat. 115(2): 337-347.

Moore, R. J. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 13. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 1033-1048.

Morgan, J. A. and R. H. Brown. 1979. Photosynthesis in grass species differing in carbon dioxide fixation pathways II. A search for species with intermediate gas exchange and anatomical characteristics. Plant Physiol. 64: 257-262.

Morris, M., D. E. Eveleigh, S. C. Riggs, and W. N. Tiffney, Jr. 1974. Nitrogen fixation in the bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) and its role in coastal succession. Amer J. Bot. 61(8): 867-870.

Motten, A. F. 1986. Pollinations ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest. Ecol. Mono. 56(1):21-42.

Motten, A. F. and J. Antonovics. 1992. Determinants of outcrossing in a predominantly self-fertilizing weed, Datura stramonium (Solanaceae). Am. J. Bot. 79(4): 419-427.

Mulcahy, D. 1983. Models of pollen tube competition in Geranium maculatum. In L. Real (ed.) Pollination Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Muller, R. N. and F. H. Borman. 1976. Role of Erythronium americanum Ker., in energy flow and nutrient dynamics of a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Science 193: 1126-1128.

Mulligan, G. A. and B. E. Junkins. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 17. Cyperus esculentus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: 339-350.

Mulligan, G. A. and B. E. Junkins.1977. The biology of Canadian weeds. 23. Rhus radicans L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 57: 515-523.

Mulligan, G. A. and P. G. Kevan. 1973. Color, brightness, and other floral characteristics attracting insects to the blossoms of some Canadian weeds. Can. J. Bot. 51: 1939-1952.

Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds. Prunus virginiana L. and P. serotina Ehrh. Can. J. Plant Sci. 61: 977-992.

Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds. 48. Cicuta maculata L., C. douglasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose and C. virosa L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 61: 93-105.

Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1987. The biology of Canadian weeds. 77. Veratrum viride Ait. Can. J. Plant Sci. 67: 777-786.

Naber, A. C. and L. W. Aarssen. 1998. Effects of shoot apex removal and fruit herbivory on branching, biomass and reproduction in Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 140: 42-54.

Nakanishi, H. 2002. Splash seed dispersal by raindrops. Ecological Research 17(6): 663– journalCode=ere (Accessed 20o7).

Nantel, P. and P. Neumann. 1992. Ecology of ectomycorrhizal-Basidiomycete communities on a local vegetational gradient. Ecology 73(1): 99-117.

NAPPO. 2005. PRA fact sheets. North American Plant Protection Organization. (Accessed 2012).

NCCAM, NIH. 2007. St. John’s Wort and the Treatment of Depression. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institute of Health. Bethesda, Maryland (Accessed 2009).

Newcomb, L. 1977. Newcomb’s Wildflower guide. Little, Brown and Co. Boston.

Niering, W. A., G. D. Dreyer, F. E. Engler, and J. P. Anderson, Jr. 1986. Stability of a Viburnum lentago shrub community after 30 years. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113(1): 23-27.

Niesenbaum, R. A. 1993. Light or pollen – seasonal limitations on female reproductive success in the understory shrub Lindera benzoin. J. Ecology 81:(2): 315-323.

Niesenbaum, R. A., M. G. Patselas and S. D. Weiner. 1999. Does flower color change in Aster vimineus cue pollinators? Am. Midl. Nat. 141: 59-68.

Niewinski, A. T., T. W. Bowersox and L. H. McCormick. 1999. In Stringer, J.W., D.L. Loftis (eds) Proceedings, 12th central hardwood forest conference; 1999 February 28-March 1-2; Lexington KY. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-24. Ashville, NC: USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

Norstag, K. 1960. The occurrence and distribution of Hierochloe odorata in Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science 60(6): 358-365.

Nuzzo, V. 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Cirsium arvense. The Nature Conservancy. The Global Invasive Species Initiative.

Nuzzo, V. 2005. Element Stewardship Abstract for Alliaria petiolata (Alliaria officinalis) Garlic mustard. The Nature Conservancy.

NYSDEC. 2007. Fish, Wildlife & Marine Resources. License to Liberate Galerucella calmariensis, Galerucella pusilla and Hylobius transversovittatus in New York State. (Accessed 2012).

Odum, E.P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd Ed.). W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.

Ogden, E. C. 1974. Potamogeton in New York. New York State Museum, Bulletin Number 423. University of the State of New York, Albany, NY.

Ogden, J. 1974. The reproductive strategy of higher plants II. The reproductive strategy of Tussilago farfara L. J. Ecology 62: 291-324

Oliver, C. D. 1978. The development of northern red oak in mixed stands in central New England. Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Bulletin No. 91.

Olmsted, N. W. and J. D. Curtis 1947. Seeds of the forest floor. Ecology 28: 49-52.

Olsen, K. M. 1997. Pollination effectiveness and pollinator importance in a population of Heterotheca subaxillaris (Asteraceae). Oecologia (Berlin) 109(1): 114-121. SpringerLink. (Accessed 2006).

Omer, J. R. and D. Allen-Reid. 2002. Pest Alert: Cherry scallop shell moth. USDA Forest Service. (Accessed 2006).

Opler, P.A. and V. Malikul. 1992. Eastern Butterflies. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Co. New York

Opler, Paul A., K. Lotts, and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. (Accessed 2009).

Ornacini, M., E. J. Chaneton, C. M. Ghersa and C. B. Müller. 2001 Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host-parasite interaction webs. Nature 409(4): 78-81.

Ostfeld, R. S., R. H. Manson, C. D. Canham. 1997. Effects of small rodents on survival of tree seeds and seedlings invading old fields. Ecology 78(5): 1531-1542.

Pascal-Antoine. 2008. Evolutionary switch and genetic convergence on rbcL following the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. 25 (11): 2361-2368. (Accessed 2012).

Patch, (no initial). 1916. No title given (ref. in Brown. 1979). Pschye 23(1): 21

Paterson, J. P. H., P. Binggeli, B. S. Rushton. 1996. Slug-and Small Mammal-induced Mortality in Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus L.

Pavek, D. S. 1992. Osmorhiza claytonii. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). (Accessed 2006).

Payne, R. E. and B. Blossey. 2007. Presence and abundance of native and introduced Phragmites australis (Poaceae) in Falmouth Massachusetts. Rhodora 109(937):96-100.

Peroni, P. A. 1994. Invasion of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) during old field succession in the North Carolina Piedmont: Age structure of red maple in young pine stands. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(4): 357-359.

Peroni, P. A. and R. T. Armstrong. 2001. Density, dispersion and population genetics of a Silene latifolia seed bank from southwestern Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128(4): 400-406.

Peterson, D. L. and G. L. Rolf. 1982. Nutrient dynamics of herbaceous vegetation in upland and floodplain forest communities. Am. Midl. Nat. 107(2): 325-339.

Peterson, L. A. 1977. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants Eastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston.

Petrides, G. A. 1988. Eastern trees. Houghton Mifflin Co. New York.

Phillips. H. R. 1985. Growing and propagating wild flowers. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill NC.

Pickett, S. T. A. 1980. Non-equilibrium coexistence of plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107(2): 238-248.

Pickett, S. T. A. and M. J. McDonnell. 1989. Changing perspectives in community dynamics: a theory of successional forces. TREE 4(8): 241-245.

Pickett, S. T. A. and P. S. White. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic press. New York.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age: the return of life to glaciated North America. University of Chicago press. Chicago.

Piper, J. K. 1989. Light, flowering, and fruiting within patches of Smilacina racemosa and Smilacina stellata (Liliaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116(3): 247-257.

Pitcher, D. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract Anthoxanthum odoratum. The Nature Conservancy. (Accessed 2009).

Place, A. R. and E. W. Stiles. 1992. Living off the wax of the land: bayberries and yellow-rumped warblers. The Auk 109(2): 334-345.

Plants for a Future. 2004. Database. Devon UK. (Accessed 2012).

Poage, N. J. and D. R. Peart. 1993. The radial growth response of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) to small canopy gaps in a northern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(1): 45-48.

Pokorny, J. D. and W. A. Sinclair. 2001. How to identify and manage ash yellows in forest stands and home landscapes. USDA Forest Service NA-FR-0394. (Accessed 2004).

Pooter, H., C. Remkes, and H. Lambers. 1990. Carbon and nitrogen economy of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Plant Physiol. 94: 621-627.

Pouyat, R. V. 1992. Soil characteristics and litter dynamics in mixed deciduous forests along an urban-rural gradient. Doctoral Dissertation. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Pouyat, R. V. and M. J. McDonnell. 1991. Heavy metal accumulation in forest soils along an urban-rural gradient in southern New York. USA. Water Air Soil Pollut. 57-58: 797-807

Pouyat, R. V., M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett. 1995. Soil characteristics in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient. J. Environ. Qual. 24: 516-526.

Pouyat, R. V., M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett. 1997. Litter decomposition and mineralization in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient. Urban Ecosyst. 1: 117-131

Pouyat, R.V., R.W. Parmelee, and M. M. Carreiro. 1994a. Environmental effects of forest soil-invertebrate and fungal densities in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient. Pedobiologia 38: 385-399.

Pouyat, R. V., M. J. McDonnell, S. T. A. Pickett, P. M. Groffman, M. M. Carreiro, R. W. Parmelee, K. E. Medley, and W. C. Zipperer. 1994b. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in oak stands along an urban-rural gradient. In Carbon forms and functions in forest soils. (J. M Kelly and W. W. McFee, eds) pp. 569-587. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.

Pouyat, R. V., J. Russell-Anelli, I. D. Yesilonis, and P. M. Groffman. 2003. Soil carbon in urban forest ecosystems. In J.M. Kimble, L.S. Heath, R. A. Birdsey and R. Lal (eds.). The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. CRC Press, New York.

Pregitzer, K. S., J. L. DeForest, A. J. Burton, M. F. Allen, R. W. Ruess and R. L. Hendrick. 2003. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees. Ecological Monographs 72(2): 293-309.

Preston, R. J. Jr. 1976. North American Trees (3rd ed.). The Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa

Proctor, M. P. Yeo, and A. Lack.1996. The Natural History of Pollination. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Pyle, R. M. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Quinn, J. A., M. R. Bram and T. E. Taylor. 2000. Female resource allocation in response to pollen availability in plants from freshwater and salt marsh populations of Amaranthus cannabinus. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(1): 83-86.

Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles and C. R. Bell.1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, NC.

Rathcke, B. 1988. Interactions for pollination among coflowering shrubs. Ecology 69(2): 446-457.

Rau, P. and N. Rau. 1970. Wasp Field Studies. Dover Publications, New York.

Raven, P. H., R. F. Evert and S. E. Eichhorn. 1986. Biology of Plants (4th ed.). Worth Publishers, Inc. New York.

Raynal, D. J. and F. A. Bazzaz. 1975. Interference of winter annuals with Ambrosia artemisiifolia in early successional fields. Ecology 56: 35-49.

Redbo-Tortensson, P. 1994. Variation in plastic response to a salinity gradient within a population of the halophytic plant Spergularia marina. Oikos 70: 349-358.

Rehder, A., 1986. Dudley, T. H. (ed., 2nd edition). Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. Dioscorides Press. Portland, OR.

Reed, P. B. Jr. 1988. National list of plant species that occur in wetlands: 1988 New York. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. St. Petersburg, Florida.

Reich, P. B., C. Buschena, M. G. Tjoelker, K. Wrage, J. Knops, D. Tilman, and J. L. Machado. 2003. Variation in growth rate and ecophysiology among 34 grassland and savanna species under contrasting N supply: a test of functional group differences. New Phytologist 157: 617-631. et al. 2003.pdf (Accessed 2012).

Reid WR, Parker BL, Gouli SY, Skinner M, Gouli VV, Teillon HB. 2010. Fungi associated with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and assessment of entomopathogenic isolates for management. Journal of Insect Science 10:62 available online:

Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, and B. S. Walters. February 2011. MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE.  University of Michigan. Web. January 13, 2016. (Accessed 1/13/2016).

Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, and B. S. Walters. February 2011 b. MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. University of Michigan. Web. March 2, 2016. (Accessed 3/2/16)

Rhoads, A. F. and T. A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated manual. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Rice, E. L. 1972. Allelopathic effects of Andropogon virginicus and its persistence in old fields. Amer. J. Bot. 59(7): 752-755.

Risser, P. and G. Cottam. 1967. Influence of temperature on the dormancy of some spring ephemerals. Ecology 48(3): 500-503.

Risser, P. and G. Cottam. 1968. Carbohydrate cycles in the bulbs of some spring ephemerals. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95(4): 359-369.

Robertson, C. 1922. The Sunflower and Its Insect Visitors, Ecology, Vol. 3 (1): 17-21. (Accessed 2005).

Robertson, D. J., M. C. Robertson and T. Tague. 1994. Colonization dynamics of four exotic plants in a northern Piedmont area. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 107-118.

Robinson, D. E., J. T. O’Donovan, M. P. Sharma, D. J. Doohan, and R. Figueroa. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 123. Senecio vulgaris. Can. J. Plant Sci. 83: 629-644.

Robinson, G. R., M. E. Yurlina and S. N. Handel. A century of change in Staten Island flora: ecological correlates of species losses and invasions. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 119-129.

Robison, S. A. and B. C. McCarthy. 1999. Growth responses of Carya ovata (Juglandaceae) seedlings to experimental sun patches. Am. Midl. Nat. 141: 69-84.Ronse De Craene, L. P. 2003. The Evolutionary Significance of Homeosis in Flowers: A Morphological Perspective (abstract). International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: S225–S235. University of Chicago Press. (Accessed 2012).

Ronsheim, M. L. 1994. Dispersal distances and predation rates of sexual and asexual propagules of Allium vineale L. Am. Midl. Nat. 131:55-64.

Rook, E. 2004. Flora, fauna, earth, and sky: The Natural History of the Northwoods. (Accessed 2006).

Rooney, T. 1997. Escaping herbivory: refuge effects on the morphology and shoot demography of the clonal forest herb Maianthemum canadense. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124(4): 280-285.

Roos, F. H. and J. A. Quinn. 1977. Phenology and reproductive allocations in Andropogon scoparium (Gramineae) populations in communities of different successional ages. Am. J. Bot. 64(5): 535-540

Rubio, G., F. H. Gutierrez Boem, and R. S. Lavado. 2010. Responses of C3 and C4 grasses to application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer at two dates in the spring. Grass and Forage Science 65(1): 102-109. 2494.2009.00728.x/abstract

Ruffner, C. M. and M. D. Abrams. 2002. Dendrochronological investigation of disturbance history for a Native American site in Northwestern Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3): 251-260.

Runesson, U. T. 2007. Boreal Forest Educational Resources. Lakehead University, Ontario Canada.

Runkle, J.R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63(5): 1533-1546.

Runkle, J.R. 2000. Canopy tree turnover in old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 81(2): 554-567.

Rushmore, F. M., 1969. Sapsucker damage varies with tree species and season. USDA For. Serv. Res. Rep. NE-136, p. 19 pp – (Accessed 2007).

Russell, A. B., J. W. Hardin, L. Grand, and A. Fraser. 1997. Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. North Carolina State university. (Accessed 2007).

Russell, E. W. B. 1983. Indian-set fires in the forests of the northeastern United States. Ecology 64(1): 78-88.

Russell, E. W. B. 1987. Pre-blight distribution of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114(2): 183-190.

Rust, R. W. and R. R. Roth. 1981. Seed production and seedling establishment in the Mayapple, Podophyllum peltatum L. Amer. Midl. Nat. 105(1): 51-60.

Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander and T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29: 319-343.

Saltonstall, K. 2002. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99(4): or (Accessed 2012).

Saner, M.A., D. R. Clements, M. R. Hall, D. J. Doohan, C. W. Crompton. 1995. The biology of Canadian weeds. 105. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75:525-537.

Sanford, S. J. 2007. New York State Invasive Species Task Force. New York State Dept. Environmental Conservation (DEC). (Accessed 2012).

Sasaji, H. and M. S. McClure. 1997. Description and distribution of Pseudoscymnus tsugae sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an important predator of hemlock wooly adelgid in Japan. Annals Entomological Soc. Amer. 90(5): 563-568.

Sather, N. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract. Bromus inermis (smooth brome). The Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, MN 55414. (Accessed 2006).

Sather, N. 1995a. Element Stewardship Abstract Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle). The Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, MN 55414. (Accessed 2006).

Schardl, C. L. and A. Leuchtman. 1999. Three new species of Epichloë symbiotic with North American grasses. Mycologia 91(1): 95-107.

Scheiner, S. M. and J. A. Teeri. 1986. Microhabitat selection and the successional gradient of a forest grass. Can. J. Bot. 64: 734-738.

Schemske, D. W. 1977. Flowering phenology and seed set in Claytonia virginica (Portulacaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104(3): 254-263.

Schemske, D. W. 1978. Evolution of reproductive characteristics in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): the significance of cleistogamy and chasmogamy. Ecology 59(3): 596-613

Schemske, D. W., M. F. Willson, M. N. Melampy, L. J. Miller, L. Verner, K. M. Schemske, and L. B. Best. 1978. Flowering ecology of some spring woodland herbs. Ecology 59(2): 351-366.

Scheper, J. 2007. Floridata. Floridata Plant Encyclopedia. (Accessed 2009).

Schlessman, M. A., N. C. Underwood and L. M. Graceffa. 1996. Floral phenology of sex-changing dwarf ginseng (Panax trifolium L., Araliaceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 135: 144-152.

Schneider, E. L. and T. Chaney. 1981. The Floral Biology of Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 26(2): 159-165. (Accessed 2005).

Schneider, E. L. and L. A. Moore. 1977. Morphological Studies of the Nymphaeaceae. VII. The Floral Biology of Nuphar Lutea Subsp. Macrophylla. Brittonia 29 (1): 88-99. New York Botanical Garden Press. (Accessed 2009).

Schopmeyer, C. S. (ed.) 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.

Schuberth, C. J. 1968. The geology of New York City and environs. Natural History Press.

Schwartz, D. 2000. Kingdom: Plantae. (Accessed 2007).

Scott, P. J. 2004. Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version: 14th August 2004. (Accessed 2006).

Sculthorpe, C. D. 1985. The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.

Seiger, L. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract. Polygonum cuspidatum. The Nature Conservancy. (Accessed 2009).

Seiler, J. R. 2007. I.D. Fact Sheets. Dendrology Fact Sheet for Tree Identification. Dendrology at Virginia Tech Department of Forestry.; (Accessed 2009).

Seischab, F. K., J. M. Bernard and M.D. Eberle. 1993. Glaze storm damage to western New York forest communities. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(1): 64-72.

Seymour S. 2004. Dynamics and precision of thermoregulatory responses of eastern skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus. Plant, Cell & Environment 27 (8), 1014–1022. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01206.x (Accessed 2010).

Schilling, E.E., A. Floden, and D.E. Schilling. 2015. Barcoding the Asteraceae of Tennessee, Tribe Cichorieae. Phytoneuron 2015-19: 1–8.

Sickels, F. A. and R. L. Simpson. 1985. Growth and survival of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) in a Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(4): 368-375.

Siebenheller, N. 2003. Ferns of Staten Island. Proceedings of the Staten Island Institute of Arts & Sciences 35(1): 43-63.

Silberhorn, G. M. 1982. Common plants of the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The John Hopkins Univ. Press. Baltimore.

Simpson, R. L., M. A. Leck, and V. T. Parker. 1985. The comparative ecology of Impatiens capensis Meerb. (Balsaminaceae) in central New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 112(3): 295-311.

Sinclair, W. A., H. H. Lyon and W. T. Johnson. 1987. Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Comstock Publishing Assoc. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.

Small, J. A. 1961. Drought response in William L. Hutcheson Memorial Forest, 1957. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 88: 180-83.

Smith, C. C. and D. Follmer. 1972. Food preferences of squirrels. Ecology 53(4): 82-89.

Smith, M. and C. E. Martin. 1987. Photosynthetic Responses to Irradiance in Three Forest Understory Species of the C4 Grass Genus Muhlenbergia. Botanical Gazette 148(3):275-282. (Accessed 2006).

Smith, S.E. and D.J. Read. 1997. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press. Harcourt Brace & Co., Publishers. New York.

Solbrig, O. T., S. J. Newell and D. T. Kincaid. 1980. The population biology of the genus Viola. I. The demography of Viola sororia. J. of Ecology 68: 521-546.

Sork, V. L., J. Bramble, and O. Sexton. 1993. Ecology of mast-fruiting in three species of North American deciduous oaks. Ecology 74(2): 528-541.

Soule, J. D. and P. A. Werner. 1981. Patterns of resource allocation in plants, with special reference to Potentilla recta L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 108(3): 311-319.

Spicer, K. W. and P.M. Catling. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 88. Elodea canadensis Michx. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 1035-1051.

Spira, T. P., A. A. Snow, D. F. Whigham, and J. Leak. 1992. Flower visitation, pollen deposition, and pollen-tube competition in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Am. J. Bot. 79(4): 428-433.

Stahevitch, A.E., C. W. Crompton, and W. A. Wojtas. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 85. Euphorbia cyparissias L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 175-191.

Stalter, R. 1981. A thirty-nine year history of the arborescent vegetation of Alley Park, Queens, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108(4): 485-487.

Stalter, R. and E. E. Lamont. 1987. Vegetation of Hempstead Plains, Mitchell Field, Long Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114(3): 330-355.

Stalter, R. and E. E. Lamont. 2002. Vascular flora of Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4): 346-358.

Stalter, R. and A. Munir. 2002. The vascular flora of Hoffman and Swinburne Islands, New York Harbor, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(1): 77-82.

Stalter, R. and N. Tang. 2002. The vascular flora of Statue of Liberty National Monument, New York Harbor. Bartonia 61: 123-130.

Standaert, W. F. 2002. Field trip report, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan, New York County. April 28, 2001. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4): 373.

Steel, M. G., P. B. Cavers, and S. M. Lee. 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 59. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 7ll-‘725.

Steele, R. 2006. Asclepias texana. Bio 406D – Native Plants: An Introduction to the Flora of Central Texas. University of Texas at Austin. ttp:// (Accessed 2009).

Steinberg, D. A., R. V. Pouyat, R. W. Parmelee and P. M. Groffman. 1997. Earthworm abundance and nitrogen mineralization rates along an urban-rural land use gradient. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29: 427-430.

Stewart-Wade, S.M., S Neumann, L.L. Collins, and G.J. Boland. The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82(4): 825-843.

Stiles, E. W. 1982a. Expansion of Mockingbird and multiflora rose in the northwestern United States and Canada. Am. Birds, 36:358-364.

Stiles, E. W. 1982b. Fruit flags: Two hypotheses. Am. Nat. 120:500-509.

Stokes, D. W. 1983. A Guide to Observing Insect Lives. Little Brown and Co. New York.

Struttmann, J. M. 2003. Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis). Butterflies of New York. Butterflies of North America. USGS. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. (Accessed 2009).

Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, 2008).

Sultan, S. E., A. M. Wilczek, S. D. Hann and B. J. Brosi. 1998. Contrasting ecological breadth of co-occurring annual Polygonum species. J. Ecology 86: 363-383.

Sundaresan, R. P., S. A. Slavoff, E. Grundel , K. D. White , E. Mazzola , D. Koblenz , J. I. Rader. 2006. Isolation and characterization of selected germander diterpenoids from authenticated Teucrium chamaedrys and T. canadense by HPLC, HPLC-MS and NMR. Phytochemical Analysis 17 (4): 243-250 (Accessed 2009).

Swanson, S. D. and S. H. Sohmer. 1976. The biology of Podophyllum peltatum L. (Berberidaceae), the May apple. II. The transfer of pollen and success of sexual reproduction. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 103(5): 223-226.

Swanton, C. J., P. B. Cavers, D. R. Clements, and M. J. Moore. 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds. 101. Helianthus tuberosus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72: 1367-1382.

Swearingen, J. 2007. WeedUS: Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States.

Symonds, G.W.D. 1963. The shrub identification book. William Morrow & Co. New York.

Tallamy, D. 2003. Common Lepidoptera and host plants. University of Delaware Extension Bulletin, unnumbered (

Tanenbaum, D. 1996. Weeds from hell. Technology Review 37

Taylor, R. J. and R. W. Pearcy. 1976. Seasonal patterns of the CO2 exchange characteristics of understory plants from a deciduous forest. Can. J. Bot. 54: 1094-1103.

Taylor, S. L. and M. Villalard. 1985. Seaweeds of the Connecticut shore a wader’s guide. (3rd. ed). The Connecticut Arboretum Bulletin No. 18. New London, CT.

The Nature Conservancy. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract. Holcus lanatus (Common velvet grass). The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA 22209. (Accessed 2006).

The Source for Information and Images of Invasive & Exotic Species.2014. The University of Georgia’s Bugwood Network, USDA Forest Service and USDA APHIS PPQ. (Accessed 2014)

The vPlants Project. 2006. vPlants: A Virtual Herbarium of the Chicago Region. (Accessed 2009).

Theodose, T. A. and J. B. Roths. 1999. Variation in nutrient availability and plant species diversity across forb and graminoid zones of a Northern New England high salt marsh. Plant Ecology 143:219-228.

Therapeutic Goods Administration 2003. Australian Government, Department of Health and Aging. Alerts and Advisories. (Accessed 2004).

Thieret, J. W. and J. T. Kartesz. 1993+ Lardizabalaceae Decaisne in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds.  Flora of North America North of Mexico.  New York and Oxford. and (Accessed 2004).

Thompson, D. J. and J. M. Shay. 1985. The effect of fire on Phragmites australis in the Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Can. J. Bot. 63: 1864-1869.

Thompson, D. J. and R. Turkington. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 82. Holcus lanatus L. 68: 131-147.

Thompson, J. N. 1980. Tree falls and colonization patterns of temperate forest herbs. Amer. Midl. Nat. 104: 176-184.

Thompson, J. N. 1981. Elaiosomes and fleshy fruits: phenology and selection pressures for ant-dispersed seeds. Am. Nat. 117: 104-108.

Thompson, J. N., M. A. McKenna, and M. B. Cruzan. 1989. Temporal patterns of nectar and pollen production in Aralia hispida: implications for reproductive success. Ecology 70(4): 1061-1068.

Thompson, S. A. 1993+. Flora of North America Vol. 22. Araceae. Peltandra virginica.

Thorington, K. K. 2000. Pollination and Fruiting Success in the Eastern Skunk Cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus (L.)  Salisb. ex Nutt. J. Biospheric Science. Vol 2 (1) (Accessed 2009).

Tobiessen, P. and T. M. Kana. 1974. Drought-stress avoidance in three pioneer tree species. Ecology 55: 667-670.

Towndsend, D. S., J. S. Seva, C. Hee-Seagle and G. Mayers. 2002. Structure and composition of a northern hardwood forest exhibiting regeneration failure. Bartonia 61: 1-13.

TNC. 1995. Element Stewardship Abstract Phragmites australis (Common reed). The Nature Conservancy, 1815 North Lyn St., Arlington, VA 22209. (Accessed 2005).

Tu, M. 2000. Elemental Stewardship Abstract for Microstegium vimineum Japanese stilt grass, Nepalese browntop, Chinese packing grass. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington VA. (Accessed 2006).

Turner, D.P., W.D.Ritts, and M. Gregory. 2006. BigFoot NPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2002-2004. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/750 (Accessed 2012).

Turkington, R. A., P. B. Cavers and E. Rempel. 1978. The biology of Canadian weeds. 29. Melilotus alba Desr. and M. officinalis (L.) Lam. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58: 523-537.

Turkington, R. and P. B. Cavers. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 33. Medicago lupulina L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 99-110.

Turkington, R. and G. D. Franko. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 41. Lotus corniculatus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 965-979.

Turkington, R., N.C. Kenkel, and G. D. Franko. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds. 42. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 981-992

Turkington, R., and J. J. Burdon. 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 243-266.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2002. Eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum. Integrated pest management: (Accessed 2008).

Upadhyaya, M. K., R. Turkington, D. McIlvride. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 75. Bromus tectorum L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 689-709.

USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 2002. Aquatic Plant Information System (APIS). (Accessed 2004).

USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 2006. Invasive Species Support Center, Jacksonville, Florida (Accessed 2009).

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: (Accessed 2012).

USDA, ARS. 2007. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network – (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (Accessed 2010)

USDA Forest Service. 2006. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). (Accessed 2009).

USDA. 2007. National Agricultural Library. National Invasive Species Information Center. (Accessed 2012).

USDA. 1989. Insects and Diseases of Trees in the South. USDA Forest Service: Forest Health Protection. R8-PR16. (Accessed 2002).

USDA. 1971. Common Weeds of the United States. United States Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Dover Publications, New York.

USDA. 2007. Invasive Plants. United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service. Northeastern Area. (Accessed 2009).

USDA, NISIC. 2011. National Invasive Species Information Center.

USDA-NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. (Accessed 2006).

USDA, NRCS. 2006-2013. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.,’EAST (Accessed 2014).

USDA, NRCS. 2013-2015. The PLANTS Database (, 15 November 2013). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. (Accessed 2015).

USFWS. 2005. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Program. BayScapes Conservation Landscaping Program.
Uva, R. H., J. C. Neal and J. M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Comstock Publishing Assoc., Division of Cornell University Press, Ithaca.(Accessed 2006).

UW-Stevens Point, Freckmann Herbarium 2009. (Accessed 2010).

Van Clef, M. and E. W. Stiles. 2001. Seed longevity in three pairs of native and non-native congeners: assessing invasive potential. Northeastern Naturalist 8(3): 301-310.

Van Dersal, W. R. 1940. Utilization of oaks by birds and mammals. J. Wildlife Management 4: 404-428.

Volk, Tom. 1999. Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month. (Accessed 2002).

Voznesenskaya, E. V., S. D. X. Chuong, N. K. Koteyeva, G. E. Edwards, V. R. Franceschi. 2004. Functional compartmentation of C4 photosynthesis in the triple layered chlorenchyma of Aristida (Poaceae). Functional Plant Biology 32(1): 67–77. (Accessed 2014).

Waddington, K. D. 1983. Foraging behavior of pollinators. In L. Real (ed.) Pollination Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Waggy, Melissa A. 2009. Solanum dulcamara. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: (Accessed 2014).

Wagner, W. H., Jr. and A. R. Smith. 2007. Flora of North America, Vol. 1. Chapter 12. Pteridophytes of North America. Flora of North America Association. (Accessed 2010).

Waller, D. M. 1980. Environmental determinants of outcrossing in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae). Evolution 34(4): 747-761.

Waller, S. S. and J. K. Lewis. 1979. Occurrence of C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in North American grasses. J. of Range Management 32(1): 12-28.

Wand, S. J. E., G. F. Midgley, M. H. Jones, and P. S. Curtis. 1999. Responses of C3 and C4 grasses (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: A meta-analytic test of current theories and perceptions. Global Change Biology 5: 723-741. et al 1999.pdf (Accessed 2012).

Ward, J.K., Tissue, D.T., Thomas, R.B. and Strain, B.R.  1999.  Comparative responses of model C3 and C4 plants to drought in low and elevated CO2.  Global Change Biology 5: 857-867. (Accessed 2010).

Warwick, S. I. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 37. Poa annua L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 1053-1066.

Warwick, S. I. and L. D. Black. 1982. The biology of Canadian weeds. 52. Achillea millefolium L. S.L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 62: 163-182.

Warwick, S. I. and L. D. Black. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 90. Abutilon theophrasti. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 1069-1085.

Warwick, S. I. and R. D. Sweet. 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 58. Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata (= G. ciliata). Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 695-709.

Warwick, S.I., H. J. Beckie, A. G. Thomas and T. McDonald. 2000. The biology of Canadian weeds. 8. Sinapis arvensis. L. (updated). Can. J. Plant Sci. 80: 939-961.

Washburn J. D., J. C. Schnable, G. Davidse and J. C. Pires. 2015. Phylogeny and photosynthesis of the grass tribe Paniceae. Am. J. Bot. 102:1493-1505. Accessed 12/2016).

Warwick, S. I., A. Francis, and D. J. Susko. 2002. The biology of Canadian weeds. 9. Thlaspi arvense L. (updated). Can. J. Plant Sci. 82: 803-823.

Waser, N. M. 1983. The adaptive nature of floral traits: Ideas and evidence. In L. Real (ed.) Pollination Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Watling, J. R. and M. C. Press. 1998. How does the C4 grass Eragrostis pilosa respond to elevated levels of carbon dioxide and infection with the parasitic angiosperm Striga hermonthica? New Phytol. (Accessed (2002).

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 7th December 2015.’.

Watson, A. K. and A. J. Renney. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds. 6. Centaurea diffusa and C. maculosa. Can. J. plant Sci. 54: 687-701.

Weaver, S. E. 2001. The biology of Canadian weeds. 115. Conyza canadensis. Can. J. Plant Sci. 81(4): 867-875.

Weaver, S. E. and M. P. Downs. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 122. Lactuca serriola L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 83: 619-628.

Weaver, S. E., and W. R. Riley. 1982. The biology of Canadian weeds. 53. Convolvulus arvensis L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 62:461-472.

Weaver, S. E., and M. J. Lechowicz. 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. Xanthium strumarium L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 211-225.

Weaver, S. E., and S. I. Warwick. 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds. 64. Datura stramonium L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 64: 979-991.

Webb, S. L. and C. K. Kaunzinger. 1993. Biological invasion of the Drew University (New Jersey) Forest Preserve by Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 120(3): 343-349.

Webb, S. L., T. H. Prendergast IV, and M. E. Dwyer. 2001. Response of native and exotic maple seedling banks to removal of exotic, invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128(2): 141-149.

WeedSience. 2002. University of Wisconsin Extension. Weed Profiles. (Accessed 2005).

Wei, Y., J.   n. Li, Y. X. ShangQuan, Y. F. Xu, J. Zhang, L. Zhao, W. Yen. 2014. Molecular diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with an Mn hyperaccumulator- Phytolacca americana, in Mn mining area. Applied Soil Ecology.82:11-17.

Wein, G. R. and S. F. Pickett. 1989. Dispersal, establishment, and survivorship of a cohort of Erythronium americanum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116(3): 240-246.

Weldy, T., R. Mitchell, and R. Ingalls. 2004. New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, New York State Museum, Albany, NY.

Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2005. New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, NY (Accessed 2005.).

Wenskus, T. 2004. Natural Resources Group-Forest Restoration Team. Fall Summary. City of New York, Parks & Recreation. Unpublished.

Werner, P.A. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 12. Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. Can. J. Plant Sci. 55: 783-794.

Werner, P.A. and R. Rioux. 1977. The biology of Canadian weeds. 24. Agropyron repens (L) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 57: 905-919.

Werner, P.A. and J. D. Soule. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: 591-603.

Westmoreland, D. and C. Muntan. 1996. The influence of dark central florets on insect attraction and fruit production in Queen Anne’s lace (Caucus carota L.). Am. Midl. Nat. 135: 122-129.

Whigham, D. 1984. The influence of vines on the growth of Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Sweetgum). Can. J. For. Res. 14: 37-39

White, C. S. and M. J. McDonnell. 1988. Nitrogen cycling processes and soil characteristics in an urban versus rural forest. Biogeochemistry 5: 243-262.

White, D. W. 1989. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

White, D. W. 1989. North American bird-dispersed fruits: ecological and adaptive significance of nutritional and structural traits. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ

White, D. W., and E. W. Stiles. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Can. J. Bot. 70: 1689-1696.

White, M. E. 1990. The Flowering of Gondwana. Princeton University Press.

White, R.E. 1983. A field guide to the beetles of North America; The Peterson field guide series. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston

Whitney, G. G. 1994. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: a history of environmental change in temperate North America from 1500 to the present. Cambridge University Press.

Whitney, G. G. and J. R. Runckle. 1981. Edge versus age effects in the development of a beech-maple forest. Oikos 37: 337-381.

Wilbur, H. M. 1976. Life history evolution in seven milkweeds of the genus Asclepias. J. Ecol. 64:223-240.

Wikipedia contributors. 2006 +. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. (Accessed 2007).

Wikipedia. 2007. http// (Accessed 2007).

Williams, C. E. 1991. Host plant latex and the feeding behavior of Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).The Coleopterists Bulletin. 45(2):195-196.

Williams, C. E. and W. J. Moriarity. 1999. Occurrence of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), and mortality by dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva Redlin), on the northern Allegheny Plateau. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(4): 313-319.

Williams, W. M., A.V. Stewart, and M.L. Williamson. 2011. Bromus. IN: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources Millets and Grasses (ed.) C. Kole. Springer.…/9783642142543-c1.pdf? (Accessed 2012).

Wilson, D. 1995a. Endophyte – the evolution of a term, clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73: 274-276.

Wilson, D. 1995b. Fungal endophytes which invade galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines? Oecologia 103: 255-260.

Wilson, G. W. T., and D. C. Hartnett. 1998. Interspecific variation in plant responses to mycorrhizal colonization in tallgrass prairie. American J. Botany 85 (12): 1732-1738. (Accessed 2012).

Wilson, M. F. 1986.On the costs of reproduction in plants: Acer negundo. 1986. Am. Midl. Nat. 115: 204-207.

Wilson, M. F. 1993. Mammals as seed-dispersal mutualists in North America. Mini-review. Oikos 67: 159-176.

Windsor, J. 1983. Persistence by habitat dominance in the annual Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae). J. Ecology 71: 451-466.

Winter, K., M. R. Schmitt and G. E. Edwards. 1982. Microstegium vimineum, a shade adapted C4 grass. Plant Sci. Lett. 24: 311-318.

Woo, S. L., A. G. Thomas, D. P. Peschken, G. G. Bowes, D. W. Douglas, V. L. Harms, and A. S. McClay. 1991. The biology of Canadian weeds. 99. Matricaria perforata Mérat (Asteraceae). Can. J. Plant Sci. 71: 1101-1119.

Wood, O. M. 1938. Seedling reproduction of oak in southern New Jersey. Ecology 19(2): 276-292.

Woods, K. D. 1993. Effects of invasion by Lonicera tatarica L. on herbs and tree seedlings in four New England forests. Am. Midl. Nat. 130: 62-74.

Wooten, J., S. Wilkerson, K. Hinson and M. J. Grodowitz. 1996. Noxious and Nuisance Plant Management Information System (PMIS). US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). (Accessed 2005).

World Wildlife Foundation. 2007. Hydrastis canadensis. (Accessed 2008).

Worthen, W. B. and E. W. Stiles 1988. Pollen-limited fruit set in isolated patches of Maianthemum canadense Desf. New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 115(4): 299-305.

Wright, A. B. 1993.Peterson First Guide to Caterpillars.Houghton Mifflin Co. New York.

Wright J. P., Jones C. G., Flecker A. S. 2002. An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale. Oecologia 132: 96-101.

Wu Zhengyi and Peter H. Raven Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee. 2012. Flora of China. (Accessed 2012).

Wyatt, R. 1980. The reproductive biology of Asclepias tuberosa: I. Flower number, arrangement, and fruit-set. New Phytol. 85: 119-131.

Wyatt, R. 1983. Pollinator-plant interactions and the evolution of breeding systems In Pollination Biology L. Real (ed.). Academic Press, New York.

Wyckoff, P.H. and J.S. Clark. 2002. The relationship between growth and mortality for seven co-occurring tree species in the southern Appalachian mountains. J. Ecology 90: 604-615.

Wyckoff, P. J. and S. L. Webb. 1996. Understory influence of the invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123(3): 197-205.

Wyman, D. 1986. Wyman’s Gardening Encyclopedia. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

Yatskievych, G. 2006. from J. Steyermark. “Flora of Missouri” Iowa State University Press. 1963. (Accessed 2007).

Ye, Z. H., A. J. M. Baker, M., H. Wong, and A. J. Willis. 1997. Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by the common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Annals of Botany 80: 363-370.

Yost, S. E., S. Antenen, and G. Hartvigsen. 1991. The vegetation of the Wave Hill Natural Area, Bronx, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118: 312-325.

Young, J. A. and C. G. Young. 1992. Seeds of Woody Plants in North America. Dioscorides Press. Portland, OR

Young, S. M. 1996. Invasive alien plant species in New York. New York Natural Heritage Program. NYS Dept. Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY.

Young, S. M. 1998. New York State rare plant list. New York Natural Heritage Program. NYS Dept. Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY.

Young, S. M. and T. Weldy. 2006. New York State Rare Plant List. New York Natural Heritage Program. NYS Dept. Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. ; (Accessed 2006).

Zhu Guanghua. 2000. Flora of China. (Accessed 2004).

Ziska, L. H. and J. R. Teasdale. 2000. Sustained growth and increased tolerance to glyphosate observed in a C3 perennial weed, quackgrass (Elytrigia repens), grown at elevated carbon dioxide. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27(2): 159-166.

Zouhar, Kris. 2011. Rhamnus cathartica, R. davurica. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). (Accessed 2012).

 Zuloaga, F. O., R. P. Ellis and O. Morrone 1993. A Revision of Panicum Subg. Dichanthelium Sect. Dichanthelium (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) in Mesoamerica, the West Indies, and South America.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
80 (1): 119-190. (Accessed 9/2015).