Portulaca oleracea purslane Portulacaceae POOL*; Bx, br, cn, pb, sf, sw, wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY, bl (Stalter and Tang 2002), mn; Q, j, lk; K, p, pl; R, hs, ty, wp;

 

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Portulaca oleracea.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 4/2014).

Portulaca oleracea is an annual C4 herb (Downton 1971), from a thick taproot with a dense mat of secondary roots; stem prostrate, reddish; mat-forming, succulent. 

Leaves alternate to subopposite, succulent, to 2.8×1.3 cm, paddle-shaped, widest above middle, tip rounded. 

Flowers yellow, ca 0.7 cm, petals shorter than sepals, sessile, in small axillary or terminal clusters, self-fertile (autogamous), (Mulligan and Kevan 1973). 

Fruit a rounded capsule, to 0.9 cm long, tip pointed, appearing similar to flower bud when unripe; seeds numerous, dark (Flora of North America 1993+); seeds eaten by birds and small mammals, plants eaten by small mammals (Martin et al. 1951); edible when young. Seeds are dropped under parent plant, require temperatures above 30º Celsius to germinate. Seedling emerge from late May to August, seeds are set in 2-4 months. Long days (16 h) stimulate vegetative growth, short days (12 h) stimulate reproduction. Seeds can ripen on senescent plants after frost. 

Wetland status: FAC. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional. 

Origin: Possibly S. Asia, but disputed, possibly S. America or Africa, but seeds have been found in pre-Columbian sediments in N. America (Byrne and McAndrews 1975; Miyanishi and Cavers 1980). 

Habitat: An agricultural weed, common in high nutrient, open soil, gardens, new fill, roadsides, vacant lots, curbs, sidewalks. Drought tolerant, intolerant of shade, intolerant of sterile soil, soil pH 5.6-7.8. 

Notes: Edible raw or cooked and apparently highly nutritious (Wikipedia contributors. 2006 +; Flora of North America 1993+). Purslane is a host for the sugar beet nematode and a leafminer, the larvae of the sawfly Sofus pilicornis. Also host to the white rust fungus Albugo portulacae and to Helminthosporium portulacae (Miyanishi and Cavers 1980).