Plantago major common plantain Plantaginaceae PLMA*; Bx, cn, sf, sn, up, vc, wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY, bl (Stalter and Tang 2002), ct, hb; Q, a, cu, f, fr, ft, i, j, wl; K, fl, fs, p; R, ar, bd, bg, c, cs, fk, h, is, jl, js, jw, k, lp, mm, sv, w, wp;

Plantago major.commons.wikipedia.org

Plantago major.commons.wikimedia.org. (Accessed 4/2014).

Plantago major is a perennial C3 herb (Pooter et al. 1990), fibrous rooted from a short rootstock (caudex). 

Leaves all basal, with spiral rosette formation, wide, egg-shaped (ovate), mostly entire, to 18 cm long, 11 cm wide, leaf stalk bases usually green sometimes red, usually finely hairy (use lens) hairy; flower stalk to 25 cm.

Plantago major.flowers.lindsey.commons.wikimedia.org

Plantago major.flowers.lindsey.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 2/2017).

Flowers  very small, green, sepals egg-shaped, tip blunt, keel about as wide as membranous margins; inflorescence spike green, linear  bracts below flowers egg-shaped with blunt tip;  wind pollinated (Wyatt 1983).

Fruit a dry capsule 0.25- 0.4 cm long, seeds glossy, brown, 0.1, cm eaten by birds and small mammals, leaves eaten by rabbits and small mammals (Martin et al. 1951; Hawthorn 1974; Uva et al. 1997). 

Frequency in NYC: Common. 

Origin: Eurasia. 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Habitat: Very common weed in lawns, roadsides, ball fields, mowed areas with short vegetation, fill. Intolerant of shade. 

Plantago major young fruiting stalk.en.wikipedia.org (Accessed 4/2014).Unicode

Plantago major young fruiting stalk.en.wikipedia.org (Accessed 4/2014).

Notes: Attacked by numerous insects including; a leaf hopper (Macrosteles fascifrons, Homoptera) a flea beetle (Dibolia borealis, Coleoptera), and leaf miners (Liromyza sp.; Phytomyza sp., Diptera). Infected by several fungi including: Peronospora alta (Phycomycetes), Erysiphe cichoracearumMycosphaerella tassiana (Ascomycetes); Ceratobasidium anceps (Basidiomycetes); Phyllestricta plantaginicolaP. plantaginisSeptoria plantaginea (Fungi Imperfecti) and by Aster yellows virus (Hawthorne 1974).