Dichanthelium clandestinum  (Panicum c.) deer-tongue grass Poaceae PACL; Bx, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, cu, j; K, fs; R, c, cl, cs, d, e, fw, gr, h, is, jw, sm, sv, t;

Dichanthelium clandestinum inflorescence. By Donald Cameron. Copyright © 2018 Donald Cameron. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Dichanthelium clandestinum inflorescence. By Donald Cameron. Copyright © 2018 Donald Cameron. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 4/2017).

Dichanthelium clandestinum is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), stout, erect or reclining, 60 cm to 1.5 m, tufted and often densely colonial from rhizomes, stems often hairy, leaf sheaths bristly-hairy. 

Dichanthelium clandestinum (deertongue panicgrass) basal leaves. Jeff D. Hansen.Guide to Kansas Native Plants. kansasnativeplants.com

Dichanthelium clandestinum (deertongue panicgrass) basal leaves. Jeff D. Hansen.Guide to Kansas Native Plants. kansasnativeplants.com (Accessed 4/2017).

Leaves broad and short, 10-25 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, base lobed, with warty-based hairy, tip pointed, stiff, midrib conspicuously raised, primary veins larger than secondary; autumn phase leaves about 4 m long 3 cm wide, with bristly, overlapping sheaths, overwintering as a rosette. 

Dichanthelium clandestinum spikelet. By Anna Gardner. Copyright © 2018. Ada Hayden Herbarium - Iowa State U. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Dichanthelium clandestinum spikelet. By Anna Gardner. Copyright © 2018. Ada Hayden Herbarium – Iowa State U. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 2/2018).

Flower spikelets 1-flowered, oval, blunt tipped, about 0.3 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, hairy, first glume about 0.1 cm; blooms June; inflorescence appearing sparse, typical of Panicums; spring inflorescence 7-14 cm, egg-shaped to pyramidal, stiff, wiry branches, emerging from leaf sheath slowly and late, branches spreading; autumnal phase few-branched from middle and upper nodes, spikelets few, hidden inside sheaths (Brown 1979, Levine 1995); blooms and fruits July-Oct. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals (Martin et al. 1951). 

Wetland status: FAC+. 

Frequency in NYC: Frequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Open, moist upland areas, edges, and bright woods, on fill, roadsides, soil pH 4-7.5, tolerant of fire, drought, intoleant of salt and shade (USDA, NRCS 2010). 

Notes: Foliage eaten by rabbits, muskrats and deer (Martin et al. 1951). Fed upon by larvae of several skippers (Hesperiidae) and various other insects (Hilty 2006).