Nuttallanthus canadensis  ( Linaria c.) blue toadflax Scrophulariaceae LICA2; Bx, cm (seed mix); NY (DeCandido 2001); Q, a, i, fr, j, tl; K, m, p; R, e, h, lp, ro, sm, sv;


Linaria canadensis.Jim Stasz @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Linaria canadensis. © Jim Stasz @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (Accessed 4.2014).

Nuttallanthus canadensis is an annual, or winter annual herb, 10-50 cm tall, from a taproot; flowering stems erect, very slender, plant with winter basal rosette of several slender, leafy, reclining, nonflowering, shoots to 10 cm long. 

Leaves of flowering stem alternate, linear, 1-3.5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, widely separated along stem, leaves of basal shoots opposite or whorled, 0.3-1.2 cm long (Radford et al. 1968). 

Flowers blue with white ridges on lower lip, 0.5-1.5 cm long including spur (Radford et al. 1968), bilaterally symmetric, corolla, deeply 2-lipped, upperlip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, spurred at base, calyx deeply 5-lobed, stamens 4, ovary superior; inflorescence spike-like (raceme) at top of stems; blooms May-June. 

Fruit dry, rounded, 2-parted, capsule 0.2-0.4 cm, wide; breaking open to release black, tiny, angled seeds; fruits July-Sept. (Hough 1983); winter stems with fruit old capsules in thin racemes (Levine 1995). 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional. 

Flowers at Makawao, Maui - Credit: Forest & Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing and adaptation with attribution.

.Linaria canadensis var. texana.Forest and Kim Starr – Plants of Hawaii -Creative (Accessed 7/2014).

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Disturbed, dry soil in open areas, roadsides, sand or sandy fill, meadows.