Iva frutescens marsh-elder Asteraceae  IVFR; Bx, pb, sn; NY, iw, wr; Q, a, dp, fa, fr, i, j; K, do, m, pl; R, gr, mc, mls, pr, sm, t;

Iva frutescens.© DCR-DNH Gary P. Gleming.Virgina Department of Conservation and Recreation.www.dcr.virginia.gov

Iva frutescens.Arthur Haines.New England Wild Flower ociety.gobotany.newenglandwild.org.(Accessed 7/2014).

Iva frutescens is a shrub, 0.5-3.5 m tall, bark rather smooth, most stems tend to die back to base during winter making it rather herb-like. 

Leaves opposite below, alternate at branch tips, 4-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, gray-green, rather fleshy, margin sharply toothed; leaves expand mid-May (Britton 1874).

 Flowers small, greenish radially symmetrical, tubular, not plumed, female flowers 4-6, male flowers more numerous, anthers yellow; in a compact head arising from a bract-covered base 0.2-0.4 cm long, bracts 4-6; blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct. 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, with numerous resin dots (use lens); probably water dispersed. 

Wetland status: FACW+. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional, but more common near and in salt marsh areas. 

Iva frutescens.Arthhur Haines.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Iva frutescens.Arthhur Haines.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 5/2014).

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Brackish and saline open wetlands, salt marshes, not shade tolerant, soil pH 5-5.7 (USDA, NRCS 2010). 

Notes: Very like Baccharis halimifolia but generally found in wetter soil than is Baccharis. Foliage eaten by Paria thoracica, a Chrysomelid beetle (Krischik and Denno 1990).