Grasses, Sedges & Rushes Graminoids

Aegilops cylindrica jointed goat-grass Poaceae AECY*; R (DeCandido 2001); - Aegilops cylindrica is a winter annual C3 grass (Waller Lewis 1979), 30-70 cm tall.  Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.5 cm wide.  Flower spikelets held flat against axis fitting into hollows on each side; glumes keeled on back, hard, 0.7-1 cm long, asymmetrical, with 2 awns, one long, one short (or reduced to a tooth), lemmas 0.8-1 cm long, those of […]
Agrostis capillaris  (A. tenuis) Rhode Island bent Poaceae AGCA*; NY, ct; R, e, w -   Agrostis capillaris is a perennial C3 grass (Wand et al.) 20-60cm; spreading by rhizomes, stems loosely tufted, leafy; sheaths smooth.  Leaves alternate, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, flat, dull green, ascending, tip sharply pointed, base truncate, meeting edges of ligule, sheath edges overlapping.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, glumes equal, 1-veined, lemma membranous, palea 1/2 to 2/3, as long as lemma; […]
Agrostis Genus bent-grass Poaceae - Agrostis  is a genus of perennial or annual C3 grasses.  Leaves alternate, two-ranked (as in all Poaceae); leaf sheath open, ligule (junction begtween sheath and blade) membranous;  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, glumes (scales at base of floret/flower) narrow, 1-veined, nearly equal and shorter than lemma (outer scale/bract of the floret), veins of lemma inconspicuous, back rounded, sometimes with a […]
Agrostis gigantea  (A. alba) redtop Poaceae AGGI*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); NY (DeCandido 2001); Q (DeCandido 2001); K (DeCandido 2001); R, ah, cl, fk, js, lp, se, sv; -   Agrostis gigantea is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), to 1 m (usually much shorter), stems erect to reclining (USDA, NRCS 2006), sod-forming from rhizomes; new shoots arising at base of old flowering stems in late summer and fall.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.3-0.8 cm wide, much shorter than flowering stems, ligule 0.3-0.6 cm long, […]
Agrostis hyemalis ticklegrass Poaceae AGHY; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, cu, j; R, e, pr, v; -   Agrostis hyemalis is a perennial, C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 30-90 cm tall, tufted.  Leaves alternate, small, below middle of stem, mostly basal, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, erect, narrow, often rolled inward; ligule about 0.2 cm.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, about 0.2-0.3 cm long, shiny, in small dense clusters at ends of branches; inflorescence purplish, diffuse, open, wide […]
Agrostis perennans autumn bent-grass Poaceae AGPE; Bx, bs, pb, vc; NY, bl, ms; Q, a, cu, f; K; R, ah, k, lp, sb, sv, w; - Agrostis perennans is a perennial, C3 grass (Basinger 2002), to 1 m tall, tufted, colonial from rhizomes (USDA, NRCS 2006); stems tending to recline, often branching and with leafy autumn basal shoots; ligule membranous, 0.3-0.5 cm long, sheaths overlapping.  Leaves alternate, basal blades very short, fine, stem leaves 3-7, flat, 10-30 cm long, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, (basal […]
Agrostis stolonifera creeping bent-grass Poaceae AGST*; Bx, pb, wv; NY, ct; Q, j, wl; R, c, cl, cp, k, lp, t, ty, w, wp; -   Agrostis stolonifera is a perennial C3 grass (Wilson and Hartnett. 1998; Basinger 2002), to 1 m, stems tufted and sometimes colonial by stolons (no rhizomes), base of stems reclining, often rooting in wet soil (Hitchcock 1950; Clayton et al. 2002+) not clearly different from A. gigantea; branching freely, at least late in season, plant very leafy, with dead […]
Aira caryophyllea silver hairgrass Poaceae AICA*; Bx, pb; NY, bl; - Aira caryophyllea is an annual C3 grass (Pascal-Antoine 2008), 10-30 cm tall, stems very slender, nodes 2-3.  Leaves alternate, mostly basal, blade 0.5-5 cm long, to 0.1 cm wide, filamentous, edges rolled inward, sheaths and blade rough-textured, short; ligule membranous, ragged, 0.2-0.5 cm long.  Flower spikelets 2-flowered, silvery in bloom, the stalk 1-2 times as long as the […]
Aira praecox hairgrass Poaceae AIPR*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); - Aira praecox annual grass, 5-20 cm tall, stems tufted.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.5–5 cm long, less than 0.05 cm wide, twisted, edges rolled inward, rough-textured ; ligule membranous, 0.2–0.3 cm long (Clayton et al. 2002+).  Flower spikelets 2-flowered, yellowish, shiny, stalk shorter than spikelet, glumes about 0.3 cm long, membranous, persistent, lemmas slightly shorter than glumes, tips […]
Alopecurus pratensis meadow foxtail Poaceae ALPR*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); NY (DeCandido 2001); Q (DeCandido 2001); K (DeCandido 2001); R (DeCandido 2001); - Alopecurus pratensis is a perennial, C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 40-80 cm tall, colonial from creeping rhizomes.  Leaves alternate, blades flat, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, somewhat waxy-pale (glaucous) ligules membranous, sheaths loose, sometimes inflated above.  Flower spikelets purplish, 0.4-0.5 cm long, 1-flowered, glumes equal, 0.4-0.6 cm, membranous, 3-veined, strongly flattened, keel hairy, winged, lemma as long as glumes, […]
Ammophila breviligulata beach-grass Poaceae AMBR2; Bx, pb; Q, a, i, fr, j, rb, tl; K, m; R, bm, c, cg, lc, lt, mls, wp; -   Ammophila breviligulata is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 0.5-1 m tall; colonial from a long, creeping rhizome, habit stiff, coarse.  Leaves alternate, sheath smooth, ligules membranous, 0.1-0.3 cm long, blade elongate, 0.4-0.8 cm wide, thick, rough textured above, inrolled.  Flowers dry, papery, spikelets 1-flowered, glumes papery, almost equal, 1-1.5 cm, lemma shorter, hairy at […]
Andropogon gerardii big bluestem Poaceae ANGE; Bx, pb; Q, i (planted); K, m; R; -   Andropogon gerardii is a perennial C4 grass (Wand et al. 1999), 1-3 m tall, tufted, sometimes with colonial from short rhizomes, stems often waxy blue-green (glaucous) becoming purplish when blooming.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.5-1 cm wide, sometimes hairy.  Flower spikelets 0.7-1 cm long, awn 0.8-2 cm long; inflorescence of 3-4 branches 5-10 cm long, densely flowered (spike-like), […]
Andropogon glomeratus  (A. virginicus var. abbreviatus) bushy bluestem Poaceae R, cp, h; - Andropogon glomeratus is a perennial C4 grass (Wand et al. 1999), stems in clumps, much like A. virginicus but inflorescence compressed at top of stem in a broom-like tuft; old plants persistent. Winter color orange-tan; blooms and fruits Aug.-Oct.  Wetland status: FACW+.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  Origin: Native.  Habitat: Wet or moist soil, pH 5-6.3, open swamp edges. Wet […]
Andropogon virginicus broom-sedge Poaceae ANVI; Bx, pb, wv; NY, hb; Q, dp, fa, fr, i, j, rb; K, m, pl; R, bd, cb, cp, e, gb, h, mls, sv; -   Andropogon virginicus is a perennial C4 grass (Downton 1971), 50-150 cm tall, branched above; stems in clumps, pale, waxy green, often bluish, in bloom, yellow-tan in winter, old stems persistent through winter.  Leaves alternate, sheaths hairy, strongly keeled, compressed and folded, lower blades 10–20 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide.  Flower spike 0.3-0.5 cm, awned, hairy; spikes few-many, […]
Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernal grass Poaceae ANOD*; Bx, pb, vc; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, cu, j, tl; K, m; R, bd, cg, cl, cp, e, gb, h, js, lp, mls, sv, wp; -   Anthoxanthum odoratum is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), short-lived, 30-70 cm, stems tufted, unbranched, root mat shallow, dense, ligule to 0.3 cm long.  Leaves alternate, 1–12 cm long; 0.1-0.5 cm wide (Clayton et al 2002+), mostly basal, upper surface rough, upper leaves shorter than lower, sweet odor when bruised.  Flower spikelets flattened, 0.8-1 cm […]
Aristida dichotoma church-mouse three-awn Poaceae ARDI; B, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002); K (DeCandido 2001); R, gb, sv;  -   Aristida dichotoma is an annual C4 grass (Iverson et al. undated), 20-40 cm tall; stems tufted, branched from base, zigzaged, wispy, pale gray-green to sometimes reddish; leaf sheaths becoming distended; ligule a minute fringe of hairs.  Leaves alternate, 8–15 cm long; 0.1–0.2 cm wide (Clayton et al. 2002+), thread-like, usually in-rolled, basal leaves much shorter than […]
Aristida Genus three-awn Poaceae - Aristida genus grasses (with the exception of A. longifolia) have C4 metabolism (Voznesenskaya et al. 2004; Cerros-Tlatilpa and Columbus 2009) With a few exceptions they are annuals, and often weedy; usually branching from nodes; ligule very small.  Leaves alternate, narrow, often in-rolled (involute), but sometimes flat. Flower spikelets with one floret, glumes narrow, membranous, tip pointed to short-awned; lemma hard (indurate), linear tipped […]
Aristida longespica slim-spike three-awn Poaceae ARLO2; Bx, pb (Stalter and Lamont 2002); R (Stalter and Lamont 2002); - Aristida longespica is an annual C4 grass, 20-50 cm tall, in small, loose tufts, branching from lower nodes.  Leaves alternate, blades 4-8 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, appressed; glumes almost equal 0.2-1.1 cm, lemma 0.3-1 cm, 3-awned, central awn 0.1-1 cm, lateral awns shorter, divergent; inflorescence up to half the height of the plant, […]
Aristida oligantha prairie three-awn Poaceae AROL*; Bx, pb (Stalter and Lamont 2002); Q, a; R, cp; -   Aristida oligantha is an annual C4 grass, 20-40 cm tall, pale green, wispy, loosely tufted, branching from most nodes.  Leaves 0.1 cm wide, tapered to a thread-like point.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, single or in pairs, linear, 1st glume 3 or 5-veined, short-awned, 0.1-0.3 cm, second 1-veined, slightly shorter, lemma 1.0-1.8 cm, 3-awned, awns divergent, 4-7 cm, […]
Aristida pupurascens arrow-feather three-awn Poaceae ARPU; R (Stalter and Lamont 2002); - Aristida pupurascens is a C4 Perennial grass, 0.4-1 m tall, tufted from a knotty root crown.  Leaves alternate, blades to 20 cm long, flat, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, lower sheaths softly hairy, covering nodes.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, first glume 0.8-1.4 cm, second 0.7-1.0 cm, longer than lemma, lemma 0.6-0.9 cm, 3-awned, central awn 2-3.5 cm, laterals 1.5-3 cm, […]
Aristida tuberculosa seaside three-awn Poaceae ARTU; Q, j; K, m; R (Stalter and Lamont 2002); -   Aristida tuberculosa is an annual C4 grass (Voznesenskaya et al. 2004; Cerros-Tlatilpa and Columbus 2009); 30-80 cm tall; stems branched from base and lower nodes, joints enlarged, lower sheaths hairy.  Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.3 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, glumes almost equal 2-2.8 cm with short awn, lemma densely hairy at base, 1.1-1.4 cm, 3-awned, awns equal, fused at […]
Arrhenatherum elatius tall oatgrass Poaceae AREL2*; Bx, pb, wv; NY, iw; R, al, js; - Arrhenatherum elatius is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), to 2 m, tufted.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.4-0.8 cm wide, flat, rough textured, dark dull green, ligules membranous, about 0.2 cm long, ragged.  Flower spikelets 2-flowered, papery, lower flower male, upper flower fertile, glumes slightly unequal, to 1 cm long, lemma hairy at base, that of lower […]
Avena sativa oats Poaceae AVSA*; Bx, pb; Q, j; R ar; - Avena sativa  is an annual C3 grass (Pascal-Antoine 2008) to 1 m tall.  Leaves alternate, ligules 0.2-0.6 cm membranous, blade rough, to slightly hairy, 0.3-1 cm wide.  Flowers: Spiklets 2 flowered, nodding, axis smooth, glumes 2- 2.5 cm long, with 9-11 veins; lemma 1.5-2 cm, hard, sometimes awned, 2.5-3.5 cm long; inflorescence 10-25 cm or more, open, […]
Bolboschoenus robustus (Schoenoplectus r. Scirpus r.; Scirpus maritimus) sturdy bulrush Cyperaceae SCRO; Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, i; R, vi; - Bolboschoenus robustus is a perennial C3 rush (Bryson and Carter 1977) 60 cm to1.5 m tall, colonial from tuber-bearing rhizomes, stems stout, sharply, 3-sided.  Leaves alternate, to 1 cm wide, dark green, longer than the inflorescence, top edge of leaf sheath dark, usually rounded upward with a conspicuously striated or wavy pattern just below the dark upper […]
Bouteloua curtipendula side-oats Poaceae BOCU; Q, j; - Bouteloua curtipendula is a perennial C4 grass (Wilson and Hartnet 1998) 30-100 cm tall, erect, from short rhizomes, sheaths finely hairy near top, ligule of short-hairs.  Leaves alternate, 10-30 cm long, 0.2-0.7 cm wide, bristly-hairy near ends, rough textured above (scabrous);  Flower spikelets widely spaced along spike, 0.7-1 cm long, first glume much shorter than keeled second glume, […]
Brachyelytrum erectum long-awned wood grass Poaceae BRER; Q, cu; - Brachyelytrum erectum perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) from a knotty root crown, stems 30 cm to 1 m tall, sheaths hairy, ligule membranous.  Leaves alternate, blade 8-18 cm long, 0.8-1.6 cm wide, both sides sparsely hairy, margin sparsely hairy; veins of blades with tiny cross-veins (use back-light).  Flower spikelets relatively few, appressed to axis, very slender, […]
Bromus commutatus hairy chess Poaceae BRCO*; Bx, pb; R; - Bromus commutatus is an annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 30 cm to 1.2 m tall; lower sheaths finely hairy; ligules 0.1-0.2 cm.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.1-0.7 cm wide, flat, finely hairy.  Flower spikelets 1-3 per branch, 4-10 flowered, 1-1.8 cm; glumes finely hairy or minutely bristly, slightly unequal, about 0.6 cm long; lemma 0.7-1 cm long, […]
Bromus Genus chess; cheat; brome-grass Poaceae - Bromus are annual and perennial C3 grasses. Leaf sheaths closed nearly to top.  Leaves alternate, blades flat.  Flower spikelets rather large, oval to oblong, with few to many florets; glumes slightly unequal, shorter than lemmas; lemmas firm, green (herbaceous) 2-toothed at tips, usually awned between teeth; inflorescence banched (panicles) lax to drooping.  
Bromus hordeaceus  (B. mollis) soft chess. Poaceae BRHO*; Bx, pb; NY; Q, j; K; R; - Bromus hordeaceus is an annual to biennial C3 grass (Wand et al. 1999), 30 cm to 1 m tall, stems often finely hairy; leaf sheaths hairy, ligule to 0.2 cm.  Leaves alternate, blades hairy, 0.2-0.6 cm.  Flower spikelets 1-2.5 cm long, 6-9 flowers, usually softly hairy; glumes unequal, 0.5-0.9 cm, second glume often awned; lemma to 1 cm, […]
Bromus inermis smooth brome Poaceae BRIN*; Bx, pb; Q, a, j, u; R, h, hs, lp, pp; -   Bromus inermis is a perennial C3 grass (Reich et al. 2003), 0.5 to 1 m tall, cool season grass, sod-forming, colonial from rhizomes, plants hairless, except often finely hairy at nodes; sheaths closed near top; ligule to 0.1 cm.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.8-1.5 cm wide, to 30 cm long.  Flower spikelets about as long as inflorescence branches, […]
Bromus japonicus Japanese chess Poaceae BRJA*; Q, fr, j, wl; R, d, e, fk, h, js, lp;  -   Bromus japonicus is an annual C3 grass (Williams et al. 2011), to 120 cm tall, (very similar to B. commutatus but inflorescence larger) sheaths closed, lower sheaths hairy; ligules to 0.2 cm, membranous.  Leaves alternate, blade softly hairy, to 0.7 cm wide, shorter than inflorescence.  Flower spikelets to 1.5-3 cm long, at ends of branches, 4-10 flowers; glumes much shorter […]
Bromus racemosus soft chess Poaceae BRRA*; NY, bl; R; - Bromus racemosus is an annual C3 grass (Williams et al. 2011), 30 cm to 1 m tall, lower sheaths hairy, upper sheaths less hairy to smooth.  Leaves alternate, finely hairy.  Flower spikelets 4-10 flowered, 1-1.5 cm long; glumes to 0.4-0.7 cm long; lemmas to 0.8 cm hood-shaped, tip rounded, awn 0.5-0.9 cm long; inflorescence 5-15 cm long, narrow, […]
Bromus secalinus cheat; chess Poaceae BRSE*; R; - Bromus secalinus is an annual C3 grass (Williams et al. 2011), 30 cm to 1.2 m tall; stems sometimes hairy below nodes; upper sheaths with conspicuous veins, lower sheaths sometimes hairy, ligule 0.1-0.3 cm.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.3-0.8 cm wide, rough above, often finely hairy.  Flower spikelets 1-2.5 cm drooping 6-12 flowered; glumes slightly unequal, the second to […]
Bromus sterilis barren brome Poaceae BRST*; Bx, pb; NY; Q; K, m; R, bd; -   Bromus sterilis is an annual C3 grass (Williams et al. 2011), tufted, 30-80 cm tall, stems hairless; sheaths softly hairy, ligules to 0.2-0.3 cm, white, membranous, margin deeply toothed.  Leaves alternate, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, softly hairy.  Flower spikelets 1-2 per branch, each 2.5-3 cm long, not including awns, 4-8 flowered; glumes needle-shaped, unequal, the first 0.7-1.4 cm, […]
Bromus tectorum June-grass; downy chess; cheat Poaceae BRTE*p; Bx, sn; NY, bl; Q, fr, j, rb, tl; K, fl, lk, m, pl; R, cg, d, fk, sm, wp; - Bromus tectorum winter or spring annual C3 grass (Williams et al. 2011), 20-70 cm tall, from fibrous roots to 30 cm deep, stems tufted, slender, often nodding, much branched, hairless; plant becoming wine-red as seeds ripen, then tan; lower sheaths hairy, upper sheaths smooth, ligule membranous, 0.1-0.2 cm long.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.4 cm wide, to 16 […]
Bulbostylis capillaris hair-sedge Cyperaceae BUCA; NY; Q, i (possibly planted); R; -   Bulbostylis capillaris is an annual, tufted C4 sedge (Bryson and Carter 1977), to 30 cm tall, stems and leaves thread-like.  Leaves alternate, blade less than 0.1 cm wide, usually shorter than flower stems, basal or a few on lower stem; inflorescence bract small, or none, hair-like.  Flowers: Spikes 2-7, dark, 0.3-0.5 cm long, central spikelet stalkless […]
Calamagrostis canadensis bluejoint Poaceae CACA; Bx, pb; Q, j; R; -   Calamagrostis canadensis is a perennial C3 grass (Reich et al. 2003), to 1.5 m tall, aggressively colonial from rhizomes, stems clumped, often branched above, hairless.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.4- 0.8 cm wide, rough on both sides, flat; ligules 0.3-0.8 cm long;  Flower spikelets one-flowered, 0.2-0.6 cm long, jointed above glumes (glumes remain on inflorescence); glumes almost equal, […]
Calamagrostis cinnoides  (C. coarctata) reed-grass Poaceae CACI; Q; K, m; R; mls; -   Calamagrostis cinnoides is a perennial grass, 60 cm to 1.2 m tall, stems stout, smooth, solitary or few together, colonial from rhizomes.  Leaves  alternate, blades 5-30 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, smooth to rough textured.  Flower spikelets to 0.7 cm long, 1-flowered, first glume 0.5-0.8 cm, second slightly shorter, tips pointed, curved outward, longer than […]
Calamagrostis epigejos feathertop; reed-grass Poaceae CAEP*; Q; K, m; - Calamagrostis epigejos is a perennial, densely colonial grass from rhizomes, stems 60 cm to 2 m tall, pale gray-green, nodes often dark; ligules membranous, 0.4-1.2 cm.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.4-2 cm wide, pale gray-green.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered; glumes 0.5 cm long, awl-shaped; lemma 0.2 cm, awned, base with dense tuft of long white hairs, almost as long […]
Carex abscondita thicket sedge Cyperaceae CAAB; Bx, vc; NY, ct; Q, cu; R, sm, t; -   Carex abscondita is a small perennial sedge, in low tufts of wide leaves, shade tolerant, winter-green, fertile stems 5-25 cm, mostly hidden in leaves.  Leaves alternate, blade 0.3-0.9 cm wide, longer than flowering stems, rough on margins, basal sheaths white to pale brown;  Flower spikes 2-3, upper ones almost stalkess, lowermost base of inflorescence, much shorter […]
Carex albicans  (C. emmonsii; C. nigromarginata var. muhlenbergii) whitetinge sedge Cyperaceae CAAL; R, bd, cl, gb, h, sm, sv;  -   Carex albicans is a perennial, densely tufted sedge, often forming small, circular mats, small, wiry, winter-green, flowering stems to 45 cm long, old dead leaves of previous season to twice as long as new flowering stems. Leaves very narrow, 0.05-0.25 cm wide, margin minutely toothed; new leaves shorter than flowering stems.  Flowers: Terminal spike male, […]
Carex albolutescens greenish-white sedge Cyperaceae CAAL; Q, j; - Carex albolutescens is a perennial sedge, 30-120 cm tall, basal leaves bladeless, stems stiff, densely tufted, leaf sheaths with green veins on side opposite blade.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.3 cm wide, pale green, shorter than flowering stems.  Flowers densely crowded, male flowers at base of spikes, female flowers (perigynia) flat, to 0.4 cm long, about 0.2 cm […]
Carex amphibola narrow-leaf sedge Cyperaceae CAAM; Bx, pb; NY, iw; R, gb, h; -   Carex amphibola perennial, tufted, to 80 cm, often less, stem ca 0.2 cm wide, sharply 3-sided, bases brownish, plant light green, leafy stemmed.  Leaves broad, 0.4-0.8 cm wide; bracts leafy with well developed sheath, usually longer than inflorescence.  Flower spikes pale, terminal spike male, usually longer than uppermost female spikes, female spikes 2-5, few flowered, about […]
Carex argyrantha hay sedge Cyperaceae CAAR; Bx, pb; - Carex argyrantha perennial, 30 cm to 1 m, tufted, yellow-green; basal leaves bladeless.  Leaves of flowering stems 0.3-0.5 cm wide.  Flower spikes 3-15, bead-like along the axis, narrowly elliptic 0.6-2.5 cm long, stalkless; male (staminate) flowers at base of spike, perigynia appressed to axis, crowded, often covered by scale, silvery-green, finely warty (use lens), flat, 0.3-0.4 cm […]
Carex barrattii Barratt’s sedge Cyperaceae CABA; Bx, pb; - Carex barrattii is a perennial sedge 30-80 cm tall, colonial from rhizomes, stems loosely tufted, sharply 3-angled, sides concave.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.4 cm wide, often pale waxy-green.  Flowers: uppermost spikes all male (staminate), 3-5 cm long, often purple; lower spikes 2-4 cm long, often drooping, male flowers at top, female below, stalk shorter than spike, […]
Carex bebbii Bebb’s sedge Cyperaceae CABE; Q; R, cp, sm; -   Carex bebbii perennial, 20-90 cm, densely tufted, stems smooth, erect, sharply 3-angled, mostly longer than leaves; basal leaves bladeless; upper side of sheath membranous, top edge concave.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.4 cm wide, upper blades elongate, leaves of non-flowering stems often crowded near top.  Flower spikes pale green to pale brown, 4-12, 0.5-0.9 cm long, stalkless; […]
Carex bicknellii Bicknell’s sedge Cyperaceae CABI; Bx, pb; - Carex bicknellii perennial sedge 30 cm to 1.2 m tall, tufted.  Leaves: basal leaves bladeless, sheaths membranous above. Leaves of flowering stems with blades 0.2-0.4 cm wide, shorter than inflorescence.  Flower spikes 3-7, egg-shaped, base tapered, stalkless, 0.8-1.8 cm long, silvery-brown or greenish, male flowers at base; perigynia pale tan, about 1 cm long, 0.6 cm wide, […]
Carex blanda woodland sedge Cyperaceae CABL; Bx, br, bz, pb, sd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, rv; Q, cu, ft; R, bk, d, cl, gb, h; -   Carex blanda perennial sedge, 20-60 cm, tufted, appearing somewhat coarse, green to pale, waxy-green with a slightly fleshy texture, stem triangular, angles slightly winged, rough, base brownish, often becoming prostrate in fruit.  Leaves 3-ranked, those of non-flowering shoots to 1 cm wide, often waxy, pale green; inflorescence bracts leafy, often longer than inflorescence, base sheathed.  […]
Carex bullata button sedge Cyperaceae CABU; R; -   Carex bullata perennial 30-90 cm colonial from deep rhizomes, sometimes sod-forming, stems sharply 3-sided, rough above.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.5 cm wide, flat, lower leaves longer than inflorescence.  Flower spikes well separated, the upper 1-3 male, 2-7 cm long, female spikes 1-2, 2-5 cm long, about 1-2 cm wide, the lowest ones stalked; perigynia 0.4-0.7 cm […]
Carex canescens hoary sedge Cyperaceae CACA2; R, bd, h; -   Carex canescens perennial, tufted, about 40 cm, somewhat gray-green.  Leaves alternate, blades about 0.3 cm wide, basal, usually shorter than inflorescence; bracts very small, linear, if any.  Flower spikes grayish to pale brownish-green, 4-8, 0.5-1.0 cm, stalkless, the lower ones further apart than the upper, male flowers at base of spikes, female flowers (perigynia) 15-30 per […]
Carex cephalophora oval-leaf sedge Cyperaceae CACE; Bx, pb; - Carex cephalophora perennial, stems 30-60 cm long, densely tufted.  Leaves 0.2-0.5 cm wide.  Flower spikes small, 0.5 cm, in a dense head 1-2 cm wide, basal bracts projecting from the tight cluster, male flowers at top, female flowers greenish to pale tan about 0.3 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, one side flat the other rounded, upper margin […]
Carex collinsii Collin’s sedge Cyperaceae CACO; R (Steve Clemants); - Carex collinsii perennial 20-60 cm tall, stems densely tufted, very slender, weak, longer than leaves.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.2-0.4 cm wide.  Flowers: male spike at top of stem, 0.5-1 cm long; female spikes 2-4, widely separated; female flowers (perigynia) 0.8-1.2 cm long, tapering, beak teeth conspicuous, bent outward; achene bluntly 3-sided; inflorescence sparse; bracts leafy, sheathing […]
Carex communis  fibrous-root sedge Cyperaceae CACO4; R; -   Carex communis perennial, 20-50 cm, forming tussocks, flowering stems smooth, purplish at base, sharply 3-angled, equal to or longer than leaves.  Leaves 0.3-0.6 cm wide. Apparently much wider than inflorescence stems. Flowers dry, tiny, monoecious, male spike at top of stem, 0.4-1.8 cm long, female spikes 2-3 almost stalkless, 0.5-1 cm long, mostly crowded under […]
Carex comosa bearded sedge Cyperaceae CACO2; Bx, pb; R, t; -   Carex comosa perennial 30-100 cm tall, from a short rhizome, stems tufted, stout, sharply 3-sided, rough along edges near inflorescence.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.3-0.9 cm wide, often with small cross veins between secondary veins (use back light), stem leaves sometimes longer than inflorescence, lowest bract large, leafy, little or no sheath, about 1 cm or […]
Carex complanata hirsute sedge Cyperaceae CACO3; R; - Carex complanata is a perennial, tufted sedge, stems 30 cm to 1.2 m tall, base red-purple.  Leaves 0.2-0.4 cm wide, about as long as flowering stems; lowest inflorescence bract much longer than flowering stem, the others smaller.  Flowers dry, tiny, monoecious, spikes 2-5, terminal spike with male flowers at base, perigynia above, spikes clustered near end of […]
Carex crinita crinkled sedge Cyperaceae CACR; Bx, pb, sf, vc; Q, cu, u; R, ca, ev, gb, t; -   Carex crinita is a robust perennial sedge, 40 cm to 1.6 m tall, stems clumped, sharply 3-sided, rough-textured.  Leaves alternate, blades about 1 cm wide, flat, rough textured, basal leaves with sheaths only, bladeless, leaves of upper stem few, shorter than flowering stem, bracts below inflorescence, long, leaf-like but sheathless, 20 to 55 cm long.  Flowers dry, […]
Carex debilis white-edge sedge Cyperaceae CADE2; Q, f; R, bd, ev, gb, h; -   Carex debilis is a perennial sedge, tufted, 0.25-1 m tall (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993+); looks rather grass-like, delicate, base purplish.  Leaves 0.2-0.4 cm wide; spikes slender, bracts leafy, often longer than spikes.  Flowers dry, tiny, staminate spike terminal, often with few perigynia at top, pistillate spikes 2-4, along upper half of stem, well […]
Carex extensa long-bract sedge Cyperaceae CAEX*; Q, dp, j; -   Carex extensa is a perennial, stems tufted, 20-50 cm tall, very tough, wiry, gray-green, sheaths red-dotted on ventral side.  Leaves alternate, stiff, rolled inward, base of sheath reddish (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993+), shorter than flowering stems, inflorescence bracts like leaves, only the lowest with sheath; basal leaves semi-evergreen.  Flowers dry, tiny, monoecious, male […]
Carex festucacea fescue sedge Cyperaceae CAFE; Bx, pb; R, c; -   Carex festucacea is a perennial sedge, tufted, stems slender, 50-100 cm tall, stems longer than leaves.  Leaves of two types: basal leaves bladeless, blades of upper leaves increasingly elongate, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, top of sheath membranous on upper side.  Flower spikes 4-10, stalkless, crowded at top of stem but distinct, the top ones overlapping, all alike, […]
Carex foenea dry-spike sedge Cyperaceae CAFO; fr; R gb, h; -   Carex foenea is a perennial sedge, tufted, ca 70 cm, yellow-green. Leaves of two types: basal leaves bladeless, stem leaves about 0.4 cm wide.  Flower spikes bead-like on axis bracts small, linear, spikes 3-15, narrowly elliptic ca 2-3cm long, sessile, at top of stem; staminate flowers at base of spike, perigynia flat, appressed, crowded, scale […]
Carex folliculata northern long sedge Cyperaceae CAFO2; R, t; -   Carex folliculata  is a perennial sedge, clumped, stems 30 cm to 1.2 m tall.  Leaves of two types: basal leaves 0.6-1.7 cm wide, yellow-green; bracts below inflorescence leafy, 0.5-1 cm wide, longer than stems, sheath ending in lobe.  Flowers monoecious; male spike at top of stem, 1.2-2.5 cm long, stalk short to none, female spikes 2-5, […]
Carex Genus sedges Cyperaceae (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993+). - Carex spp.are grass-like plants (see Cyperaceae) all have C3 photosynthesis (Bryson and Carter 1977). Stems often 3-sided, usually solid.  Leaves alternate, grass-like. Often with bladeless leaves at base of plant. Flowers papery, male and female flowers are separate (monoecious) usually on the same inflorescence, the female flower is composed of a sac-like perigynium, without petals or sepals, the top […]
Carex granularis meadow sedge Cyperaceae CAGR; Bx, pb; R, wt; -   Carex granularis is a perennial sedge, 30-80 cm tall, stems clumped.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.4-1cm wide, often longer than flowering stem.  Flowers: male spike at top of stem, stalkless, female spikes 1-3 cm, cylindrical, dense, the lowest ones long-stalked, the upper ones contiguous with the male flower spike, perigynia crowded, 0.2-0.4 cm long, beak very short, […]
Carex hirta rough sedge Cyperaceae CAHI*; R, lp; -   Carex hirta is a perennial sedge from stout rhizomes, widely creeping, colonial and tufted, to 60 cm tall, hairy, stem bluntly 3-angled, bases often dark reddish.  Leaves 0.3-0.6 cm wide, sparsely hairy, sheaths densely pale hairy.  Flowers monoecious; male spikes 1-3, 2-3 cm long, at top of stem, on a long stalk, female spikes 2-3, widely […]
Carex intumescens bladder-sedge Cyperaceae CAIN; Bx, pb; R, ar, ev, t; -   Carex intumescens is a perennial sedge, stems solitary or small clumps, 30-90 cm tall.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.4-1.1 cm wide, uppermost non-bract leaf with sheath over 1cm long.  Flowers monoecious; male spike at top of stem, 1-5 cm, with stalk 1-6 cm; female spikes 1-4, 1-2.7 cm long and wide, on stalks to 1.5 cm, perigynia […]
Carex laxiflora loose flowered sedge Cyperaceae CALA; Bx, pb, vc; -   Carex laxiflora is a perennial sedge, tufted, to 70 cm tall, often pale, waxy-green, fertile stems erect or ascending, 3-sided, sometimes narrowly winged, basal sheaths pale brown.  Leaves of sterile shoots to 2.5 cm wide, leaves of fertile stems narrower, to 0.8 cm wide.  Flowers monoecious; male (staminate) spike at top of stem, to 2.5 cm […]
Carex lupulina hop sedge Cyperaceae CALU; Q, u; R, e, h, t; -   Carex lupulina is a perennial sedge, 20-130 cm tall, few stems together, from long, branching rhizomes, plant bright yellow-green, sheaths at base of stem red-brown, persistent.  Leaves alternate, blades 0.4-1.5 cm wide, veins with small cross branches (septate-nodulose); uppermost, non-bract, leaf with sheath 1.5-25 cm long; inflorescence bracts leafy, elongate.  Flowers monoecious; uppermost spike male, 2-8 […]
Carex lurida shallow sedge Cyperaceae CALU2; Bx, sf, vc; R, ca, gr, h, js, lp, ml, rw, t, w; -   Carex lurida is a perennial sedge, 20 cm to 1 m tall, stems tufted, often quite robust, bluntly to sharply 3-sided, smooth, purplish at base.  Leaves alternate, basal leaves bladeless, stem leaves 0.4-0.7 cm wide, yellow-green, veins with small cross branches (septate-nodulose); usually longer than flowering stem; ligule triangular, longer than wide; inflorescence bracts leafy, […]
Carex muhlenbergii Muhlenberg’s sedge Cyperaceae CAMU; Q, cu; -   Carex muhlenbergii is a perennial sedge, tufted, from stout rhizome, base covered with old leaves, fertile stems slender, rough, sharply 3-angled, wiry, stiff, ca 60 cm tall, much taller than leaves.  Leaves thick, pale, about 0.3-0.4 cm wide, rough textured.  Flowers male flowers all at tip of flower spike, female flowers below (androgynous); inflorescence 2-4 cm, thick, oblong, […]
Carex pellita  (C. lanuginosa) wooly sedge Cyperaceae CAPE; Bx, pb; -    Carex pellita is a perennial sedge to 1 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, upper stem rough on margins, sharply 3-sided.  Leaves alternate, bladeless at base of stem, blade length increasing up stem; stem leaves relatively flat, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, few, near base of stem; inflorescence bracts leafy, little or no sheath, the lowest often longer […]
Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania sedge Cyperaceae CAPE2; Bx, bg, pb, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr, ws; Q, a, cu, i (planted), j; K, p; R, bd, d, gb, h, sm, sv, t; - Carex pensylvanica is a perennial sedge to 50 cm tall (usually less), tufted and extensively colonial from scaly rhizomes or stolons, wintergreen (Brewer 1980), leafy tufts reddish at base and with persistent fibers from old leaves.  Leaves fine, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, usually shorter than fertile stems in tall plants.  Flower stems about 30 cm, sharply 3-angled; male […]
Carex radiata  (C. rosea) eastern star sedge Cyperaceae CARA; Bx, vc; Q, a; - Carex radiata is a perennial, densely tufted sedge, fertile stems fine, to 80 cm long, 0.8-1.5 mm thick at base. Leaves elongate, to 1.9 mm wide; bracts very thin, the lowest often longer than flowering stem. Flower spikes small, 4-7, sessile (stalkless), spike closely aggregated or lower ones separate; male flower spikes at top, scale below each flower shorter […]
Carex rosea rosy sedge Cyperaceae CARO; Bx, bg, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, cu, f; R, d, gb, gr, h, wp, wt; Also planted in restorations (as C. appalachica);  - Carex rosea is a perennial C3 sedge (Basinger 2002), densely tufted, fertile stems to 80 cm tall, erect, to 2 cm thick at base. Leaves about 0.2 cm wide. Flowers (perigynia) pale green, narrowly elliptical, 0.3-0.4 cm, base wedge-shaped to rounded, spongy, tapering to sharp, vaguely 2-toothed tip, achene set low in perigynia, stigmas coiled once or twice, […]
Carex scoparia pointed broom Cyperaceae CASC; Bx, pb, vc, sf; Q, cu, j, ri, tl; R, ah, al, bd, c, d, e, h, is, js, lp, mm, pr, t, wt; - Carex scoparia is a perennial, densely tufted sedge, 20 cm to 1 m, stems 3-sided, rough near top, yellow-green, mature fruiting stems often prostrate; late season/winter stems elongate, leafy, leaves crowded toward top in 3 ranks (Gargiullo, personal observation). Leaves alternate, bladeless at base of stem, upper leaves shorter than flowering stems, sheath membranous on side […]
Carex silicea beach sedge Cyperaceae CASI; Q, j; - Carex silicea is a perennial sedge 30-80 cm tall, stems stiff, wiry, usually pale whitish-green, densely clumped.  Leaves of two types: basal leaves bladeless, blades of stem leaves 0.2-0.4 cm wide, rigid, equal to or shorter than stems, base of blade slightly lobed, sheaths with green veins on side opposite blade (ventral).  Flower spikes 3-7, usually well […]
Carex squarrosa squarrose sedge Cyperaceae CASQ; Bx, pb;  - Carex squarrosa is a perennial sedge, 30-90 cm tall, stout, densely tufted, stems sharply 3-sided.  Leaves bladeless at base of stem; upper leaves 0.3-0.6 cm wide, elongate, well distributed along stem, ligule at top of sheath much longer than wide; inflorescence bracts slender, slightly longer than flowering stem.  Flower spikes usually solitary, 1-3 cm long, 1-5 cm […]
Carex stipata awl-fruit sedge Cyperaceae CAST; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cr; R, ah, c, h, k, t, w, wp; -   Carex stipata is a perennial sedge, 30 cm to 1 m, tufted; yellow-green, stems thick, spongy, sharply triangular, sides concave.  Leaves flat, lax, 0.4-0.8 cm wide, elongate, top of sheaths with prolonged, membranous band on side opposite blade (ventral); inflorescence bracts hair-like, short, inconspicuous.  Flowers yellow-green, becoming brown, crowded at top of stem, appearing bristly from […]
Carex straminea straw sedge Cyperaceae CAST2; Q; R; -   Carex straminea is a perennial sedge 40-100 cm tall, in dense clumps, basal leaves bladeless, sheaths green-veined.  Leaves with blade 0.2-0.3 cm wide, shorter than flowering stem.  Flowers: male flowers at base of spike, upper, female, portion rounded to oval, 0.7-1 cm long, scales smaller than perigynia, pale brownish, perigynia very flat, beak toothed , achene […]
Carex stricta tussock sedge Cyperaceae CAST3; Bx, pb, vc; Q, j; R, ah, ar, cp, ev, h, js, lp, ok, ot, ro, t, wp; -   Carex stricta perennial, mounded, forming large, often raised, clumps, usually in groups, colonial from rhizomes, stems 40 cm to 1.4 m long, lax, longer than leaves, angles rough; lowest leaves bladeless, becoming fibrous in age, ligule pointed, much longer than wide.  Leaves with blade 0.3-0.6 cm wide, “w” shaped in cross section, thin, drooping, dark […]
Carex swanii Swan’s sedge Cyperaceae CASW; Bx, pb, sf, vc; Q, cu, f; cl, d, R, ev, fw, gb, go, h, lt, sc, sv, t; - Carex swanii is a perennial sedge, tufted, 50-100 cm, slender, often reddish at base.  Leaves about as long as flowering stems or longer, sheaths and leaves finely hairy, often appearing slightly silvery (Gargiullo pers. obs.).  Flower spikes 2-4, 1-2 cm long, narrowly cylindrical, densely flowered, pale grayish-green, perigynia finely hairy, beakless, terminal spike with male flowers at […]
Carex tetanica rigid sedge Cyperaceae CATE; Q, cu; -   Carex tetanica is a perennial sedge, colonial from rhizomes, tufted, stems often brownish near base, ca 50 ca tall, stem bases leafy and fibrous from old leaf bases.  Leaves flat, about 0.3 cm wide; thin, green, edges curling backwards in age, shorter than fertile stems; leafy basal bract of inflorescence with well developed sheath.  Flowers: […]
Carex tribuloides blunt broom sedge Cyperaceae CATR; Bx, pb, wv; Q, cu; R; -   Carex tribuloides is a perennial sedge, tufted, flowering stems stout, 50 cm to 1 m tall, angled, rough at top; basal leaves bladeless, sheaths with green veins.  Leaves 0.3-0.7 cm wide, those on sterile stems in two ranks, shorter than flowering stems.  Flowers: male flowers at wedge-shaped base of spikes, perigynia (female flowers) densely packed, […]
Carex typhina cattail sedge Cyperaceae K; pb (M. Feller 2016); - Sedge 30-90 cm tall, robust, densely clumped; ligules longer than wide. Leaves alternate, gray-green, lowest ones nearly bladeless (aphyllopodic), upper leaves0.5-1 cm wide, the uppermost longer than the inflorescence. Flowers in 1-6 dense spikes 2-4 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, each subtended by a leaf-like bract; male flowers below females on each spike; female flowers papery, male and […]
Carex virescens ribbed sedge Cyperaceae CAVI; Bx, pb, wv; Q, cu; - Carex virescens is a perennial, densely tufted sedge, stems hairy, fertile stems 0.3-1 m tall, reddish-purple at base, rough above, taller than leaves.  Leaves 0.2-0.4 cm wide, pale green, hairy.  Flower spikes 2-4; 2-4 cm long, 0.3 cm wide, linear-cylindrical, tapering at base, lower spikes usually with a short stalk, leaf-like bract almost sheathless, upper spikes sessile […]
Carex vulpinoidea  (C. annectens) fox sedge Cyperaceae CAVU; Bx, br, pb, sd, sf, wv; NY, iw; Q, cr, cu, j, ri, wl; R c, cl, gb, h, k, lp, sb, sm, t; -    Carex vulpinoidea is a perennial C3 sedge (Basinger 2002), stems tufted, yellow-green, 30 cm to 1 m, stems sharply 3-sided, rough above.  Leaves 3-ranked, blade flat, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, to 1.2 m long, often taller than stems (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993+), those at very base of stem bladeless, upper (inner) side of sheath […]
Cenchrus longispinus common sandbur Poaceae CELO; Q, i, j; K, pl; R; -   Cenchrus longispinus is an annual (probably a C4 grass, see Waller and Lewis 1979), reclining or ascending, 20-80 cm, stems flattened, branched; sheaths hairy on upper margins, somewhat inflated, loose, constricted at top and often with tufts of long hair at corners, ligule a band of white hairs.  Leaves 6-18 cm long, 0.3-0.7 cm wide, smooth […]
Chloris verticillata windmill; finger-grass Poaceae CHVI*; Q, j; K, fbb (D. P. Wijesinghe 2015 p.c.); fl (D. P. Wijesinghe 2015 p.c.); R; - Chloris verticillata is a perennial grass (probably C4; see Waller and Lewis 1979), stems densely tufted, 10-40 cm tall.  Leaves mostly near base, sheaths compressed; blade 5-15 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, light green.  Flower spikelets with 1 fertile floret and one or several empty lemmas above it; glumes unequal, 0.2-0.4 cm, tip short-awned; lower, fertile lemma less than […]
Cinna arundinacea common wood-reed Poaceae CIAR3; Bx, br, pb, sf, vc; Q, a, cu; R, gb, is, sv, t, vn, w, wp; -   Cinna arundinacea is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), 1-1.5 m tall, with about 5-10 nodes, base often slightly bulbous with bands of adventitious roots, solitary or few together; sheath open at top mostly longer than internode; ligule membranous, pale brownish, to about 0.5 cm long shredding with age.  Leaves alternate, flat, 15-40 cm long, 0.6-1.2 […]
Corynephorus canescens  (Aira c.) gray hairgrass Poaceae COCA3*; Q, a, i, dp, fr, j, rb, tl; K, fl, gt, m, pl; -   Corynephorus canescens is a perennial C3 grass (Pooter et al. 1990), 20-60 cm.  Leaves basal in small dense cushions, waxy blue-gray green, very fine-filamentous; blade about 15 cm tall, sheaths often purplish; flowering stems about 30 cm long.  Flower spikelets 2-flowered, membranous, glumes 0.3-0.4 cm, hairy, as long as spikelet, lemmas shorter, short-awned; inflorescence dense, fluffy, silvery […]
Cynodon dactylon Bermuda grass Poaceae CYDA*; Bx, pb; Q, ft, j; -    Cynodon dactylon is a perennial, C4 grass (Downton 1971), gray-green, aggressively colonial from above and below ground horizontal stems (stolons and rhizomes) much branched, forming mats, ends of stems ascending to erect, stems smooth, very tough, rooting very deeply at nodes (Gargiullo pers. obs.). Leaves alternate, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, length very variable, usually conspicuously ranked along […]
Cyperus bipartitus  (C. rivularis) shining flatsedge Cyperaceae CYBI; Q, j; R bd; - Cyperus bipartitus is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), tufted, 10-20 cm tall, stems slender.  Leaves 0.1-0.3 cm wide, usually shorter than inflorescence.  Flower spikes dark, 1-5 on stalks to 10 cm long, central spikes stalkless, spikelets 3-10, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm wide, radiating from a short axis, scales dark red-brown at maturity, midrib green, […]
Cyperus diandrus umbrella flatsedge Cyperaceae CYDI; Bx, pb; Q, j; R; - Cyperus diandrus is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), tufted, 10-20 cm tall, stems slender.  Leaves often as long as flowering stem; inflorescence bracts 3, the lowest to 15 cm long, stalks of spikes (rays) 1-3, to 6 cm long.  Flower spikelets reddish-brown to greenish, 6-10 per spike, 0.8-1 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm wide, very flat, […]
Cyperus difformis variable flatsedge Cyperaceae CYDI2*; Q, f; -   Cyperus difformis is an annual C3 sedge (Li et al. 1999), tufted, stems 20-60 cm tall.  Leaves few, at base of stems; inflorescence with 2-4 elongate bracts.  Flower spikes round, to 1.2 cm diameter, densely flowered, very fine, darkish, mealy-looking, spikelets numerous, fine, very small, to 0.8 cm long, 10-40 flowered, flower scales less than 0.1 cm, […]
Cyperus echinatus  (C. ovularis) globe-flatsedge Cyperaceae CYEC; Bx, pb, vc (Z. Wang, 2017); K, pl; R, sb; - Cyperus echinatus is a perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), 30-100 cm tall, dark green, stems smooth, 3-angled, very tough, from short, knotty root rhizomes with tuberous enlargements. Leaves flat, tending to fold lengthwise along midrib, 0.3-0.8 cm wide; lowest bract longer than flowering stem. Flower spikes  round  0.8-1.5 cm wide, densely flowered, with stalks […]
Cyperus erythrorhizos red-rooted flatsedge Cyperaceae CYER; NY; Q; -   Cyperus erythrorhizos is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), 10-70 cm tall, tufted, stems stout, roots red.  Leaves crowded near base, blade 0.2-0.9 cm wide, elongate, sheaths purple at base; inflorescence bracts 3-7elongate, pale on lower surface.  Flower spikes 1-4 cm long, bottle-brush-like, spikelets 0.3-1.2 cm long, about 0.1 cm wide, axis winged, persistent, scales […]
Cyperus esculentus yellow nutsedge; chufa Cyperaceae CYES; Bx, pb, vc; NY, bl; Q, cr, i, j; K, pl; R, c, go, lp, mc, t, wp, wt; -    Cyperus esculentus is a perennial, C4 sedge (Downton 1971), 10-70 cm tall, stems 3-sided, stout, smooth; yellow-green; small root tubers on slender rhizomes, colonial, sometimes aggressive in lawns and wet agricultural sites.  Leaves basal, elongate, 0.3-0.8 cm wide, conspicuously folded along midrib; inflorescence bracts longer than the inflorescence stalks.  Flower spikes yellow-gold, often branching, in bottle brush arrangements, […]
Cyperus filicinus slender flatsedge Cyperaceae CYFI; Q, j; -   Cyperus filicinus is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), stems tufted, 10-40 cm long, slender, soft.  Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, shorter than flowering stem.  Flowers dry, tiny, no petals or sepals, stamens 2, each flower covered by a straw-color, shiny, narrow scale, about 0.3 cm long; flowers crowded in ranks along spikes 1.5-2 cm […]
Cyperus flavescens yellow flatsedge Cyperaceae CYFL; R; -   Cyperus flavescens is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), 5-30 cm tall.  Leaves short; inflorescence bracts 2-4, much longer than inflorescence.  Flower spikelets 5-15, per spike, narrow, very flat, 1-1.5 cm long, about 0.2 cm wide, yellow-green, scales yellowish with membranous margins, about 0.2 cm long. Fruit an achene, lens-shaped, black with minute white lines, […]
Cyperus Genus flatsedge Cyperaceae - Cyperus is a genus of grass-like herbs stems usually solid, usually 3-sided, leaf sheath closed.  Leaves alternate, grass-like, 3-ranked, veins parallel, lower leaves mostly bladeless (aphyllopodic), upper leaf with elongate blade.  Flower spikelets each subtended by a scale, scales in two ranks (distichous), the lowest one empty, no sepals or petals, stamens usually 3, vary superior, style cleft in […]
Cyperus grayi Gray’s flatsedge Cyperaceae CYGR; Q, a, i, j, rb, tl; K, m, pl; R, cp, sb; -   Cyperus grayi is a perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), with basal corms from a hard rhizome, stems tufted, very tough, smooth, to 40 cm.  Leaves folded, stiff, shorter than wiry stems.  Flower spikelets about 1 cm, 3-9 flowered, greenish-brown, radiating in more or less rounded, star-shaped clusters to 2.5 cm diameter, axis of spikelet winged, […]
Cyperus iria rice-field flatsedge Cyperaceae CYIR*; Bx, sf; Q, i; K, m; R, bd, c, js, w; -   Cyperus iria is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), to 60 cm, tufted, bright green, base often reddish, fibrous rooted, stems 3-sided, smooth.  Leaves mostly basal, usually shorter than flowering stem, sheaths pale, rather membranous; inflorescence bracts long, leaf-like.  Flower spikelets flat, to 1 cm, 10-20 flowered, ascending and at varying angles to stem of […]
Cyperus lupulinus Great Plains flatsedge Cyperaceae CYLU; Bx pb; Q, j; R; -   Cyperus lupulinus is a perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), 10-50 cm tall from knotty rhizomes, stems wiry, smooth.  Leaves 0.1-0.3 cm wide, gray-green, margins rough, shorter than flowering stems.  Flower spikelets with 2-16 flowers, dull green to reddish-brown, crowded, radiating outward, flat, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, scales soon deciduous, spikelet axis not winged; inflorescence bracts 2-4, […]
Cyperus odoratus rusty flatsedge Cyperaceae CYOD; R; - Cyperus odoratus is an annual C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), stout, 10-80 cm tall. Flowering stalks (rays) 3-10, 2-10 cm long, branched. Leaves 0.2-0.8 cm wide, inflorescence bracts much longer than flowering stem.  Flower spikes linear, cylindrical 1-2 cm long, becoming brownish, 5-20 flowers, scales to 0.3 cm, tip overlapping base of next scale, axis winged, eventually […]
Cyperus retrorsus retrorse flatsedge Cyperaceae CYRE; Q, j; K, pl; R, lc;  -   Cyperus retrorsus is a perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), to 1 m tall from a short, tuberous rhizome, stems smooth, very slender.  Leaves shorter than flowering stems, to 0.5 cm wide.  Flower spikelets numerous, crowded, radiating horizontally, to 0.6 cm long, with 1-3 flowers, scales thin, egg-shaped 0.2 cm; inflorescence bracts 4-8, mostly longer than […]
Cyperus schweinitzii Schweinitz’s flatsedge Cyperaceae CYSC; Q, j; K, m; -   Cyperus schweinitzii is a perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), from a knotty root crown, 10 cm to 1 m tall, stem rough, sharply angled, 0.2 cm thick.  Leaves basal, 0.2-0.8 cm wide, margins rough; bracts below inflorescence upward pointing, usually longer than inflorescence.  Flower spikelets with 5-18 flowers, flattened, 0.5-2.5 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, […]
Cyperus strigosus false nutsedge Cyperaceae CYST; Bx, pb, wv; NY; Q; a, cu, cr, j, lk, wl; K, fs; R, bd, bm, lp, w; -   Cyperus strigosus is a short-lived perennial C4 sedge (Li et al. 1999), superficially like C. esculentus but from a bulbous, corm-like, dark, often reddish base, roots fibrous, very fine, matted (no tubers or rhizomes), base leafy, stem 10-60 cm, smooth, 3-sided, dark green, lustrous, leaf sheaths and backs of leaves often rather waxy pale green.  Leaves 0.2-1 cm wide, […]
Dactylis glomerata orchard grass Poaceae DAGL*; Bx, br, bz, cm, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, n, tr, wr; Q, a, cu, f, fr, ft, i, j, rb, ri, wl; K, fs, m, ow, p; R, bg, bm, c, cl, cn, cs, d, e, h, is, js, lp, mls, ok, wp; -   Dactylis glomerata is a perennial C3 grass (Wilson and Hartnett. 1998; Basinger 2002), clumped, coarse, 50 cm to 1.2 m, rather pale blue-green; leaf sheath rough, compressed, ligule 0.5-0.7 cm.    Leaves alternate, elongate, wide, 0.3-0.8 cm, somewhat folded along midrib, basal leaves often semi-evergreen.  Flower spikelets flat, in one-sided clusters, 3-6 flowered, about 0.5-0.8 cm long; […]
Danthonia compressa flattened oatgrass Poaceae DACO; Bx, pb; NY, ct; R, cl, gb; -   Danthonia compressa is a perennial (probably a C3 grass see Waller and Lewis 1979) , fine, tufted; stems slender, some nodes flattened, 40-80 cm, sheaths glabrous.  Leaves with blades to 20 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide (about half the length of the flowering stem).  Flower spikelets 2-3 per branch, glumes 0.9-1.3 cm, lemmas with long, usually twisted […]
Danthonia spicata poverty oatgrass Poaceae DASP; Bx, pb, sf, vc; Q, cu; R, e, ev, h, gb, sv; - Danthonia spicata is a perennial grass with C3 metabolism (Basinger 2002), tufted, from fibrous roots often found to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi including: Glomus aggregatum, G. constrictum, G. fasciculatum, G. geosporum, G. microaggregatum and G. mossae (Zygomycetes) (collections in Canada) (Darbyshire and Cayouette 1989); stems slender, 20 cm to 1 m; top of sheath usually with dense tuft white hairs, ligules a fringe of white hairs to 0.1 […]
Deschampsia flexuosa common hairgrass Poaceae DEFL; Bx, pb; R, sm; - Deschampsia flexuosa is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 0.3 to 1 m tall (flowering stem), tufted, stems wiry.  Leaves mostly basal, ligule 0.1-0.2 cm, blades fine, 5-20 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, rolled inward.  Flower spikelets purplish or silvery, 2-flowered, 0.4-0.6 cm, borne at ends of branches; glumes 0.3-0.5 cm, membranous, shiny, lemma tips 4-toothed, […]
Dichanthelium acuminatum var. fasciculatum  (D. lanuginosum; Panicum lanuginosum var. fasciculatum) Western panic grass Poaceae PALA2; NY, ct; Q, cu, rb, ri, tl; R, cp;  -   Dichanthelium acuminatum var. fasciculatum is a perennial, C3 grass (Basinger 2002), tufted, reclining, plant hairy, often gray-green, stems 40-70 cm long, branching above base, sheaths hairy, ligule a band of protruding hairs 0.2-0.5 cm. autumnal phase plant spreading to prostrate, densely branched mostly from middle nodes, leaf blades half as long as spring phase leaves. Leaves alternate, to […]
Dichanthelium boscii  ( Panicum b.) Bosc’s panic grass Poaceae PABO; R; - Dichanthelium boscii is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), tufted stems 30-70 cm tall, often bent near base, often hairy, nodes densely hairy, sheaths hairy along margins and at top, sometimes on back. Leaves 6-12 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, lance-shaped, base lobed, mostly hairy on both sides. Autumn phase leaf blade half as large, forming winter […]
Dichanthelium clandestinum  (Panicum c.) deer-tongue grass Poaceae PACL; Bx, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, cu, j; K, fs; R, c, cl, cs, d, e, fw, gr, h, is, jw, sm, sv, t; - Dichanthelium clandestinum is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), stout, erect or reclining, 60 cm to 1.5 m, tufted and often densely colonial from rhizomes, stems often hairy, leaf sheaths bristly-hairy.  Leaves broad and short, 10-25 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, base lobed, with warty-based hairy, tip pointed, stiff, midrib conspicuously raised, primary veins larger […]
Dichanthelium commutatum  ( Panicum c.) variable panic grass Poaceae PACO2; R; - Dichanthelium commutatum is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003), stems 30-80 cm long, often purplish, sometimes hairy; sheaths hair-at top, ligules inconspicuous.  Leaves lance-shaped, 5-12 cm long, 0.7-1.8 cm wide, mostly smooth but sparsely hairy at lobed, base, lobes clasping stem.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, 0.2-0.3 cm long, sometimes finely hairy, blooms May-Aug.; primary inflorescence egg-shaped, 5-12 […]
Dichanthelium depauperatum (Panicum d.) starved panic grass Poaceae PADE; R, sm; -   Dichanthelium depauperatum is a perennial C3 grass ((Waller and Lewis 1979), 10-40 cm tall, densely tufted stems very slender, sheaths often finely hairy.  Leaves crowded near base, basal and stem leaves similar, linear, 8-20 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, 0.3-0.4 cm, spikelet stalks crooked, 3-8 cm long, few branches; blooms May-Aug.; primary inflorescence narrow, […]
Dichanthelium dichotomum (Panicum d.) cypress panic grass Poaceae PADI2; Bx, pb, sf; Q, cu; R, c, cl, cp, ev, h, jl, rw, sm, sv, t, wp; -   Dichanthelium dichotomum is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003) spring phase slender, in small tufts, woodland plants delicate, bright green; plants of open areas, robust, branching, 30 cm to 1 m tall, nodes often densely hairy, but sheaths and internodes mostly smooth, except sheath margins often long-hairy; spring phase very slender, sheaths shorter […]
Dichanthelium Genus rosette grass Poaceae - Dichanthelium is a genus of C3 Grasses (Aliscioni et al. 2003) with two forms during the growing season: A taller, early season form in which the inflorescence is extended and wind pollinated, and a shorter, late season form from an overwintering rosette of shorter, wider leaves, in which the inflorescences are enclosed within the leaf sheaths […]
Dichanthelium leucothrix  (Panicum leucothrix; Panicum acuminatum var. leucothrix) rough panic grass Poaceae PALE; Q, j; K, pl;  - Dichanthelium leucothrix is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003), to 40 cm, pale dull green, often reddish, most parts hairy, stems erect to reclining, densely tufted, autumn phase prostrate, forming mats, copiously branched from all nodes, hairs on some sheaths and internodes of 2 types, short and long together, ligule a single band of […]
Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. scribnerianum (Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. helleri; Panicum helleri ) Scribner’s rosette grass; few-flowered panic grass Poaceae R, jw; - Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. scribnerianum is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003), loosely tufted, often purplish, to 70 cm tall, stems hairy to smooth, sheaths usually warty-based hairy (use lens), forming winter rosette of short broad leaf blades, ligule of short hairs 0.1-0.2 cm long.  Leaves alternate, usually hairless above, long-hairy at base, larger leaves to […]
Dichanthelium ovale var. addisonii (Panicum commonsianum; Dichanthelium c.) Addison’s rosette grass Poaceae PACO; Q, j; R, jw, gr, lp, sb; - Dichanthelium ovale var. addisonii is a perennial grass, tufted, gray-green, sometimes purplish, basal leaves in an over-wintering rosette; vernal plants erect, stiff, 10-60 cm, some sheaths and internodes hairy with both long (to 0.2 cm) and short hairs; sheaths finely ribbed, shorter than internodes, ligule a band of short hairs in front of a band […]
Dichanthelium sabulorum var. patulum (D. commonsianum var. euchlamydeum; D. commonsianum var. siccanum; Panicum lancearium) hemlock rosette grass Poaceae DISAvar.PA; Q; K, m; -   Dichanthelium sabulorum var. patulum is a tufted perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003), hairs of two lengths long and short, mixed; spring phase 15-50 cm, stems stiff, sheaths much shorter than internodes, usually finely hairy, ligules inconspicuous.  Leaves alternate 2-6 cm long (or more), 0.3-0.8 cm wide, hairy at base. autumn phase a prostrate, matted, much-branched rosette; […]
Dichanthelium scoparium (Panicum s.) velvet panic grass Poaceae PASC; Q; R; - Dichanthelium scoparium is a perennial C3 grass (Washburn et al. 2015) 70 cm to 1.5 m tall, stems solitary or few from a knotty root crown, plants velvety, long-hairy with a sticky but hairless band just below the densely hairy nodes, sheaths loose but often tight near top, densely hairy except for a hairless, sticky […]
Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Panicum s.) round-seed panic grass Poaceae PASP; Bx, pb; - Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003), 15-50 cm tall, stems single or few together, pale green, partly reclining, spreading, nodes hairy, sheaths about as long as internodes, margins hairy, top loose, ligule inconspicuous or none. Leaves of spring phase plants 6-12 cm long, 0.7-1.5 cm wide, base lobed, clasping stem, […]
Dichanthelium villosissimum var. villosissimum (D. lanuginosum var. villosissimum; Panicum acuminatum var. villosissimum) whitehair rosette grass Poaceae PAVI2; Bx, pb, vc; K, m; R, cl, ev, gb, h, jl, sv; - Dichanthelium villosissimum var. villosissimum is a perennial C3 grass (Aliscioni et al. 2003) 10-30 cm, hairy, slender, erect or ascending at first bloom, later elongating to up to 60 cm, tufted, stems and leaves pale gray-green, finely warty (papillose)-hairy, hairs 0.1-0.5 cm all similar; autumnal phase ascending to prostrate, branches and leaves short, Leaves 3-10 […]
Digitaria cognata  (Leptoloma cognatum) fall witch-grass Poaceae LECO; Q; K, fl (Z. Wang); R; -   Digitaria cognata is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) un, 40-70 cm, tufted, stems much branched at base; lower sheaths hairy.  Leaves alternate. 5-10 cm long, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, flat.   Flower spikelets solitary at branch tips, 1-flowered, about 0.3 cm long, glumes hairy between veins; flowering branches elongate 3-angled, rough-textured, 1-4 cm long; June-Oct., […]
Digitaria filiformis  (D. laeviglumis) slender crab-grass Poaceae DIFI; R; - Digitaria filiformis is an annual (probably C4, see Waller and Lewis 1979) grass, 5-90 cm tall, branched from base, stems filamentous, not rooting at nodes; lower sheaths hairy.  Leaves 5-20 cm long, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, flat, often hairy below, rough above.  Flower spikelets about 0.2 cm, 1-flowered, 2-3 together, hardly overlapping, glumes glandular-hairy, lemma dark, brown or purplish, […]
Digitaria ischaemum smooth crab-grass Poaceae DIIS*: Bx, pb, sl, sf, vc; NY, ct, iw; Q, f, j, lk; K, p; R, bm, c, k, sv, w; -   Digitaria ischaemum is a summer annual, C4, grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), prostrate to ascending, loosely tufted, usually not rooting at nodes; mostly hairless, except upper margin of sheath.  Leaves 5-15 cm long, 0.4-1 cm wide, bright, pale yellow-green.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, about 0.2 cm, elliptic, first glume small to none, second glume and sterile lemma about […]
Digitaria sanguinalis northern crab-grass Poaceae DISA*; Bx, br, pb, sl, sn, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, rr; Q, ft, j, lk; K, m, p, pl; R, bm, c, hs, k, lp, se, ty; - Digitaria sanguinalis is a summer annual; C4 grass (Downton 1971), tufted, stems branched, reclining, spreading in rosettes, 30-60 cm, rooting at nodes as stems elongate, stems of older plants often dark red or purple (Uva et al. 1997); nodes and sheaths hairy, ligule membranous, edge ragged.  Leaves hairy on both sides, especially above, 5-15 cm long, 0.4-1 […]
Distichlis spicata salt grass Poaceae DISP; Bx, pb, sn; Q, a, dp, i, j; K, fs, m, pl; R, am, go, gr, lc, mc, ok, pr, sm; - Distichlis spicata is a perennial C4 grass (Downton 1971), 15-40 cm tall; colonial from white, scaly rhizomes, sprawling, stems fine, sheaths overlapping.  Leaves initially flat, conspicuously two ranked, stiff, pale, blue-green, 5-15 cm long.                  Flowers (florets) dry, tiny, papery; glumes (outer scales) and lemmas (inner scale) to about 0.4 cm […]
Dulichium arundinaceum three-way sedge Cyperaceae DUAR; R bm (planted), gb; -   Dulichium arundinaceum is a perennial C3 sedge (Pascal-Antoine 2008), colonial from rhizomes, 30 cm to 1 m tall.  Leaves numerous, in ranks of three up stem, blade 5-15 cm long, 0.3-0.8 cm wide.  Flower spikes 1-3 cm long, spikelets linear 1-2.5 cm long, ranked along axis, scales 0.5-0.8 cm base extending down axis as wings, achene about […]
Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli barnyard grass Poaceae ECCR*; Bx, br, pb, sl; Q, f, j, lf; K, fs; R, c, ar, bd, bm, cs, gb, lp, v, w;  -   Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli is an annual, C4 grass (Charest and Potvin 1993), from fibrous roots that may extend over 1 m down and 1 m laterally; to 1.5 m tall, stout, tufted, branched from base; ligule absent, sheaths hairless, margins free, overlapping, membranous.  Leaves hairless, 0.5-3 cm wide, 50 cm long, veins pale, conspicuous, leaf […]
Echinochloa muricata rough barnyard grass Poaceae ECMU; Bx, pb, sf; Q, cu; R, bk, bm, fk, is, jl, js, lc, se, sv, w; - Echinochloa muricata is an annual, presumably C4 metabolism (Charest and Potvin, 1993), branched from base, to over 1 m tall, stems often stout, to 1 cm wide at base, often streaked with dark red; sheaths compressed, smooth.  Leaves 0.8-3 cm wide.  Flower spikelets dark purplish, second glume and sterile lemma with broad-based hairs, lemma tip pointed, persistent; inflorescence […]
Eleocharis acicularis least spikerush Cyperaceae ELAC; Q, cu; R, bm, k; - Eleocharis acicularis is a perennial C3 spikerush (Pascal-Antoine 2008), tufted, very small, slender, colonial from rhizomes and stolons, forming carpets, stems filament-like, about 3-12 cm tall, angular, furrowed.  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flower spike terminal, about 0.5 cm, flattened 3-15 flowers, scales 0.2 cm, midrib papery with greenish, often reddish along margins.  Fruit a dry achene, pale, 0.1 cm, […]
Eleocharis engelmannii (E. ovata; E. obtusa; see notes) Engelmann’s spikerush Cyperaceae ELOV; Bx, pb; Q, cu, j, u; K, fs; R, bm, c, cp, e, gb, gr, k, mm, ro, t, v, w, wp; - Eleocharis engelmannii is an annual spike rush, 5-50 cm tall, clumped, roots short, fibrous (easily pulled up), stems 0.1-0.2 cm thick.  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flowers in cone-shaped inflorescence (spikelet) 0.5-1.3 cm long, scales dark, red-brown with green center stripe (becoming pale with age), margins pale, membranous.      Fruit a dry achene, lens-shaped, narrow at base, with […]
Eleocharis flavescens  (E. olivacea) bright green spikerush Cyperaceae ELFL; R; - Eleocharis flavescens is a perennial spike rush, tufted, 30 cm to 1.5 m tall, sheaths white, membranous at top;  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flower spikelets egg-shaped, 0.2-0.7 cm, fewer than 20 scales, scales with brown margins.  Fruit a dry achene, red-brown to blackish, lens-shaped, 0.1 cm, tubercle pale, cone-shaped, base swollen much smaller than top of achene; May-Sept.  […]
Eleocharis Genus spikerush Cyperaceae - Eleocharis is a genus of grass-like wetland herbs.  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flower spikelets terminal, solitary, several to many flowers; scales usually spiral and overlapping (imbricate), the lowermost 1-3 without flowers; stamens 1-3, style tip cleft 2-3 times base of style swollen to form a tubercle that persists on mature fruit.  Fruit a dry achene, 2-3 sided according […]
Eleocharis palustris  (E. halophila) creeping spikerush Cyperaceae ELPA; Q, j, u, wl; - Eleocharis palustris is a perennial C3 spikerush (Pascal-Antoine 2008), 10 cm to 1 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stems more or less solitary;  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only. leaf sheath oblique at top.  Flower spike narrow, 0.5-4 cm, brown, lance to egg-shaped, 1-3 empty scale at base; fertile scales 0.2-0.4 cm long  Fruit a dry achene, lens-shaped to bluntly 3-sided, […]
Eleocharis parvula small spike-rush Cyperaceae ELPA2; Q, j; R, sm, x; -   Eleocharis parvula is a perennial spikerush from small rhizomes, very small, hair-like, 2-6 cm tall, forming dense mats.  Leaves alternate, bladeless sheaths only.  Flowers dry, papery, no petals or sepals, stamens; spike solitary at top of stem, 0.3-0.6 cm long, oval, 2-9 flowers , scales green to brown about 0.2 cm, style 3-parted.  Fruit dry, 1-seeded (achene) […]
Eleocharis quadrangulata square-stem spikerush Cyperaceae ELQU; R; - Eleocharis quadrangulata is a perennial C3 spikerush (Pascal-Antoine 2008), tufted, colonial from rhizomes, stems stout to 1 m tall, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, sharply 4-sided.  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flower spikelet cylindrical, 2-5 cm long about as wide as the stem, scales in 4 rows to 0.6 cm long, tip rounded, margins paper.  Fruit a dry, achenes convex on both […]
Eleocharis tenuis slender spike-rush Cyperaceae ELTE; Bx, pb; Q, u; R, e, h, k, lp; - Eleocharis tenuis is a perennial spike-rush, colonial from slender, purplish rhizomes, stems slightly tufted or scattered, wiry, slender, 4-8 ribbed, dark red at base, 5-90 cm tall;  Leaves bladeless, sheath tight, obliquely truncate, orifice dark.  Flower spikelet egg-shaped or oval, wider than stem, dark reddish brown, solitary at top of stem, 0.5-1 cm long, scales dark, margins […]
Eleocharis tuberculosa long-tubercle spikerush Cyperaceae ELTU; Q; R; - Eleocharis tuberculosa is an annual spikerush, tufted, stems flattened, 20-80 cm tall.  Leaves bladeless, sheaths only.  Flower spike egg-shaped, 0.5-1.5 cm long, tip pointed, scales rounded above, straw-color to dull brown, clasping achene.  Fruit a dry achene 3-sided, about 0.1 cm, widest above middle, with many rows of tiny warts, tubercle narrow-based, then widened, about as large as […]
Eleusine indica yard grass; goose grass Poaceae ELIN*; Bx, br, cn, ht, pb, sf, sn, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, mn; Q, f, ft, j, lk; K; R, c, cs, hs, is, lc, se, sm; - Eleusine indica is a summer annual, C4 grass (Downton 1971), from fibrous roots; stems flattened, usually in a mat-like rosette, spreading to sometimes upright, 30-60 cm long, branched from base; sheaths flattened, whitish, hairy on margins, with a tuft of hairs on either side at top; ligule membranous, 0.1-0.2 cm, split down center.  Leaves rather wide, coarse, […]
Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye Poaceae ELCA; Q, i (planted); R; - Elymus canadensis is a perennial C3 grass (Reich et al. 2003), tufted, to 1.5 m tall, often waxy pale-gray-green.  Leaves usually 4-9 per stem, 0.3-1.2 cm wide, base of blade brown-edged, small tabs extending from upper corners of sheath and clasping stem, ligule membranous, short.  Flower spikelets in pairs at each node on alternating sides along spike, flat […]
Elymus Genus wild rye Poaceae - Elymus is a genus of perennial C3 tufted (bunch) grasses.  Leaves mostly flat, the membranous juncture at the top of the sheath (ligule) is short.  Flower spikelets 2 at each node (except 1 for Elytrigia repens) of the flower spike; the inner bracts (scales) of each floret (lemma) with an awn, generally giving the flower spikes a bristly or […]
Elymus hystrix  (Hystrix patula) bottlebrush grass Poaceae ELHY; NY, ct (planted); -   Elymus hystrix is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), solitary or few stems from creeping about 80 cm.  Leaves 10-30 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, tapering at both ends, rough textured or hairy.  Flower spikelets well separated; awns about 3 cm, self pollinating; inflorescence spikes bristly, 5-12, cm long, erect; blooming June-Aug.  Wetland status: UPL.  Frequency in […]
Elymus repens (Elytrigia r., Agropyron r.) quack; witch grass Poaceae ELRE*; Bx, wv; NY, ct; Q, fr, j, tl; K, pl; R, h, t; -   Elymus repens is a perennial C3 grass (Ziska and Teasdale 2000; Reich et al. 2003) to 1.2 m tall, from rhizomes to 1 m long, whitish, stems green to pale gray-green, hollow, with 3-5 nodes; sheaths with overlapping membranous margins, top of sheath with small, horn or tooth-shaped appendages; ligules very small, membranous, to 0.1 […]
Elymus villosus downy wild rye Poaceae ELVI2; R, lt; -   Elymus villosus is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), tufted, 30 cm to 1 m tall; sheath open but tight, ligule membranous, short.  Leaves alternate, 5-7, softly hairy above, 0.5-1 cm wide, base with small lobes.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered but in pairs, glumes bristle-like 1.5-3 cm long, to 0.1 cm wide, not widened above, lemma 2-4 cm […]
Elymus virginicus Virginia wild rye Poaceae ELVI; Bx, pb; Q, wl; R, bm, c, hs, lc, sm, t; -   Elymus virginicus is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), tufted, 50-120 cm tall.  Leaves alterate, 6-10, flat 0.4-1.3 cm wide, rough on both sides, yellow-green, often rather crowded near top of stem.  Flower spikelets with glumes thickened, rigid, 1-3 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, base bowed out, almost cylindrical, exposing florets, becoming wider above, and tapering to […]
Eragrostis capillaris lace-grass Poaceae ERCA; Q, j; - Eragrostis capillaris is an annual C3 grass (Basinger 2002) 20-50 cm, tufted, often lemon scented, stems erect, branching only at base; sheaths overlapping, membranous, more-or-less smooth.  Leaves alternate, long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 0.2-0.3 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, 2-5 flowered, dark gray, on filamentous stalks to 0.5-1 cm long; inflorescence large, diffuse, 10-30 cm long, 7-20 […]
Eragrostis cilianensis stink-grass Poaceae ERCI*; Bx, pb, sw; NY; Q, i, f, ft, lk; K, m; R, bm, jl, lt, sm, w; - Eragrostis cilianensis is an annual, C4 grass (Halvorson and Guertin 2003) densely tufted, 10-40 cm tall, usually reclining, base bent, strong-smelling, when fresh, a ring of small, warty glands just below each node; sheaths overlapping, hairy at top and along margin, ligule a band of short hairs. Leaves alternate, 3-12 cm long, 0.2-0.7 cm wide, leaf edges and […]
Eragrostis curvula weeping lovegrass Poaceae ERCU*p; Q, j, tl; K, fl, pl; R, sb; -   Eragrostis curvula is a perennial C4 grass (Downton 1971), 60-180 cm tall, tufted, stems very tough, keeled, hairy at base; sheath often pale tan at base, sometimes purplish higher up, with long hairs at top, ligules a dense band of short hairs.  Leaves long, fine, about 60 cm, inrolled when dry.  Flower spikelets dark gray-green 0.5-0.9 cm […]
Eragrostis Genus lovegrass Poaceae - Eragrostis is a genus of annual or perennial, C3 or C4 grasses.  Leaves alternate, sheaths hairy at top.  Flower spikelets with 3-many florets, generally flattened side to side and with a somewhat darkened herring-bone pattern; outer bracts of the spikelet (glumes) much shorter than the entire spkelet, florets awnless, not hairy; inflorescence generally open, diffusely branched (a panicle). First […]
Eragrostis minor little lovegrass Poaceae ERMI*; Bx, pb; Q; K, m (Zihao Wang, 10/2016); - Eragrostis minor is is an annual, C4 grass (Halvorson and Guertin 2003) densely tufted, 10-40 cm tall, usually reclining, base bent. Much like E. cilianensis; leaf sheaths hairy on margins sometimes on back.  Leaves alternate, 5-10 cm long, 0.3-0.5 cm wide (Hilty 2006).  Flower spikelets 0.4-1.1 cm long, 0.2 cm wide, 5-12 flowered, lemmas 0.2 cm, without glands; axils of […]
Eragrostis pectinacea Carolina lovegrass Poaceae ERPE; Bx, sw; NY, hb, mn; Q, j; K, fs, lk, pl; R, c, fk, is, sb, sm; -   Eragrostis pectinacea is an annual C4 grass (Ludwig et al. 2010), slender, short, densely tufted, 10-60 cm tall, erect, or bent only at base, often branching from lower nodes, sheaths shorter than internodes, top of sheath with long-hairy lobes, ligule a band of short hairs.  Leaves alternate, 2.5-10 cm long (Hilty 2006), 0.1-0.4 cm wide.  Flower spikelets […]
Eragrostis pilosa India lovegrass Poaceae ERPI*; Q; R; - Eragrostis pilosa is an annual C4 grass (Watling and Press 1998) slender, short, densely tufted, 10-60 cm tall, erect, or bent only at base, often branching from lower nodes, sheaths shorter than internodes, top of sheath with long-hairy lobes, ligule a band of short hairs. Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.3 cm wide.  Flower spikelets about 0.1-0.2 cm wide, 5-17 flowered, […]
Eragrostis spectabilis purple lovegrass Poaceae ERSP; Bx, pb, wv; Q, j; K, fl, m, pl; R, ty; - Eragrostis spectabilis is a perennial C4 grass (Wilson and Hartnett 1998; Hilty 2006) from a short rhizome, 30-50 cm, tufted, stems stiff, tough, short; sheaths overlapping, sometimes long-hairy when young, densely long-hairy at top, ligules of long hairs.  Leaves alternate, 3-4 per stem (Hilty 2006) firm, stiff, shiny, to 25 cm long, 0.3-0.8 cm wide, tapering to […]
Eriophorum virginicum tawny cottongrass Cyperaceae ERVI; R; - Eriophorum virginicum is a perennial grass-like (graminoid) plant, stems wiry, solitary or few, 40 cm to 1.2 m long, base rooting freely, colonial from rhizomes.  Leaves flat, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, bracts below inflorescence 2, 4-12 cm, longer than inflorescence.  Flower spikelets in a dense cluster 1.5-6 cm wide, scales reddish-brown, ribbed, bristles numerous, tan to coppery-reddish, Aug.-Oct.  […]
Festuca brevipila (F. ovina) sheep fescue; hard fescue Poaceae FEOV*; NY ct; Q, fr, j; K, pl; R, w; -   Festuca brevipila is a perennial C3 grass (Koukoura 1998), about 30 cm tall, densely tufted; flowering stems wiry, much longer than leaves, thin.  Leaves alternate, basal leaves wiry, hair-like, dense, most much shorter than flowering stems, blue-green (Gargiullo pers. obs.), blades very narrow, 0.05 cm wide, leaf sheaths of flowering stems open to base, margins overlapping, basal […]
Festuca rubra red fescue; Chewing’s fescue Poaceae FERU*; Bx, pb; NY, bl; Q, j; R, c; -   Festuca rubra is a perennial C3 grass (Turner et al. 2006; Basinger 2002), loosely tufted, stems often bent near base, slender, 30-100 cm tall, often colonial from rhizomes; lower sheaths closed, reddish when young, older sheaths disintegrating into brown fibers.  Leaves alternate, basal leaves very short, wiry, stem leaves few, short, about 0.1-0.3 cm wide, usually […]
Festuca trachyphylla hard fescue Poaceae FETR*; R; - Festuca trachyphylla is a perennial grass much like F. ovina.  Leaves alternate, rough textured, about 0.1 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 0.7-1 cm long 4-8 flowered, lemmas 0.4-0.5 cm.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  Origin: Europe.  Habitat: Open areas, lawns, roadsides. Weedy turf grass of open areas.  
Fimbristylis autumnalis slender fimbry Cyperaceae FIAU; R; - Fimbristylis autumnalis is an annual sedge, tufted, to 20 cm tall, stems flattened, often rough-edged.  Leaves to 0.4 cm wide, shorter than inflorescence, ligule of short hairs; inflorescence bracts sheathless, mostly shorter than flowering stems.  Flower spikelets 0.3-0.7 cm long, brown, in loose, branched, umbrella-shaped clusters, scales keeled, bristle-tipped, achene 0.1 cm long 3-sided.  Wetland status: FACW.  […]
Glyceria obtusa coastal mannagrass Poaceae GLOB; R; - Glyceria obtusa is a perennial grass 60 cm to 1 m tall, freely branched;  Leaves with sheaths closed except at top, ligule less than 0.1 cm, stem leaves 3-6, 0.3-0.8 cm wide, rough textured above.  Flower spikelets 3-7 flowered, 0.4-0.7 cm long, glumes broad, lemmas blunt to 0.4 cm; inflorescence branched, very contracted, thick, dense, cylindrical to […]
Glyceria striata fowl mannagrass Poaceae GLST; Bx, pb, sf; Q, a (planted?), cu; R, bm, gb, h, lt, t, wp, wt;  - Glyceria striata is a perennial C3 grass (Morgan and Brown 1979; Basinger 2002), tufted, 50 cm to 1.2 m tall, slender, delicate, pale, slightly blue-green.  Leaves very distinctly ranked in one plane, especially on non-flowering stems, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, uppermost 10-30 cm long, flat, rough above, ligule 0.1-0.3 cm, sheaths rough, closed almost to top.  Flower spikelets pale […]
Hierochloe odorata sweet grass; holy grass; vanilla grass Poaceae HIOD*; Bx, pb; NY, iw; R, sm, t; - Hierochloe odorata is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 30-60 cm tall, colonial from rhizomes, plant fragrant, stems arising from among dead leaves of previous season; fertile stem emerging early in season, withering soon after flowering.  Leaves of fertile shoots with sheaths bladeless or with a few short blades to 3 cm long at most, […]
Holcus lanatus velvet grass Poaceae HOLA*; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q j; R, e, h, js; -   Holcus lanatus is a perennial, C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), tufted, to 0.2-1 m tall; most parts velvety-hairy, pale grayish green.  Leaves 0.4-1 cm wide. Usually hairy and gray-green (Gargiullo per. obs.). Flower spikelets gray-green to pinkish or purple, 0.3-0.6 cm long, crowded, hairy (Thompson and Turkington 1988) glumes hairy, hiding 2-flowered spikelet, lower floret fertile, […]
Hordeum jubatum squirreltail grass Poaceae HOJU(*); Bx, pb; NY; Q, j; K; R, fk, jl, mm, sb, v, wt, -   Hordeum jubatum is a perennial (annual or biennial according to Fernald) C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 60 cm, stems tufted, from fibrous roots, pale green turning purplish, then pale tan.  Leaves small, to 0.6 cm wide, several along stem, gray-green or purplish, twisted, softly hairy on both sides, ligule 0.1 cm, membranous.  Flower spikelets in sets […]
Hordeum murinum wild barley Poaceae HOMU*; Bx, pb; -   Hordeum murinum is an annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), to 40 cm tall, upper margin of sheath with lobes about 0.3 cm, ligule truncate, membranous. Leaves flat, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, prominent, ear-shaped extensions (auricles) at tops of sheaths. Flower spikelets in sets of 3, only the central one fertile, glumes of central spikelet […]
Hordeum pusillum little barley Poaceae HOPU(*); Bx, pb; -   Hordeum pusillum is an annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), to 10-40 cm tall. Leaves flat, 6 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, sheath margin not lobed.  Flower spikelets in sets of 3, the lateral ones small, awn-tipped, glumes about 1 cm, lemma short-awned; inflorescence spike 2-7 cm long, erect; May-June;  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency […]
Juncus acuminatus taper-tip rush Juncaceae  JUAC; Bx, pb; Q, cu, j; R, c, cp, e, gr, h, k, t, w;  - Juncus acuminatus is a perennial rush 20-80 cm tall, clumped, erect.  Leaves usually 2, internally partitioned along length (septate; run leaf between fingers feel for regularly spaced bumps), grass-like 0.1-0.3 cm thick.  Flower heads 5-20, fairly dense, 10-50 flowered, 0.6-1 cm wide, rounded on top with flattened or conical base; scales small, membranous, among flowers, petals (tepals) […]
Juncus articulatus jointed rush Juncaceae JUAR; R; sb (Zihao Wang 2016); - Juncus articulatus is a perennial rush 10-60 cm tall, stems arising along a rhizome in loose clumps.  Leaves alternate, 2-4 on stem, 2-15 cm long, about 0.1 cm wide, round in cross section, containing spongy, loose tissue that holds air (aerenchyma), and crossed at intervals by partitions (use lens, hold leaf to light or run leaf […]
Juncus brachycarpus short-fruit rush Juncaceae JUBR; Bx, pb; - Juncus brachycarpus is a perennial rush 30-80 cm tall, stems from along a stout white, rhizome.  Leaves usually 2, round, internally partitioned.  Flower heads round, 2-10, 0.7-1 cm wide, densely flowered, bristly, flowers dull brown to pale green, sepals 0.3-0.4 cm slightly longer than petals, both narrowly lance-shaped, stamens 3, shorter than sepals; inflorescence branched, longer than […]
Juncus bufonius toad rush Juncaceae JUBU; Q, j; K, fs; R, bm (planted), cp, sb; - Juncus bufonius is an annual rush to 30 cm tall, tufted, often branched.  Leaves alternate, from base and stem, thread-like, 0.5-10 cm long to 0.1 cm wide, lower surface rounded, upper surface flat or channeled.  Flowers in clusters of 2-4, scattered along stems, above tiny membranous bracts 0.1-0.2 cm long, petals linear, 0.3-0.6 cm midrib green, margins […]
Juncus canadensis Canada rush Juncaceae JUCA; Q, a; R, gr; -   Juncus canadensis is a perennial rush, 20-80 cm tall, clumped, stems stiffly erect, smooth.  Leaves round in cross section, with horizontal partitions (septate), slender, about 0.2 cm thick.  Flower heads 2-20, rounded on top with flattened or conical base, petals to about 0.4 cm, sepals green, pointed, about equal to the capsule; inflorescence at top of […]
Juncus compressus roundfruit rush Juncaceae  JUCO2*; R, h; - Juncus compressus is a perennial rush ; clumped, spreading from a horizontal rhizome about 40 cm long, 0.2 cm wide, stems flattened.  Leaves of flowering stems 1-2, about 12 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, grooved, leaf sheaths open ca 4 cm; basal leaves about 15 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, blades flat.  Flowers numerous; inflorescence, branches erect.  […]
Juncus effusus soft rush Juncaceae  JUEF; Bx, pb, rd (planted), sf (planted), vc; NY, ct; Q, cu, f, j, u, wl; K, fs; R, ah, bd, c, ca, cb, cs, e, fk, go, gr, h, js, lp, mls, r, ro, rw, sp, sv, t, v, w, wp; - Juncus effusus is a perennial C3 rush (Kresovich et al. 1982), stems to about 70 cm long, 0.3 cm wide; densely tufted and also colonial from a thick rhizome; semi-evergreen.  Leaves reduced to reddish-brown basal sheaths, to 20 cm long, stems smooth to very finely ridged, dark green, cylindrical.  Flowers 0.2-0.4 cm long, greenish-tan with whitish anthers, filaments […]
Juncus Genus rush Juncaceae - Juncus is a genus of grass-like or sedge-like herbs, stems round in cross-section (not triangular).  Leaves few to none, with or without blade, sheaths open.  Flowers with both stamens and ovary (perfect); 3-parted, petals and sepals in two separate whorls, alike, stiff, thin, dry (chaffy), narrow, pointed; stamens 3 or 6, stigmas 3; flowers often in tight […]
Juncus gerardii black grass Juncaceae  JUGE; Bx, pb; Q, j, rw; K, m; R, c, gr, mm, sm; - Juncus gerardii is a perennial, C3 rush (Theodose and Roths 1999) 20-60 cm tall, in small tufts, colonial from rhizomes.  Leaves of stems 1-2, to 20 cm long, sheath of upper one extending half-way up stem, top of sheath entire, blades rouded.  Flowers dry, radially symmetrical, purple-brown, 3-parted, about 0.3 cm long,not in heads, petals and sepals alike, […]
Juncus greenei Green’s rush Juncaceae JUGR; R, cp, sb (Zihao Wang 2016); - Juncus greenei is a perennial rush, 40-80 cm tall, stems robust, dark green, in small tufts, few together.  Leaves all basal, blades 5-20 cm long, filament-like, deeply channeled in cross section (interior not partitioned), leaves of inflorescence 2-15 cm long.  Flowers 0.2-0.4 cm long, petal tips pointed; inflorescence brownish, compact, 2-5 cm long.  Fruit about 0.4 cm long […]
Juncus marginatus grass-leaved rush Juncaceae JUMA; Q; R; k, sb (Zihao Wang 2016); - Juncus marginatus is a perennial rush, 20-50 cm tall in tussocks, stems bulbous at base.  Leaves with membranous lobes at top of sheaths, blades flat, soft, the lowest leaves 4-20 cm long, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, 3-veined, inflorescence bract, 2-15 cm long, shorter to not much longer than inflorescence.  Flowers 2-12, per head, each about 0.3 cm long, […]
Juncus scirpoides needle-pod rush Juncaceae JUSC; Q; R, cp; - Juncus scirpoides is a perennial rush, stems slender, 30-80 cm tall, arising along a stout rhizome.  Leaves usually two, sheaths broad, open, lobed at top, blade round in cross section, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, with horizontal partitions, (run leaf between fingers to feel these).  Flowers 0.3-0.4 cm long, petals ridged, narrow, bristle-tipped, sharp, green, becoming brown with age; […]
Juncus tenuis path rush Juncaceae  JUTE; Bx, br, bz, cn, hi, pb, sf, sn, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw, rr, tr; Q, a, cu, f, fr, i, j, ri, tl, wl; K, fs; R, ah, ar, bg, bm, c, cg, cl, cp, d, e, fk, gb, h, is, jl, js, k, lp, mm, sb, sm, sv, t, v, w, wp, wt;  - Juncus tenuis is a perennial, C3 rush (Basinger 2002), tufted, 10-80 cm tall (mostly less than about 30 cm), stems wiry, slender. Leaves to 10-30 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, flat or becoming in-rolled, all basal or nearly basal, sheath margins membranous, the top lobed. Flowers radially symmetrical, sepals and petals to 0.5 cm, longer than fruit, […]
Juncus torreyi Torrey’s rush Juncaceae JUTO; Q; - Juncus torreyi is a perennial rush, stems 40 cm to 1 m tall, stiff, singly from along rhizomes with tuberous swellings.  Leaves alternate, 2-5, sheath margins pale, membranous, lobes at top 0.2-0.5 cm long, blade round in cross section with horizontal partitions (septate), 10-30 cm long, 0.1-0.3 cm wide.  Flowers about 0.5 cm, petals slightly shorter than […]
Leersia oryzoides rice cut-grass Poaceae LEOR; Bx, pb, sf, vc; NY, ct; R, bd, e, gb, lp, o, rw, w; -   Leersia oryzoides is a perennial C3 grass (Reich et al. 2003), to 1.5 m, aggressively colonial by rhizomes, rooting at nodes; stems thin, reclining, sprawling, distally erect, freely branching.  Leaves thin, bright green, main blades 15-30 cm long, 0.6-1.5 cm wide; sheaths and leaves very rough textured, raspy.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, 0.4-0.7 cm, overlapping in clusters at […]
Leersia virginica white grass Poaceae LEVI; Bx, bg, br, pb, sf, sl, sn, vc; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, a, cr, cu, f, lk; R ah, ca, cp, d, gb, h, k, lp, sv, w; -   Leersia virginica is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), 50 cm to 1.5 m long, sprawling, branching, colonial, from short, thick rhizomes, stems rooting at nodes when in contact with soil (never forming stilt roots), nodes usually finely hairy.  Leaves with sheaths smooth to somewhat rough, ligule membranous, short, blunt; blade 5-20 cm long, 0.3-1.5 cm […]
Leptochloa fascicularis var. maritima (Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis; Diplachne acuminata) sprangle-top Poaceae LEFA; R, bk; - Leptochloa fascicularis var. maritima is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) to 50 cm, erect to prostrate, tufted, densely branched from base.  Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, rough above, ligule to 0.6 cm, membranous.  Flower spikelets 6-12, to 1 cm long, glumes narrow, the 1st about 0.3 cm, the second 0.4-0.7 cm long, lemmas 0.4-0.5 cm, […]
Lolium perenne perennial ryegrass Poaceae  LOPE*; Bx, cn, pb, sd, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct; Q, f, j, rw; R, bm, c, js, wp; - Lolium perenne Short-lived perennial C3 grass (Wand et al. 1999), tufted; stems 30-90 cm, slender.  Leaves less than 0.4 cm wide basal leaves short, fine.  Flower spikelet 5-22 flowered, glume single on outside edge of spikelet, 0.4-1.2 cm, herbaceous, shorter than spikelet, lemmas with or without awns, lowest 0.2-0.8 cm, reduced upwards; Inflorescence spike 10-20 cm, spikelets on […]
Luzula multiflora  (L. campestris var. m.) common wood rush Juncaceae LUMU; Bx, pb, vc; NY, hb, iw; Q, a, cu; R, bd, gb, h, lt, t; -   Luzula multiflora is a perennial rush, 20-40 cm tall, densely clumped, often reddish in bloom, long-hairy.  Leaves: basal leaves several, stem leaves 2-3, blades flat, about 10 cm long, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, hairy at base and margins, tip slender.  Flowers in small, dense clusters of 7-15, petals lance-shaped, about 0.3 cm long, brown, inflorescence bracts […]
Microstegium vimineum  (Eulalia v.) Japanese stilt grass Poaceae MIVI*p; Bx, sf; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, a, f; R, bd, cp, gb, is, lp, pc, sv, wp; -   Microstegium vimineum is an annual, C4 grass (Winter et al. 1982 Horton and Neufeld 1997), 60 cm to 1 m long at flowering time, slender, reclining, branching, aggressively clonal, rooting at nodes, adventitious roots often long, branching, stilt-like; stems smooth, wiry, upper stems often turning purplish late in season, nodes smooth; sheath margins hairy near […]
Miscanthus sinensis eulalia Poaceae MISI*; Bx, pb, wv; R, gw; -   Miscanthus sinensis is a perennial C4 grass (Horton et al. 2010), 2-3 m tall, in large tufts, stout.  Leaves alternate, to 1 m long, 1 cm wide, margins raspy, mostly on lower half of stem.  Flower spikelets in pairs, 1-flowered, glumes 0.3-0.4 cm, above a ring of long hairs, lemmas shorter than glumes awned to 0.6 cm; […]
Muhlenbergia frondosa wire-stemmed muhly Poaceae MUFR; R, lp; -   Muhlenbergia frondosa is a perennial C4 grass (Smith and Martin 1987), 50 cm to 1 m tall, extensively colonial from rhizomes, plants dull bluish-green, stems at first erect, simple, later freely branched from base or middle nodes, branches forking, often bushy, sprawling, internodes smooth, shiny, sheaths loose, compressed laterally; ligule about 0.1 cm, membranous, fringed […]
Muhlenbergia schreberi nimblewill Poaceae MUSC; Bx, br, bz, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb; Q, ft, j; R, gb, lp, sv, wt; -   Muhlenbergia schreberi is a perennial C4 grass (Smith and Martin 1987; Basinger 2002), 20-60 cm tall, slow growing; tufted, later sprawling, rooting at lower nodes becoming colonial, wispy, dark gray-green; sheaths usually shorter than internodes, ligule hairy, minute, hairy around base of blade-top of sheath.  Leaves alternate, 2-8 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, to […]
Panicum amarum bitter panic grass Poaceae PAAM; Q, i (planted), j; R, c, ok; -   Panicum amarum is a perennial C4 grass (Aliscioni et al.), stems 1-2 m tall, solitary or in small clusters, colonial from deep rhizomes, plants very waxy blue-green, ligule of dense white hairs up to about 0.3 cm long.  Leaves alternate, elongate, to 50 cm long, 1 cm wide.  Flowers dry, papery, spikelets 1-flowered, 0.5-0.7 cm, tip tapered; […]
Panicum capillare witch grass Poaceae PACA; Bx, pb; Q, j; R, k; - Panicum capillare is an annual, C4 grass (Downton 1971), to 70 cm tall, densely tufted, coarse, sheaths rough-hairy, branched from base.  Leaves 0.6-1.7 cm wide, bristly-hairy from wart-like bases.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, 0.2-0.3 cm long, tips pointed, mostly on long stalks sometimes self pollinating (Clements et al. 2004); inflorescence large, often purple, diffusely branched, sometimes two thirds height […]
Panicum dichotomiflorum fall panic grass Poaceae PADI; Bx, br, pb; NY, bl, hb, rr; Q, i, j, lk; K, m; R, bd, bm, lt, sv, w, wp; -   Panicum dichotomiflorum is an annual, tufted, C4 grass (Downton 1971), to 1 m (usually smaller), often very stout and coarse, partly reddish, base of stem to 1 cm wide, lower nodes swollen, stems usually reclining or bent near base, compressed, often zigzagging from node to node, branched from base and nodes, hairless.  Leaves large, 2-50 cm […]
Panicum Genus panic-grass Poaceae - Panicum is a genus of perennial or annual, C3 or C4 grasses, with no overwintering rosette (see Dichanthelium genus).  Leaves alternate; the junction of the stem with the base of the leaf blade (ligule) often hairy.  Flowers (florets) dry, papery,  spikelets without awns, terminal flower with both stamens and ovary (perfect), other flowers below it may be empty or with […]
Panicum miliaceum proso millet; broomcorn millet Poaceae PAMI*; NY, mn, rr; - Panicum miliaceum is an annual, large, C4 grass (Downton 1971), to 60 cm, stout, from thick, white roots, sheaths and internodes very hairy, hairs to 0.4 cm long, nodes with both long and short hairs.  Leaves alternate, large, corn-like, to 40 cm long, 2 cm wide, blade dark green, smooth, rounded at base, ligule a band of […]
Panicum philadelphicum Philadelphia panic grass Poaceae PAPH; R; -   Panicum philadelphicum is an annual C4 grass (Aliscioni et al.), 10-50 cm tall, slender, branched from base.  Leaves yellow-green, 0.3-0.8 cm wide. Sheaths and leaves often bristly-hairy.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered, about 0.2 cm long, egg-shaped, mostly paired at ends of very thin stalks.  Fruit becoming black; June-Oct.  Wetland status: FAC- (USDA, NRCS 2010).  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  […]
Panicum rigidulum (P. agrostoides) red top panic Poaceae PARI; Bx, pb; Q; R; - Panicum rigidulum is a perennial C3/C4 (intermediate Kranz/non-Kranz photosynthetic pathway) grass (Aliscioni et al.), coarse, tufted, to 1.5 m tall from a short root crown, tough, leafy base strongly flattened; ligule short, membranous, top ragged, sheaths flattened, keeled, hairless. Leaves of stem 20-40 cm, long, 0.4-1 cm wide, often longer than inflorescence, basal leaves crowded, […]
Panicum virgatum switchgrass Poaceae PAVI; Bx, cm (planted), pb; NY; Q, a, cu, dp, fa, fr, i, j, tl; K, fl, m, pl, wl; R, bd, bm, c, ca, ch, d, e, fk, gb, go, gr, h, is, jl, jw, k, lc, lp, ml (Torrey 2017), ok, pr, sb, sm, sv, t, v, wp; - Panicum virgatum is an upright perennial, C4 metabolism (Aliscioni et al. 2003), to 2 m tall, large clumps from rhizomes, sometimes slightly pale-waxy, winter stems tan, persistent. Leaves with lower sheaths longer than internodes, ligules silky-hairy; blades 20-50 cm long, to 1.5 cm wide. Flower spikelets 1-flowered, sparse, egg-shaped, 0.2-0.5 cm, wider at top from […]
Paspalum laeve var. pilosum hairy field bead-grass Poaceae PALA; Bx, pb; - Paspalum laeve var. pilosum is a perennial grass 30-80 cm tall, usually several stems together, sheaths keeled, mostly loose, hairy. Leaves mostly crowded near base of plant; blade 5-25 cm long, 0.3-1 cm wide, hairy. Flower spikelets 1-flowered, about 0.2-0.3 cm, egg-shaped, flat on front side, rounded on the back, in two rows, crowded and […]
Paspalum setaceum (P. ciliatifolium) thin paspalum; bead grass Poaceae PASE; Bx, br, pb; K, pl; - Paspalum setaceum is a perennial C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) from a knotty rhizome, tufted, stems sometimes long hairy, 30 cm to 1 m tall, often prostrate; sheath keeled on back, loose, often separated from stem at top, ligule tan, membranous 0.1 cm. Leaves 5-30 cm long, 0.2-1.5 cm wide, margins hairy, sometimes hairy […]
Phalaris arundinacea reed canary-grass Poaceae PHAR(*); Bx, pb; R, o, w; - Phalaris arundinacea is a perennial C3 grass (Kresovich et al. 1982), 70-150 cm, extensively and aggressively colonial by rhizomes, stems stout, branched, stem smooth. Leaves with sheath open, rather loose, hairless, generally shorter than internodes, ligule membranous, about 0.4 cm long; blades 10-20 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, dark green, somewhat rough on both sides. […]
Phleum pratense timothy Poaceae PHPR*; Bx, pb, wv; NY, ct; Q, a, j, tl, u; R, bg, c, cl, cp, cs, e, js; - Phleum pratense is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 50 cm to 1 m tall, stem bases bulbous, plant rather pale blue-green, later turning tan. Leaves flat, 0.5-0.8 cm wide, margins rough. Flower spikelets 1-flowered, flat, glumes truncate, short-awned (Foxtail grasses have longer awns and appear hairy, much less dense); inflorescence cylindrical, 5-10 […]
Phragmites australis (P. communis) common reed Poaceae PHAU*; Bx, hi, ht, pb, sf, sn, vc; NY, bl, ct, rr, wr; Q, a, cu, dp, fa, fr, i, bw, j, rb, tl, u, vb, wl; K, do, fl, fs, m, p, pl; R, ah, ar, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cp, e, fk, gb, go, gr, gw, h, hs, is, jl, js, k, lc, lp, mc, ml, mls, mm, o, ok, pm, pr, r, rw, se, sb, sm, sv, t, ty, v, w, wt, x; - Phragmites australis is a perennial C3 grass (Mal and Narine 2004; Kresovich et al. 1982) to 4 m tall; extensively colonial, dense monocultures from thick rhizome mats; rhizomes usually over 1.5 cm wide, generally oval in cross section; stems stout, erect, tough and rigid, gray-green, winter stems persistent, tan, texture of stem under leaf sheath […]
Piptochaetium avenaceum (Stipa avenacea) black seed speargrass Poaceae PIAV; Bx, pb; - Piptochaetium avenaceum is a perennial grass 50 cm to 1 m tall, stems loosely tufted; sheaths shorter than internodes, ligule 0.2-0.3 cm. Leaves of two types: basal leaves 20-30 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, usually inrolled, stem leaves 4-10 cm. Flower spikelets 1-flowered, narrow, papery, base densely brownish-hairy and sharply pointed, glumes about 1 cm […]
Poa annua low spear grass Poaceae POAN*; Bx, br, pb, sf, vc; NY, bl, ct, hb; Q, cu, f, j; K, p, m; R, bm, rw; bd, gb, h; - Poa annua is an annual or winter annual C3 grass (Bassinger 2002), sometimes a short-lived perennial (2-3 years), tufted, to 30 cm tall, often much shorter, sometimes rooting at nodes and forming mats. Leaves soft, 0.1-0.5 cm wide, hairless, tip boat-shaped, usually bright green, basal leaves to 15 cm long, often wrinkled when young, sheaths […]
Poa compressa Canada bluegrass Poaceae POCO2*; Bx, pb, sd, sl; NY, ct, rr; Q, fr, j, ri, tl; K, p; R, d, fk, lp, se; - Poa compressa is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), erect, to 70 cm from long rhizomes, (not tufted), stems often appearing evenly spaced, sharply flattened, 2-edged, especially near top, stems leafy, somewhat dull, blue-green (Gargiullo pers. obs.); late summer-fall basal leaves dark green, elongate (ca 45 cm long). Leaves alternate, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, […]
Poa Genus bluegrass Poaceae - Poa is a genus of annual or perennial C3 grasses. Leaves with a distinctive, blunt, boat-shaped tip; leaf sheaths free (except base), margins overlapping. Flower spikelets 2-several flowered, the upper florets small or vestigial, awnless, laterally compressed; glumes (2 bracts at the base of the spikelet) shorter than spikelet, 1st glume often 1-veined, the 2nd […]
Poa nemoralis wood bluegrass Poaceae PONE*; Bx, pb; - Poa nemoralis is a perennial about 50 cm tall, slender, tufted. Leaves 0.1-0.2 cm wide, some above middle of stem, upper blades about as long as lower, leaf tips boat-shaped, ligule about 0.5 cm long. Flowers spikelets on outer half of branch, about 3 flowered, lemmas with 3 hairy veins, webbed at base; inflorescence lax, […]
Poa palustris fowl meadow grass Poaceae POPA; R, bd; - Poa palustris is a perennial, 50 cm to 1.5 m tall, tufted from fibrous roots, stem bases purplish. Leaves with sheaths fairly loose, ligule 0.3-0.5 cm long, membranous; blades 0.1-0.2 cm wide. Flower spikelets 2-4 flowered, first glume about 0.2 cm, second 0.2-0.3 cm, lemmas webbed at base, 3-5 veins; inflorescence 10-30 cm long, slightly […]
Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass Poaceae POPR*; Bx, pb; NY, bl, ct, iw, rr; Q, j, wl; K, m; R, c, d, gb, mls, rc, w, wp; - Poa pratensis is a perennial cool season C3 grass (Basinger 2002), flowering stems 30 cm 1 m; sod forming by rhizomes, also tufted in open areas; stems to 0.3 cm diameter, often bent at base, thin, smooth, pale, shiny; ligule membranous, to 0.1 cm long (shorter than wide). Leaves of basal tufts 15-30 cm long,, 0.3-0.6 […]
Poa sylvestris woodland bluegrass Poaceae POSY; Q; K; - Poa sylvestris is a perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), 40-80 cm tall, stems tufted, slightly flattened. Leaves with sheaths shorter than internodes, ligule 0.1-0.2 cm; blades 0.3-0.5 cm wide, mostly along stem, soft, elongate. Flower spikelets 2-5 flowered, 0.3-0.4 cm long, glumes and lemmas about 0.2-0.3 cm, lemmas finely hairy, base webbed; inflorescence 10-20 cm […]
Poa trivialis rough bluegrass Poaceae POTR*; Bx, pb, sd, wv; Q; R, w; - Poa trivialis is a perennial C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), to 1 m tall, stems tufted, prostrate at base (kneeling) sometimes with short stolons; sheaths rough, ligule to 0.7 cm long, longer than wide, membranous. Leaves alternate, blade soft, long, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, tip boat-shaped. Flower spikelets 0.3-0.4 cm long, flattened, numerous, crowded, 2-3 […]
Puccinellia distans European alkali-grass Poaceae PUDI*; Bx, pb; R; - Puccinellia distans is a perennial or annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 10-50 cm tall, tufted, stems bent near base, leaf sheath open, ligule less than 0.2 cm. Leaves 3.5-10 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide. Flower spikelets 0.3-0.5 cm, 3-7 flowers, very finely hairy, glumes 0.1-0.2 cm, glumes and lemmas with blunt, ragged tips; […]
Puccinellia maritima seaside alkali-grass Poaceae PUDI*; R; - Puccinellia maritima is a perennial, coarse, stems 30-80 cm tall, tufted, sometimes also colonial from creeping stems, ligule 0.1-0.2 cm. Leaves alternate, 2-17 cm long, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, often inrolled. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, outer scales (glumes) 0.2-0.4 cm, blunt-tipped, inner scale (lemma) about 0.4 cm, hairy at base, tip rounded; spikelets 5-11 flowered, 0.5-1.2 cm […]
Rhynchospora capitellata beak rush Cyperaceae RHCA; Q, j; R, gb, pc; - Rhynchospora capitellata is a perennial rush, to 80 cm tall, clumped. Leaves flat, about 0.2-0.3 cm wide. Flower spikelets brown, in half-round, head-like, short-branched clusters to 1.5 cm wide, scaly, to 0.5 cm, flowers 4-5, petals and sepals reduced to 6 bristles; seed (achene) lens-shaped, widest above middle, capped by persistent, expanded base of the […]
Schedonorus arundinaceus (Festuca elatior; F. arundinacea; Schedonorus phoenix; Lolium arundinaceum) tall fescue Poaceae FEEL*; Bx, pb, sd, NY, iw; Q, a, dp, j, ks, rw, tl; K, m; R, cg, d, e, is, js, jw, lp, mm, w; -   Schedonorus arundinaceus is a perennial C3 grass (Wand et al. 1999; Basinger 2002), coarse, tufted, flowering stems to 1.2 m tall; smooth, very tough, and firmly rooted (Gargiullo pers. obs.), sometimes with short rhizomes; sheath free, overlapping, old sheaths pale; prominent leaf base lobes (auriculate) that wrap around stem, margin of lobes with short, bristly […]
Schedonorus pratensis  (Festuca p.) meadow fescue; Kentucky bluegrass Poaceae FEPR*; Bx, vc; Q, f, wl; K, fl; R, c, js, lp, t; -   Schedonorus pratensis is a perennial, C3 grass (Wand et al. 1999), coarse, (much like S.. elatior) tufted. flowering stems to 1.2 m tall, smooth, base often bent (kneeling), very tough (Gargiullo pers. obs.), old sheaths, shredding to fibers.  Leaves alternate blades lax, not ridge-veined, to 0.5 cm wide, lobed at base (auriculate), lobes hairless, ligule very short, […]
Schizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon s.) little bluestem Poaceae SCSC; Bx, hi, pb; NY, hb,ct; Q, a, j, tl; K, m, pl; R, c, ca, d, gb, mls, sm, sv; - Schizachyrium scoparium is a C4 perennial  bunch grass (Downton 1971), 50-120 cm tall, can live 60 years; stems tufted, also sod-forming on moist soil; new shoots emerge in summer, stems often waxy blue-green before flowering; branching all along main stem; flowering branches solitary, extending well beyond leaves.  Leaves basal and along stems, 0.3-0.7 cm wide.  Flower spikes each […]
Schoenoplectus americanus  ( Scirpus a; Scirpus olneyi) Olney threesquare; chairmaker’s bulrush Cyperaceae SCAM; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q, a, cr, j, tl, u; R, bm, c, e, gr, lp, t; - Schoenoplectus americanus is a C3, perennial rush(Kresovich et al. 1982) to 2 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stem sharply 3-angled, stout, to 1 cm near base, with concave sides, dark slightly blue-green.  Leaves few, blade less than 10 cm long, to 1 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 2-15, sessile, in dense cluster, brown, appearing to arise from side of […]
Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens (Scirpus pungens; S. americanus misapplied) common threesquare Cyperaceae  SCPU; Q, j, u; R, bm, lp, t; - Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens is a C3 perennial rush (Bryson and Carter 1977) 15 cm to 1.5 m tall, colonial from rhizomes; stems 3-sided sides slightly convex to slightly concave.  Leaves all near base, 0.2-0.4 cm wide, blade elongate or sometimes reduced; inflorescence bract erect, 2-15 cm, appearing as a continuation of stem.  Flower spikelets 1-6, stalkless, in […]
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (Schoenoplectus lacustris; Scirpus validus; Scirpus lacustris) soft-stem bulrush Cyperaceae SCVA; Bx, pb; NY, ct (planted); Q, i (planted), j; R; - Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani is a perennial C3 rush (Bryson and Carter 1977) 1-3 m tall, colonial from rhizomes, stems soft, easily crushed between fingers.  Leaves few, mainly toward base, with well developed sheath, usually no blade.  Flower spikelets oval, reddish-brown, 0.5-0.9 cm long, scales overlapping; Inflorescence to 6 cm, loose, often drooping, open, branching, bract erect, 2-10 cm like […]
Scirpus atrovirens black bulrush Cyperaceae SCAT; Bx, pb, sf; NY, ct; Q, ri, u, wl; R, c, d, e, h, k, js, lp, mm; - Scirpus atrovirens is a perennial rush; tufted, to 1.5 m tall, dark green; rhizomes short, tough; stems 3-sided.  Leaves of flowering stems as many as ten, mostly below middle, to 1.8 cm wide; lower sheaths with short cross-veins (septate-nodulose).  Flower spikelets egg-shaped 0.2-0.8 cm, scales to 0.2 cm, blackish with green midrib ending in point; inflorescence usually […]
Scirpus cyperinus wool-grass Cyperaceae SCCY; Bx, pb; Q, j; K, m; R, ah, h, gb, gr, is, k, t, v, w; - Scirpus cyperinus is perennial, C3 sedge (Bryson and Carter 1977) to 2 m tall; clumped, forming dense tussocks from short, tough rhizomes; stems upright, sparsely colonial from short rhizomes.  Leaves alternate, linear, 0.3-1 cm wide, bright green, rigid, basal leaves apparently resprouting in late fall, semi-evergreen (Gargiullo personal observation); base of leaf sheaths green to brown; inflorescence […]
Scirpus Genus (including Schoenoplectus) bulrush Cyperaceae - Scirpus is a genus of perennial rushes (grass-like herbs), stems more-or-less 3-sided (trigonous), unbranched below the inflorescence. Leaves alternate, 3-ranked, appendages (ligule) present on the junction between the leaf sheath and the blade; blade with a sharp ridge along the underside (abaxially keeled). Bracts subtending the inflorescence 1-3, leaf-like, sometimes appearing as a continuation of […]
Scirpus pendulus  (S. lineatus) drooping bulrush Cyperaceae SCPE; Bx, pb;  - Scirpus pendulus is a perennial C3 rush (Bryson and Carter 1977) to 1.5 m tall, tufted, stems rigid, erect. Leaves 5-10, 0.3-1 cm wide, widely separated. Flower spikelets 0.6-1.3 cm long, one in each cluster stalkless, the others on stalks, often drooping, scales about 0.2 cm, tip pointed, central green stripe, sides reddish-brown, 6 bristles, curled, achene […]
Secale cereale annual rye Poaceae SECE*; Bx, pb; Q; R, ar; - Secale cereale is an annual or biennial, C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 60 cm to 1.2 m tall, cm, usually pale gray-green, branched from base.  Leaves alternate, flat, 0.3-0.7 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 2-flowered, borne flat against the axis of the spike along either side; glumes 0.8-1.5 cm, keeled, hairy on keel and veins, lemmas 1-1.6 cm, […]
Setaria faberi giant foxtail grass Poaceae SEFA*; Bx, cm, cn, pb; Q, lk; R, gb, lp, pr; - Setaria faberi is an annual, a C4 grass, robust, 50 cm to 2 m tall branching from near base, sheaths hairy along margins, ligule a dense band of hairs, about 0.1 cm long.  Leaves 15-30 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, rough on both sides, sparsely long-hairy above, hairs warty-based.  Flower spikelets 2 flowered (only one fertile) to 0.3 […]
Setaria Genus foxtail grass Poaceae - Setaria is a genus of annual or perennial, C4 grasses; stems usually in tufts. Leaves mostly along stems, various. Flower spikelets swollen, shiny, with a single fertile floret, lower floret sterile; outer scale of the fertile floret (lemma) often textured with small wavy ridges (rugulose); each spikelet subtended by 1-numerous bristles, these persistent after spikelet is shed; inflorescence […]
Setaria italica foxtail millet Poaceae SEIT*; R; - Setaria italica is an annual, C4 grass (Downton 1971), much like S. viridis but coarser.  Leaves 0.5-3 cm wide.  Flower spikelets 0.3 cm, fertile lemma smooth, shining, bristles green, brown, or purplish, grain dropping free of glumes inflorescence spike wider, 10-30 cm long, 0.7-3.5 cm wide, appearing densely shallow-lobed, tip often nodding.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  […]
Setaria parviflora (Setaria geniculata; Chaetochloa geniculata) marsh bristlegrass; knotroot Poaceae SEGE; Bx, pb; Q; R; - Setaria parviflora is a perennial, C4 grass (Rubio et al. 2010) 0.30 to 1.2 m tall, sparsely colonial from knotty short, branching rhizomes or stolons to 4 cm long, stems slender, wiry at base (Hitchcock 1950), 1-several; sheaths smooth. Leaves to 25 cm long, 0.2-0.8 cm wide, raspy textured above. Flower spikelets 0.2-0.3 cm; inflorescence spike cylindrical, 3-10 […]
Setaria pumila subsp. pumila (S. glauca; S. lutescens; Chaetochloa glauca) yellow foxtail Poaceae SEGL*; Bx, pb, sn; NY, bl; Q, a, f, ft, j; R, ar, c; - Setaria pumila subsp. pumila is an annual C4 grass (Downton 1971), tufted, 30-100 cm, erect to prostrate from fibrous roots, branching from base, stems somewhat flattened; sheath hairless (smooth), flattened, keeled; ligule a dense band of short hairs to 0.3 cm. Leaves alternate, to 30 cm long 0.4-1.0 cm wide, blade twisted in a loose spiral, rough […]
Setaria verticillata bristly foxtail Poaceae SEVI2*; NY, rr; R; - Setaria verticillata is an annual C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) to 1 m tall, much like the above. Leaves alternate, 10-25 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, rough on both sides, sheath margins hairy near top. Flower spikelets about 0.2 cm, first glume 1-veined, fertile lemma wrinkled horizontally; inflorescence erect, yellow-green to purplish 5-15 cm long, axis hairless, […]
Setaria viridis green foxtail-grass Poaceae SEVI*; Bx, cn, pb; NY, bl, ct, hb, mn, rr; Q, i, j, lk; K, fs, lf, pl; R, bm, cs, hs, jl, js, ty, w; - Setaria viridis is an annual C4 grass (Downton 1971), 20 cm to 1 m tall (usually no more than 40 cm), base bent, often tufted, branched, rooting at lower nodes; roots associated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, at least in young plants (Douglas at al. 1985); margin of sheath bristly, overlapping, inner margin membranous, ligule a fringe of […]
Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass Poaceae SONU; Bx, pb; NY, ct (planted); Q, i, j; R, c, gb, sm, sv, wp; - Sorghastrum nutans is a perennial, C4 grass (Downton 1971), tufted, persistent into winter, about 1.5 m tall, colonial from short rhizomes.  Leaves alternate, 0.5-1 cm wide. Ligule with two elongate lobes. Flower spikelets gold-brown, to 0.8 cm, fuzzy, with long bent bristle ca. 1 cm long; blooms late spring (USDA, NRCS 2010) Seeds ripe Sept. dispersed through winter.  […]
Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh cordgrass Poaceae SPAL; Bx, hi, pb; NY iw; Q, a, fr, i, j, vb; K, do, fl, fs, m, pl; R, am, c, go, gr, h, lc, mc, pr, sm, sp, t, v, wp, wt; - Spartina alterniflora is a perennial C4 grass (Boyle and Patriquin 1981), 50 cm to 2.5 m tall, clonal from long, soft, stout rhizomes; stems large, coarse, fleshy, spongy, often to 1 cm diameter, sulfurous when bruised; disintegrates quickly in winter.  Leaves alternate, flat, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, smooth, thick, tough.  Flowers dry, papery, spikelets about 1 cm long, 1-flowered; […]
Spartina cynosuroides big cordgrass Poaceae SPCY; Bx, pb; NY, iw; Q, i; K, pl; R; - Spartina cynosuroides is a perennial C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 1-3 m tall, stems coarse, colonial from long stout rhizomes.  Leaves alternate, 0.8-2 cm wide, with rough, cutting margins.  Flower spikelets overlapping, dry, papery; inflorescence dense with numerous, crowded, one-sided spikes; blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct.(Hough 1983).  Fruit dry 1-seeded.  Wetland status: OBL.  Frequency in NYC: Infrequent.  Origin: Native.  […]
Spartina patens salt-meadow cordgrass Poaceae SPPA; Bx, pb; Q, a, dp, fa, fr, i, j; K, fl, fs, m, pl; R, am, c, gr, lc, mc, mls, ok, pr, sm; - Spartina patens is a perennial C4 grass (Day et al. 2001) 30 cm to 1 m tall, densely colonial from slender rhizomes, new growth arising from matted plants of previous season, stems fine, wiry. Leaves 4-30 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, inrolled; tawny to reddish in winter. Flowers dry, papery; spikelets 0.9-1.3 cm, closely overlapping along one side […]
Spartina pectinata prairie cord-grass Poaceae SPPE; Bx, pb; Q, tl;R; - Spartina pectinata is a perennial C4 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979) 1-2 m tall, stems 0.5-1 cm diameter at base, erect, colonial from long rhizomes. Leaves 30-80 cm long, 0.8-1 cm wide or more, margins very sharply, cutting-raspy. Flower spikelets closely overlapping on 2 sides of a 3-sided axis, 1-flowered, about 1-1.3 cm long, awn 0.3-1 cm from […]
Sphenopholis obtusata prairie wedge-grass Poaceae SPOB; R; - Sphenopholis obtusata is an annual or short-lived perennial C3 grass (Basinger 2002), 20-120 cm tall, stems tufted or solitary; ligules about 0.2-0.3 cm, membranous, fringed. Leaves less than 10 cm long, 0.2-0.8 cm wide. Flower spikelets 2-flowered, flattened, glumes keeled, unequal, first to 0.1-0.3 cm long, second 0.1-0.4 cm, broader, lemmas about 0.2-0.4 cm; ; inflorescence to 20 […]
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus  (S. asper) tall dropseed Poaceae SPAS; Bx, pb; K, pl; R; - Sporobolus compositus var. compositus is a perennial C4  grass (Hilty 2006) to 1.5 m tall; stems to 0.5 cm thick, sheaths overlapping, long-hairy around top.  Leaves alternate, to 0.4 cm wide, about as long as stems, often longer than inflorescence, hairy near base, above.  Flower spikelets 1-flowered to 0.6 cm, glumes 1-veined, first glume 0.2-0.4 cm, second […]
Sporobolus vaginiflorus poverty grass Poaceae SPVA; Bx, pb; Q, j; R, lt; - Sporobolus vaginiflorus is an annual C4 grass (Hilty 2006), wispy, tufted, shallow-rooted, 20-50 cm, stems thin, wiry; sheaths 1.5-5 cm long, often long-hairy at top, ligule tiny or none. Leaves alternate, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, becoming short near top of stems. Flower spikelets 1-flowered, 0.4-0.6 cm long, papery, whitish, glumes sub-equal ca 3-4.5 mm, lemmas 3-5 mm, finely hairy, […]
Tridens flavus  (Triodia f.) purpletop Poaceae TRFL; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu, j; R, lp, ml, sb, ty; - Tridens flavus is a perennial C4 grass (Basinger 2002), 80 cm to1.5 m, tufted, sometimes with short rhizomes also, stems sticky near top, sheaths hairy at top, juncture with blade often red, ligule a dense band of very short tan hairs, less than 0.1 cm long.  Leaves elongate, 0.3-0.8 cm wide, shiny dark green, tapered to slender […]
Triplasis purpurea purple sand-grass Poaceae TRPU; Q, j; K, m, pl; R, mb; - Triplasis purpurea is an annual C4 grass (Hilty 2006), 20- 80 cm tall, tufted, stems spreading or reclining, stiff, nodes swollen, white hairy, ligule of short hairs.  Leaves small, stiff, rough above, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, shorter than sheaths, upper leaves much reduced.  Flowers dry, papery, glumes to 0.4 cm, lemmas hairy on veins, apex 2-lobed with short, hairy […]
Tripsacum dactyloides gamma-grass Poaceae TRDA; Bx, pb; Q; R, c, lt; - Tripsacum dactyloides is a perennial C4 grass (Downton 1971), Tribe: Andropogoneae, related to Zea maize, corn, 1-3 m tall, stems stout; clumped; extensively colonial by thick, iris-like rhizomes.  Leaves elongate, to 2 cm wide.  Flower spikelets unisexual, anthers orange, stamens purple; inflorescence of 1-4 spikes 10-25 cm long, male flowers upper 3/4 to 2/3, female flowers below males; blooming […]
Triticum aestivum wheat Poaceae TRAE*; Bx, cm (planted), pb; R; - Triticum aestivum is an annual or winter annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 50 cm to 1.2 m tall, usually branched near base. Leaves flat 0.2-1 cm wide. Flower  spikelets 2-5 flowered, borne flat against the axis, glumes 0.6-1 cm, keeled, sometimes awned, lemmas 0.7-1.2 cm, hard, tip 3-lobed, sometimes awned to 7 cm. inflorescence […]
Vulpia myuros  (Festuca m.) rat-tailed fescue Poaceae VUMY*; Bx, pb; R, c, sm; - Vulpia myuros is an annual C3 grass (Waller and Lewis 1979), 10-70 cm tall, pale, wispy, solitary or tufted, roots shallow, fibrous; internodes elongate, nodes sometimes dark, stems very slender; sheaths overlapping, smooth. Leaves very fine, edges often inrolled, blades 0.1-0.3 cm wide (or less), hairy above, shorter than inflorescence, basal leaves much shorter than flowering […]
Vulpia octoflora six week fescue Poaceae VUOC; Q, j; - Vulpia octoflora is an annual C3 grass (Ludwig and Wondzell 2010), 10-60 cm tall, sometimes hairy. Leaves very fine, to 0.1 cm wide. Flower spikelets 5-11 flowered, 0.5-1.2 cm long, florets closely overlapping, lemma 0.3-0.7 cm with an awn 0.1-0.6 cm; inflorescence narrow, erect, 3-20 cm long, few branches, often spike-like May-June.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  […]