Galium circaezans wild licorice Rubiaceae GACI; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001);

  

Galium circaezans.Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Galium circaezans.Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 4/2014).

Galium circaezans is a perennial herb 20-60 cm tall, erect or ascending, stem 4-angled, wiry, smooth to finely hairy, simple to stiffly branched from base. 

Leaves in whorls of 4, 2-5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, elliptic, often densely hairy, tip blunt, 3-5 major veins. 

Flowers greenish-purple, minutely hairy, radially symmetrical, petal lobes 4, pointed at tips; flowers stalkless, in sparsely branched clusters near ends of stems; blooms June-July. 

Fruit dry 2-parted capsules, hairy, 0.3 cm, often with a small, fleshy attachment (elaiosome). These usually considered to be adaptations for ant dispersal. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Dry woods, thickets. 

Notes: Dispersal to and establishment in new sites in successional forest, contiguous to old regrowth stands has been calculated at a rate of 1.50 m/yr. (Matlack 1994).