Epipactis helleborine helleborine Orchidaceae EPHE*; Bx, br, pb, vc; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, cu, u; K, p; R (DeCandido 2001), ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017);

   

Epipactis helleborine.commons.wikimedia.org

Epipactis helleborine.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 11/2014).

Epipactis helleborine is a perennial monocotyledon herb 25-80 cm, from a short rhizome, roots very thick, associated with orchid type endomycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988). 

Epipactis helleborine leaves an stem. 2013 © Peter M. Dziuk. Minnesota Wildflowers. minnesotawildflowers.info

Epipactis helleborine leaves an stem. 2013 © Peter M. Dziuk. Minnesota Wildflowers. minnesotawildflowers.info (Accessed 5/2018).

Leaves stalkless, 4-18 cm long, 1.5-8.5 cm wide (Flora of N. America 1993+), smaller upward, base clasping, stem, blade egg-shaped, veins deeply impressed, becoming small, narrow bracts in inflorescence. 

Epipactis helleborine.(2)commons.wikimedia.org

Epipactis helleborine commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 8/2016).

Flowers purplish green, bilaterally symmetrical, nodding, orchid-shaped, sepals and lateral petals lance-shaped 0.8-1.4 cm long, sepals slightly larger than petals, tips pointed, dull green with purple veins, lower petal (lip) cup-like, interior deep red, greenish-purple, ovary inferior; inflorescence with many flowers, each above a narrow, leaf-like bract 0.1-0.7 cm long, in an unbranched, spike-like cluster 10-30 cm long at top of stem; blooms July-Sept.

Epipactis helleborine fruit close-up. By James Lindsey. Copyright © 2018 James Lindsey. Ecology of Commanster. www.commanster.eu

Epipactis helleborine fruit close-up. By James Lindsey. Copyright © 2018 James Lindsey. Ecology of Commanster. www.commanster.eu (Accessed 5/2018).

Fruit dry, an elliptic, deeply ridged capsule. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Origin: Europe. 

Habitat: Disturbed woods. Shade tolerant. 

Notes: Originally planted as a medicinal. Now widely escaped. Naturalized since 1879 (Flora of N. America 1993+).