Asclepias Genus milkweed Asclepiadaceae

  

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed).MBGargiullo ca. 1992.jpg

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed).MBGargiullo, Central NJ, ca. 1992.jpg

Asclepias is a perennial herbs from a thick root, or vertical root crown, sap is a milky, thick latex, (except A. tuberosa) often containing toxic cardiac glycosides (chemically a sugar and steroid combined). 

Leaves opposite to whorled (alternate in A. tuberosa). 

Asclepias syriaca ( Milkweed Common) flower parts. Photo © Belinda Beethan (Native Plant Society of New Jersey) 6/20/2012. Showing close up of flowers

Asclepias syriaca ( Milkweed Common) flower parts. Photo © Belinda Beethan (Native Plant Society of New Jersey) 6/20/2012. Showing close up of flowers (Accessed 8/2017).

Asclepias flower.botany.Center for the Study of Digital Libraries Texas A&M University. csdl.tamu.edu Accessed 12/2014).

Asclepias flower.botany.Center for the Study of Digital Libraries Texas A&M University. csdl.tamu.edu Accessed 12/2014).

Flowers radially symmetrical, 5-parted, petals (corolla) fused at base, petal lobes usually reflexed sharply backward; stamens fused around style into a central column, anther tips triangular, column sheathed by a ring of five petal-like “hoods” often with a horn-like structure inside each hood, the entire central structure called the “corona,” a signature structure of Asclepiadaceae; pollen stuck together in two masses (pollinia) connected by a strap of tissue, not visible from outside of flower; ovary superior; stigma large (Yatskievych 2006). 

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) seed dispersal. Del Orloske MALD 10/2017 2

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) seed dispersal. Del Orloske MALD 10/2017

Fruit dry, linear to oval pods, tip pointed, usually held erect; eventually splitting open lengthwise to release numerous plumed seeds. 

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) with Danaus plexippus (monarch butterfly larva). Michael Feder. 8/2017

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) with Danaus plexippus (monarch butterfly) larva. Michael Feder. 8/2017

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) with Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid). © 2006 Jeffery Pippen. jeffpippen.com

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) with Aphis nerii (Milkweed aphid). © 2006 Jeffery Pippen. jeffpippen.com (Accessed 10/2017).

Notes: Pollen is dispersed when the pollen mass (pollinia) strap becomes tangled on the legs of bees or other insect visitors (Conrad 2006). Plants are eaten by larvae of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), and also by the milkweed tiger moth (Euchaetes egle), which store cardiac glycoside toxins, making them unpalatable to birds (Brower and Brower 1964; Brower 1972).   Parasitized by the bright orange Oleander aphid Aphis nerii, that sequesters cardiac glycosides present in milkweeds. This insect is in turn parasitized by a braconid wasp, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, (McAuslane 2001). Fed on by Tetraopes tetrophthalmus the milkweed long-horned beetle.

Euchaetes egle (milkweed tiger moth; ID Mike Feller) on Asclepias tuberosa. MBGargiullo. 8/2017 Central NJ. 8/2017

Euchaetes egle (milkweed tiger moth; ID Mike Feller) on Asclepias tuberosa. MBGargiullo. Central NJ. 8/2017

Asarum canadense wild ginger Aristolochiaceae ASCA; Bx, br, pb, wv (Yost et al. 1991); Q: f (M. Feder); R, cb, cr (U. Lorimer 2017), lt, w; 

   

Asarum canadense

Asarum canadense.MBGargiullo ca 2007

Asarum canadense is a perennial, herbaceous ground cover, about 10 cm tall, slowly clonal from short, extensive system of rhizomes, roots associated with VA mycorrhizas (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); hairy. 

Leaves opposite, in pairs at ends of rhizome branches, heart- to kidney-shaped, dark, matte green, 8-12 cm wide. 

Asarum_canadense flower. MBGargiullo. ca 2007*

Asarum canadense flower. MBGargiullo. ca 2007

Flowers reddish-brown, petals none, calyx broadly cup-shaped, 3 lobed, ca 3 cm wide, stamens 12, fused to styles, ovary inferior; solitary arising between leaf pairs; April-May. 

Asarum canadense fruit, seeds. By Bruce Patterson. Copyright © 2017 Bruce Patterson. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Asarum canadense fruit, seeds with arils. By Bruce Patterson. Copyright © 2017 Bruce Patterson. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 10/2017).

Fruit dry, hollow capsule, splitting opening to release numerous large, seeds with fatty arils (elaiosome), dispersed by ants, probably including genera: Aphaenogaster (A. rudis), MyrmicaFormica and Lasius (Thompson 1980; Beattie and Culver 1981; Handel et al. 1981; Cain et al. 1998). Dispersal to and establishment in new sites in successional forest, contiguous to old regrowth stands has been estimated at a rate of 0.59 m/yr (Matlack 1994). 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Origin: Native 

Habitat: A forest interior herb, undisturbed woods, in rich, moist soil (Matlack 1994). Very shade tolerant. Sometimes as a remnant in disturbed woods. 

Artemisia vulgaris mugwort Asteraceae ARVU*; Bx, br, cm, cn, g, ht, pb, rd, sf, sn, sv (Torrey 2017), up, vc, wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY, bl (Stalter and Tang 2002), ct, hb, iw, n, rr, wr; Q, a, cu, dp, f, fa, fr, i, j, lk, rb, rw, tl, vb, wl; K, do, fl, fs, ft, m, ow, p, pl; R, ah, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cs, d, e, ev, fk, fw, gb, go, gr, h, hs, is, jl, js, k, lc, lp, lt, mc, mls, mm, ok, pm, pr, r, sb, se, sm, sv, t, ty, u, v, w; 

artemisia-vulgaris_armoise-commons-wikimedia-org

Artemisia vulgaris-armoise.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 10/2016).

Artemisia vulgaris is a perennial herb, 0.5-2 (3) m tall, aromatic, aggressively spreading by rhizomes, forming a dense root-mat 7-18 cm deep; lower stem turning brown and woody as inflorescence develops (Barney and DiTommaso 2003). Roots are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which contribute to both phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition in  N, P deficient soils. It has been shown that colonization is inhibited by high N, P soil concentrations (Blanke et al. 2005).

artemisia-vulgaris-commons-wikimedia-org-3

Artemisia vulgaris.flowering.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 10/2016).

Leaves alternate, 5-10 cm long, 3-7 cm wide, divided (like chrysanthemum leaves) segments again divided and toothed, gray-green above, white, wooly below, leaves of inflorescence much smaller, narrow; winter plant retains leaves, white below, dark black-brown above. 

Flowers green to reddish, tiny, tubular, radially symmetrical, 0.2-0.3 cm, in compact heads about 0.4 cm tall, that arise from a bract-covered floral base (receptacle); wind pollinated; inflorescence covering the upper 1/3 of the stem, densely branched, large, leafy, at top of plant; blooming July-Sept. 

Artemisia vulgaris.flowers. Thuilley 2014-08-07 007 (7).© Paul Montagne.monde-de-lupa.fr.

Artemisia vulgaris.flower heads in bloom. Thuilley 2014-08-07 007 (7).© Paul Montagne.monde-de-lupa.fr.

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, to 0.2 cm long, no plume or wing for dispersal; apparently rarely viable except under greenhouse conditions, very few seedlings produced in the wild (Uva et al. 1997), however 200-yr-old seeds have been germinated (Barney and DiTommaso 2003). 

Wetland status: NL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very common (ubiquitous). 

Origin: Eurasia. 

Habitat: Open upland areas, fill, berms, landfills, dry, disturbed areas. Does well on concrete rubble. In NYC found on soil with pH 5.1-8.9 (USDA, NRCS 2006), most often pH 7-8 (Gargiullo and Kortebein unpublished data). 

Artemisia vulgaris.in fruit.commons.wikimedia.org

Artemisia vulgaris.in fruit/flower.commons.wikimedia.org

Notes: Almost all reproduction is by rhizome fragments, very commonly contaminating the root balls of nursery plants and in fill soils (Uva et al. 1997). Very aggressive, covers large areas, forming monocultures and displacing most native herbs. Tolerates mowing, at least for some time and is immune to many herbicides (Uva et al. 1997). Intolerant of shade. Growth rate 15.46 (relative to 9.24 for B. populifolia and 0.99 for sugar maple). Growth rate was found to correlate well with relative shade tolerance (Grime 1965). Has been used medicinally for many ailments. Leaves contain a phytotoxin that was found to inhibit growth of several other plants. There is very little information on herbivory or diseases in mugwort (Barney and DiTommaso 2003; Inderjit and Foy 1999). 

Artemisia stelleriana beach wormwood; dusty miller Asteraceae ARST*; Q, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002);

   

Artemisia stelleriana.en.wikipedia.org

Artemisia stelleriana.en.wikipedia.org .(Accessed 4/2014).

Artemisia stelleriana is a perennial herb, 30-70 cm tall, plant not aromatic; colonial from underground stems (rhizomes), stems unbranched below. 

Leaves alternate, 3-10 cm long, including stalk, 1-5 cm wide, sparsely but deeply pinnately lobed, lobe tips rounded. 

Artemisia stelleriana. inflorescences. commons.wikimedia.org

Artemisia stelleriana. inflorescences. commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 10/2017).

Flowers yellowish, very small, tubular, radially symmetrical, in compact heads that arise from a bract-covered floral base (receptacle), flower heads relatively large, numerous 0.6-0.7 cm tall, disk flowers 0.3-0.4 cm; inflorescence, branched, narrow, densely white-wooly; blooming and fruiting May-Sept. 

Fruit: dry, 1-seeded (achenes) small. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Northern Asia, Japan. 

Habitat: Sandy beaches. 

Notes: Escaped from cultivation. Common on Sandy Hook NJ. 

Artemisia ludoviciana white sage Asteraceae ARLU*; R, hs (Stalter and Munir 2002);

  

Artemisia ludoviciana.redrockcanyonopenspace.org

Artemisia ludoviciana.redrockcanyonopenspace.org. .(Accessed 4/2014).

Artemisia ludoviciana is a perennial herb, 30 cm to 1 m tall, colonial from rhizomes; stems white wooly-hairy, unbranched below inflorescence. 

Leaves alternate, 3-10 cm long, 1 cm wide, lance-shaped, entire to toothed or deeply lobed, white-wooly on both sides, or green above. 

Flowers greenish, very small, in compact heads that arise from a bract-covered floral base (receptacle) about 0.3 cm tall, flowers tubular, radially symmetrical (disk flowers) 0.2 cm long; inflorescence branched. 

Fruit: dry, 1-seeded (achenes) small. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Western and Midwestern US. 

Habitat: Dry, open soil. 

Notes: This is the only listing found for this plant.

Artemisia campestris  (A. caudata or A. campestris spp. caudata) field sagewort; tall wormwood; wild sage Asteraceae ARCA2; Q, j, tl;

   

Artemisia campestris.Jan Kops et al. - Flora Batava - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de.luirig.altervista.org

Artemisia campestris.Jan Kops et al. – Flora Batava – Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de.luirig.altervista.org (Accessed 10/2016).

Artemisia campestris is a biennial or perennial herb, 10 cm to 1 m tall from a taproot, scarcely aromatic, forming a leafy crown the first year, old inflorescences sometimes persisting with new growth. 

Leaves alternate, 2-4 times pinnate, 2-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, finely dissected, mostly hairless, segments alternate, linear to thread-like, mostly less than 0.2 cm wide, basal and lower leaves long-stalked, upper leaves of flowering stems with very short or no stalk, blades smaller, less divided. 

Flowers greenish yellow, very small, in compact heads that arise from a bract-covered floral base (receptacle), flowers tubular, radially symmetrical (disk flowers) to 0.2 cm long, crowded, flowers 14-25 per head, no rays, flower heads 0.2-0.4 cm tall, bracts dry, small, overlapping; inflorescence to 70 cm, usually branched, branches strongly ascending, July-Oct. 

Fruit: dry, 1-seeded (achenes) small. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Vermont and northward or northern Midwest, or native to this region and rare. 

Habitat: Dry, open, sandy soil or fill, in our region, usually a back dune plant. 

Notes: Taxonomy apparently not clear. 

Artemisia biennis biennial wormwood Asteraceae ARBI*; R (DeCandido 2001);

  

Artemisia biennis.Glen Mittelhauser.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org.(Accessed 4/2014)

Artemisia biennis. Glen Mittelhauser. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org.(Accessed 4/2014)

Artemisia biennis is an annual to biennial herb, not aromatic, 30 cm to 3 m tall. 

Leaves alternate, blade 5-15 cm long, deeply, pinnately divided, lobes toothed to divided. 

Flowers greenish yellow, very small, in compact heads that arise from a bract-covered floral base (receptacle), flowers tubular, radially symmetrical (disc flowers) only, heads 0.2-0.3 cm high, basal bracts membranous, rounded, nearly covering flowers; inflorescence of very densely crowded flower heads in spike-like clusters in upper leaf axils; Aug.-Oct. 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded (achene). 

Wetland status: FACU-. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: NW United States. 

Habitat: Sandy soil, open areas.  

Artemisia annua annual wormwood Asteraceae ARAN*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, j; K, fs, p; R, hs, m, sm;

   

Artemisia annua.en.wikipedia.org

Artemisia annua.en.wikipedia.org. (Accessed 3/2014).

Artemisia annua is an annual herb, erect, much branched, 30 cm to 3 m tall; sweet smelling. 

Artemisia annua. leaves. Natural Drugs. naturaldrugs.blogspot.com

Artemisia annua. leaves. Natural Drugs. naturaldrugs.blogspot.com (Accessed 10/2017)

Leaves alternate, about 2-10 cm long, fern-like, two or three times pinnately divided, ultimate segments linear, margins toothed, persistent into winter. 

Artemisia annua. Picture by Andrea Moro. Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Trieste. Comune di Trieste, cantiere in Città Vecchia., TS, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italia, - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 License

Artemisia annua flower heads. Picture by Andrea Moro. Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Trieste. Comune di Trieste, cantiere in Città Vecchia., TS, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italia, – Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 License (Accessed 10/2017).

Flowers pale greenish, very small, in compact heads that arise from a bract-covered base (receptacle), flowers tubular, radially symmetrical (disc flowers) only, heads 0.2 cm high, basal bracts membranous, rounded, nearly covering flowers, heads short-stalked, often nodding; inflorescence openly branched, leaves of inflorescence reduced; wind pollinated, Aug.-Nov.

Fruit dry, achenes. 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Origin: Eurasia. 

Habitat: Open areas, fill soils. 

 

Armoracia rusticana horseradish Brassicaceae AMRU*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001);

Armoracia rusticana.© 2003 Eleanor Saulys. ct-botanical-society.org

Armoracia rusticana.© 2003 Eleanor Saulys. ct-botanical-society.org. (Accessed 4/2014).

Armoracia rusticana is a perennial herb to 1 m tall, erect, from a thick, woody, vertical tap root.

Leaves alternate, basal leaves to 30 cm long, base lobed, margin round-toothed (crenate), long-stalked, stem leaves narrow, smaller, short-stalked to stalkless, the lowest sometimes pinnately divided.

Flowers white, 4-parted, petals to 0.8 cm; May-July.

Fruit dry, hollow capsule, rounded to 0.6 cm, with elongate old stigma at tip, seeds rarely mature.

Wetland status: UPL.

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.

Origin: Europe, w. Asia.

Habitat: Escaped from cultivation into moist, open soil.

Notes: Leaves and roots contain mustard oil, a mixture of isothiocynates, pungent, irritating nitrogen-sulfur compounds of the form, CHx-N=C=S, poisonous to livestock (Kingsbury 1964).

Aristolochia clematis birthwort Aristolochiaceae ARCL*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001);

Aristolochia clematitis.commons.wikimedia.org.JPG

Aristolochia clematitis.commons.wikimedia.org.JPGAccessed 12/2014).

Aristolochia clematis is a poisonous (Kingsbury 1964) perennial herb, to 1 m tall, stems ascending or reclining. 

Leaves alternate, broadly heart-shaped to 10 cm long and wide, tip blunt, base with wide , well separated, rounded lobes, pale below. 

Flowers yellow, no petals, bilaterally symmetrical, calyx tubular, to 3 cm long, base enlarged, top with one lobe. 

Fruit dry, hollow, a capsule with numerous seeds. 

Wetland status: NL. 

Origin: Europe. 

Habitat: Very infrequently escaped from cultivation; mistakenly used as a medicinal since Roman times (The Poison Garden website. © John Robertson 2016. thepoisongarden.co.uk) (accessed 10/2016).