Corylus cornuta beaked hazel-nut Betulaceae COCO; R, w;

Corylus cornuta fruit. 2012 © Peter M. Dziuk. Minnesota Wildflowers. minnesotawildflowers.info

Corylus cornuta fruit. 2012 © Peter M. Dziuk. Minnesota Wildflowers. minnesotawildflowers.info (Accessed 1/2018).

Corylus cornuta is a shrub to 3 m tall, young twigs hairy, older twigs smooth. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, coarsely double toothed, stalk hairy. 

Flowers sexes separate on same plant (monoecious). Male catkin short, stalkless, female flowers red, small, March-April. 

Corylus cornuta..3.3.2010

Corylus cornuta male and female flowers.M. B. Gargiullo (ca 2010).

Fruit a nut enclosed in densely hairy bracts with long beak. 

Wetland status: FACU-. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Habitat: Moist woods, edges. Soil pH 6-7.5. Tolerant of shade. Moderately tolerant of drought, soil compaction. Intolerant of salt, flooding (Hightshoe 1988). 

Corylus avellana European filbert Betulaceae COAV*; Bx, pb;

Corylus avellana.commons.wikipedia.org

Corylus avellana.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 5/2014).

Corylus avellana is a shrub to 6 m tall, often forming dense thicket of stems, young stems hairy. 

Leaves alternate, to 10 long, 7 cm wide, almost round, tip abruptly pointed, base lobed, margin double-toothed, irregular, hairy on both sides, stalk to 1 cm long. 

Flowers See C. americana.

Fruit as above with bracts slightly longer than nut (Dirr 1990). 

Wetland status: NL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Habitat: Rarely escaped from cultivation. 

Notes: These specimens probably planted and overgrown (R. DeCandido; Steven Glenn personal communication).  

Corylus americana hazelnut Betulaceae COAM2; Bx, pb, vc; Q, cu, f; K, p; R, cs, h, is, w;

Corylus americana.commons.wikipedia.org

Corylus americana fruit. commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 5/2014).

Corylus americana is a shrub to 3 m tall, twigs hairy, young hairs red. 

Corylus americana leaf. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. woodyplants.wdfiles.com

Corylus americana leaf. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. woodyplants.wdfiles.com (Accessed 1/2018).

Leaves alternate, broadly egg-shaped or widest above middle, finely doubly toothed, base rounded to lobed, stalk smooth, expanded mid-May (Britton 1874). 

Corylus americana male catkins. By Frank Bramley. Copyright © 2018 New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Corylus americana male catkins. By Frank Bramley. Copyright © 2018 New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 1/2018).

Flowers sexes separate on same plant (monoecious). Male flowers minute, dull yellow, in long catkins, on short stalks, female flowers red, very small, March (Britton 1874). 

Corylus americana female flower. By Frank Bramley. Copyright © 2018 New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Corylus americana female flower. By Frank Bramley. Copyright © 2018 New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 1/2018).

Fruit a nut enclosed in bracts to 3 cm long, with toothed margins. Nuts and catkins eaten by mammals and larger birds, twigs eaten by rabbits and deer (Martin, et al., 1951). 

Wetland status: FACU-. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Habitat: Moist, undisturbed forest understory, edges and successional scrub. Soil pH 6-7.5. Tolerant of shade. Moderately tolerant of drought, soil compaction. Intolerant of salt, flooding (Hightshoe 1988). 

Notes: Twigs eaten by rabbits and deer (Martin, et al., 1951).  

Alnus serrulata smooth alder Betulaceae ALSE; Bx, vc; Q, a; R, cp, rw, w; 

 

Alnus serrulata. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2015.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Alnus serrulata. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2015.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 5/2015).

Alnus serrulata is a multi-stemmed shrub, to 6 m tall; colonial, forming thickets, winter buds stalked; lenticels small; stipules persistent on younger leaves. 

Leaves alternate, 5-12 cm long, elliptic, widest above middle, tip and base blunt, edges finely, regularly toothed, green, mostly hairless below, 8-14 major veins per side (leaves are never green into late Autumn). Leaves expand mid-late May; winter plant leafless 160 days (Britton 1874);

Flowers in catkins sexes separate, Feb.-May. 

alnus-serrulata-delawarewildflowers-org-discoverlife-org

Alnus serrulata.flowers.delawarewildflowers-org-discoverlife-org (Accessed 10/2016).

Fruit dry, tiny winged nuts, within cone-like catkins, 1-2 cm long, almost stalkless; ripens Sept.-Oct. Wind dispersed. Seeds eaten by some songbirds, twigs and leaves eaten by rabbits and deer (Martin et al 1951). 

Wetland status: OBL. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Origin: Native.

 Habitat: Open, undisturbed freshwater wetlands. Prefers soil pH 5.5-7.5. Tolerant of poor soil, flooding, soil compaction, drought, low nutrient soils. Intolerant of salt, shade (Hightshoe 1988). 

Notes: Root nodules with nitrogen fixing bacterium (see A. incana). Susceptible to damage by borers, tent caterpillars and other insects. Weakened plants may be attacked by Coral spot canker (Nectria cinnabarina), and other fungi (Sinclair et al. 1989). 

Alnus incana  (A. rugosa) speckled alder Betulaceae ALIN; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); R (DeCandido 2001); 

 

Alnus incana.forestryimages.org

Alnus incana.forestryimages.org.  (Accessed 4/2014).

Alnus incana is a multi-stemmed shrub to 10 m tall, colonial, shallow-rooted; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989); winter buds stalked; bark brown with prominent, orange to white, warty lenticels, about 0.7 cm long. 

Leaves to 12 cm long, oval-elliptic widest near or below middle, tip blunt to pointed, base blunt, margin irregularly double toothed, pale and waxy below, hairy on veins, 8-14 conspicuous major veins per side, parallel, impressed above; margin irregularly double toothed to nearly lobed (leaves never green into late Autumn); leaf stalks orangey. 

Flowers in red-purple catkins, sexes separate, male flowers in long, loose, dangling spikes (catkins) to 12.5 cm on red stalks; female catkins much shorter, dark red, about the same size and color as leaf buds (Fewless 2006); blooms March. 

Fruiting spike cone-like, woody, dark, 1-2 cm long, almost stalkless, fruits tiny nuts, often narrowly winged, about 0.3 cm wide, Wind dispersed, Aug., Sept.-Feb. Seeds eaten by some songbirds, twigs and leaves eaten by rabbits and deer (Martin et al 1951). 

Wetland status: FACW+. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent, if present. Possibly misidentified and not found in NYC (see Cornus sericea). 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Open, undisturbed freshwater wetlands. Prefers soil pH 5-7.5 (USDA, NRCS 2006). Tolerant of poor soil, pollution, flooding and soil compaction. Moderately tolerant of salt. Intolerant of drought, shade, index 0-2 (Hightshoe 1988). Very intolerant of shade. Sensitive to ozone, salt and drought (Hightshoe 1988). 

Notes: Alder roots are known to form a symbiotic relationship with an actinomycete bacterium of the genus Frankia forming nitrogen fixing root nodules (actinorhizae). These structures appear coral-like in form and allow alder to grow in very nutrient poor soils. Weakened plants may be attacked by Coral spot canker (Nectria cinnabarina), and other fungi (Sinclair et al. 1989). 

Ostrya virginiana American hophornbeam Betulaceae OSVI; Bx, pb, wv; NY, hb; R;

   

Ostrya virginiana mature fruit. 827987. 2006 © Peter M. Dziuk. Minnesota Wildflowers. minnesotawildflowers.info (Accessed 7/2017).

Ostrya virginiana is a tree to 20 m tall; bark brown, shaggy. 

Leaves alternate, elm-like, veins pinnate, deeply impressed, margin sharply toothed. 

Ostrya virginiana male catkins (open). Jeff D Hansen. Kansas Native Plants. kansasnativeplants.com

Ostrya virginiana male catkins (open). Jeff D Hansen. Kansas Native Plants. kansasnativeplants.com (Accessed 7/2017).

Flowers monoecious, male in catkins, female in small clusters April-May, wind pollinated. 

Fruit is a nutlet, about 0.5 cm, surrounded by bracts, enclosed in an inflated sac about 2 cm, Sept., dispersed by wind through fall and winter. Seeds eaten by birds and small mammals. Seeds must overwinter to germinate, able to reproduce under closed canopy or old fields. 

Ostrya virginiana seed with half fruit sack. © 2009 Gary Fewless. University of Wisconsin Green Bay, Herbarium, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. uwbg.edu

Ostrya virginiana seed with half of fruit sac. © 2009 Gary Fewless. University of Wisconsin Green Bay, Herbarium, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. uwbg.edu (Accessed 7/2017).

Wetland status: FACU-. 

Frequency in New York City: Infrequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Undisturbed forests. Grows well on limestone derived soils relatively high in calcium, magnesium, pH, silt and clay (Balter and Loeb 1983).Tolerates soil pH 4.2-8. Very shade tolerant, index 8-10. Moderately tolerant of drought. Intolerant of flooding, soil compaction, salt, sensitive to air pollution (Hightshoe 1988; USDA, NRCS 2010). 

Ostrya virginiana_2287_500 bark. Southestern Flora. southeasternflora.com (Accessed 7/2017).

Ostrya virginiana_2287_500 bark. Southestern Flora. southeasternflora.com (Accessed 7/2017).

Notes: Stump sprouts when cut, resprouts after light fire. Attacked by a few fungi, such as the white rot Phellinus igniarius (Sinclair et al. 1987; Burns and Honkala 1990).  

Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam/ironwood Betulaceae CACA3; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, vc; NY, hb; Q, a, cu; K, p; R, ah, an, ar, bd, cp, cs, d, gb, gr, h, lp, lt, r, sv, w, wt;

   

Carpinus caroliniana.Frank Bramley.New England Wild Flower Society gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Carpinus caroliniana trunk. Frank Bramley.New England Wild Flower Society gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 12/2014).

Carpinus caroliniana.Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org .Creative Commons License.bugwoodcloud.org.forestryimages.org

Carpinus caroliniana leaves and fruiting bracts.Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org .Creative Commons License.bugwoodcloud.org.forestryimages.org (Accessed 12/2017).

Carpinus caroliniana is a small understory tree, ca 10 m, wide, low habit, usually multi-stemmed or low branching, trunk corded, surface sinuous, bark smooth, dark; deeply rooted, winter buds to 0.3 cm. 

Leaves alternate, narrowly egg-shaped to 2-10 cm long, 6 cm wide, tip long-pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, hairy on veins below with tufts of hairy in vein axils, margin doubly, sharply toothed; autumn color yellow, orange to red.

Carpinus caroliniana female flowers. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Carpinus caroliniana female flowers. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed1 12/2017).

Flowers sexes separate on same tree (monoecious), in catkins males 2.5-5 cm long females shorter (USDA, NRCS 2010), wind pollinated; blooms April-May. 

Carpinus caroliniana (ironwood) Autumn leaves and fruiting bracts. Mary Anne Borge. www-the-natural-web.org

Carpinus caroliniana (ironwood) Autumn leaves and fruiting bracts. Mary Anne Borge. www-the-natural-web.org (Accessed 12/2017

Fruit in elongated catkins to 5-10 cm long, bracts 3-lobed 2-3 cm long, 5-7 veined, fruit a small nut, about 0.6 cm. Seeds wind and bird dispersed, in fall. Seeds, buds and catkins eaten by birds and small mammals, squirrels (Martin et al. 1951). 

Wetland status: FAC. 

Frequency in New York City: Frequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Understory of moist, undisturbed woods, often at edges of swamp forests, in moist, well-drained soils pH 4-7.5 (USDA, NRCS 2010). 

Notes: Appears about 30 years after abandonment of old-fields. Very shade tolerant as seedlings, possible less so with age, but always found in closed canopy woodlands, shade index 8-10. Resistant to sulfur dioxide. Intolerant of flooding, salt, drought and soil compaction. Susceptible to fire but attacked by few insects or fungi (Burns and Honkala 1990; Hightshoe 1988). Twigs eaten by deer and rabbits (Martin et al. 1951).

Carpinus betulus European hornbeam Betulaceae CABE*; Bx, br, cn, vc; NY, ct;

   

Carpinus betulus.www.uni-graz.at.walter.obermayer.plants-of-styria.images.carpinus-betulus-40.jpg

Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam) fruiting bracts and immature nutlets. www.uni-graz.at.walter.obermayer.plants-of-styria.images.carpinus-betulus-40.jpg

Carpinus betulus is a small tree to 20 m tall, habit tree-like, young bark gray-brown, smooth, lenticels prominent, bark on trunk gray, trunk corded, winter buds appressed to stems, curved inward, 0.5 cm long.

Leaves alternate, to 12 cm long, 5 cm wide, egg-shaped, tip pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, margin doubly, sharply toothed, veins more deeply impressed than those of C. caroliniana, and retains leaves longer in fall.

Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam) male inflorescence. Leafland. www.leafland.co.nz (Accessed 12/2017).

Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam) male and female inflorescences. Leafland. www.leafland.co.nz (Accessed 12/2017).

Flowers monoecious, in catkins, no sepals or petals, staminate (male) flowers each with several stamens in a bract; pistillate flowers with two flowers per bract ; blooms April.

Fruit in elongated catkins 7-14 cm, each subtended by a large 3-lobed bract, 3-5 cm long, middle lobe narrowly egg-shaped, often toothed, veins 3-5.

Wetland status: NL.

Frequency in New York City: Infrequent.

Origin: Europe.

Habitat: Overgrown horticultural specimens.

Betula populifolia gray birch Betulaceae BEPO; Bx, g, pb, vc; NY, hb; Q, a, bw, cu, fa, fr, i, j, tl; K, fl (planted), m, p; R, ah, bd, bm, c, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, e, fk, gb, go, gr, js, jw, k, lp, lt, mc, mm, pm, pr, r, ro, sb, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt, x;

betula-populifolia-calphotos-berkeley-edu

Betula populifolia.calphotos.berkeley.edu (Accessed 9/2011)

Betula populifolia is a small tree to 10 m; usually with multiple stems, trunks mostly less than 15 cm diam., mature bark very white with black chevron-shaped markings at each branch base, as well as numerous black horizontal lines (lenticels), bark of young trees and branches red-brown, shiny, with pale lenticels, bark not peeling; colonial from root sprouts especially if damaged; fast growing, short lived. 

betula-populifolia-leaf-2tn-hikers-guide-to-the-trees-shrubs-and-woody-vines-of-ricketts-glen-state-park-fifth-edition-departments-bloomu-edu

Betula populifolia leaf.2tn.Hiker’s Guide to the Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Ricketts Glen State Park – Fifth Edition departments.bloomu.edu (Accessed 11/2016)

Leaves alternate, 5-8 cm long, triangular, tip tapered to a long point, base truncate, margin doubly toothed, except base; leaves expand mid-May; winter plant leafless 166 days (Britton 1874).

Flowers monoecious, male flowers in catkins to 3 cm long, female flowers in shorter, stouter catkins; blooming April; wind pollinated before leafing out. 

betula-populifolia-fruit-Karren Wcisel-2005

Betula Populifolia.fruit.Karren Wcisel © 2005 (Accessed 11/2016).

Fruit winged nuts, to 0.3 cm, ripen, Sept.-Oct.; wind dispersed, Oct.-midwinter. Seeds &/or buds and catkins eaten by birds and small mammals (Martin et al. 1951). 

Wetland status: FAC. 

Frequency in New York City: Very common. 

Origin: Native. 

betula-populifolia-bark-Karren Wcisel-2013

Betula populifolia.mature bark.Karren Wcisel © 2013 (Accessed 11/2016).

HabitatOpen, nutrient poor, acid to circumneutral mineral soils, pH 3.5-7.5 (USDA, NRCS 2010). A pioneer species. Tolerant of salt, sterile, sandy fill, ozone, soil compaction, drought, and intermittent flooding or saturated soil up to 75% of growing season. Very intolerant of shade, index 1 (Hightshoe 1988). Especially in burned over forest, and disturbed areas, reproduces prolifically on bare soil often forming dense stands. Growth rate fast, 9.24 (relative to 0.99 for sugar maple), high growth rate found to correlate well with shade intolerance (Grime 1965). Typically mixed with Smilax and Sassafras on old burned areas. Also found along wetland edges, sometimes growing on tussock sedge (Carex stricta) hummocks in marshes (personal observation).

Notes: Twigs eaten by deer & rabbits (Martin et al. 1951).Sometimes infected by the anthracnose Gloeosporium betulinum (syn. Discula betulina, Deuteromycotina, Coelomycetes), which kills leaves. The symptoms of this disease are brown patches surrounded by yellow tissue on leaves. Dead trees are often colonized by a bracket fungus with a smooth, white, rounded fruiting body, Piptoporus betulinus (Basidiomycotina), the birch polypore. This is common on many species of dead birch. Gray birch is attacked by the birch leaf minor, (Fenusa pusilla), the larva of a European sawfly that is very common in North America. Female sawflies lay eggs on newly developing leaves. The larva is flat and eats the soft middle tissues of leaves, eventually killing them. Adult sawfly is 0.3 cm long, the larvae up to 0.6 cm. Three to four generations may occur in one growing season. Attacks over several years will seriously weaken trees. Gray birch is also host to one stage in the life cycle of Hamamelistes spinosus, a gall aphid. Adult female aphids over-winter as pupae on birch. As leaves open in spring, the aphid reproduces rapidly. Birch leaf undersides become covered by the grayish aphids that cause a corrugated appearance of leaves from bulges between major veins. Some aphids produce wings and migrate to witch hazel, their second host, to lay eggs. After reproducing in a gall formed on witch hazel buds, another generation of aphids fly back to their second host, birch (Dirr 1990; Hightshoe 1988; Johnson and Lyon 1991, Sinclair et al. 1987). Larvae of the tiger swallowtail butterfly Papilio gaucus; mourning cloak butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa; cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia; luna moth, Actias luna; promethea moth, Callosamia promethea; polyphemus moth, Antheraea polyphemus; imperial moth, Eacles imperialis; four-horned sphinx moth, Ceratomia amyntor; small-eyed sphinx moth, Paonias myopsPaonias myops; white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma; Virginia tiger moth, Spilosoma virginica; Lepidoptera, also eat gray birch leaves (Opler 1992; Tallamy 2003).

Betula papyrifera paper birch Betulaceae BEPA; R;

Betula papyrifera.Donald Cameron.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Betula-papyrifera.Donald-Cameron.New-England-Wild-Flower-Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 1/2015).

Betula papyrifera is a small to medium sized tree, usually leaning; bark white, peeling in thin sheets, with black, horizontal or half-moon-shaped strips around branches, underbark is pink. 

Betula papyrifera. leaves. SEINet. creativecommons.org

Betula papyrifera. leaves. SEINet. creativecommons.org (Accessed 11/2017).

Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, to 10 cm long, tip long-pointed, base rounded, margin sharply toothed. 

 

 

Flowers tiny, in catkins; blooms April-May, wind pollinated before leafing out. 

Fruit: dry, tiny winged nuts, ripen Aug.-Sept., wind dispersed, Aug.-spring. 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in New York City: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Intolerant of shade. usually a pioneer species after fire or other disturbance. Soil pH 4.2-7.4 (USDA, NRCS 2010).