Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grapeholly Berberidaceae MAAQ*; Q, f; 

Mahonia aquifolium.commons.wikimedia.org

Mahonia aquifolium.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 7/2014).

Mahonia aquifolium is a shrub to 2 m (mostly to 1 m), evergreen, often colonial from stolons.

Leaves alternate, pinnate, to 30 cm long, leaflets 5-9, opposite, to 8 cm long, egg-shaped, margin with spine-tipped teeth appearing very similar to American holly leaves, shiny, dark green above becoming purplish in autumn.

Flowers yellow, small, radially symmetrical, sepals 9, petals 6. Both free; inflorescence of unbranched clusters to 8 cm long, at ends of stems.

Fruit fleshy, dark blue, 0.8 cm wide.

Wetland status: NL.

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.

Origin: Oregon and British Columbia.

Habitat: Not known to escape from cultivation. Probably an overgrown horticultural specimen.

Berberis vulgaris common barberry Berberidaceae BEVU*; Q;

Berberis vulgaris.Richard A. Howard Image Collection, courtesy of Smithsonian Institution @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Berberis vulgaris.Richard A. Howard Image Collection, Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 5/2014).

Berberis vulgaris is a shrub to 3 m tall, stems spiny, bark gray, freely branched. 

Leaves alternate, in small, dense tufts opposite spines, leaf stalk short, jointed, blade widest above middle, 2-5 cm long, margin finely spiny-toothed (Flora of North America 1993+). 

Flowers yellow, radially symmetrical; much like those of B. thunbergii; inflorescences unbranched (raceme) to 6 cm long, bearing 10-20, flowers; blooms May-June. 

Fruit fleshy, 1 cm long, bright red, apparently edible. 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Europe. 

Habitat: Apparently not much planted now and not often escaping in NYC. 

Notes: Listed as invasive by the NYS Natural Heritage Program’s Ad hoc committee on invasive plants. Formerly exterminated as an alternate host of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici, Basidiomycotina). Listed as a banned invasive species in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire (USDA, NRCS 2007).  

Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry Berberidaceae BETH*p; Bx, bg, cf, pb, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, ft; Q, a, cu; K, R, ar, bd, ca, d, gb, h, lp, mls, r, sv; 

Berberis thunbergii. (flowers).Richard A. Howard Image Collection, courtesy of Smithsonian Institution, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Databa, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (2)

Berberis thunbergii flowers. Richard A. Howard Image Collection, Courtesy Smithsonian Institution, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 7/2014).

Berberis thunbergii is a shrub to 0.3-3 m. tall, multistemmed and much branched, stems spiny, wood bright yellow, bark gray, shredding.

Berberis thunbergii leaves. Oregon State U. Landscape Plants. https-//landscapeplants.oregonstate.edu

Berberis thunbergii leaves. Pat Breen, Oregon State University, Landscape Plants. https-//landscapeplants.oregonstate.edu (Accessed 10/2017).

Leaves alternate, mostly in dense spirals on very short shoots opposite spines, stalk 0-0.8 cm long, blade 1-3 cm long, 0.6-1 cm wide, spatula- to inversely egg-shaped (obovate), tip rounded, base tapered to stalk; surface dull, green to dark red; margins smooth (entire) (Flora of North America 1993+); the cultivars with dark red foliage are derived from a naturally occurring variation, B. thunbergii var atropurpurea (Brand 2001).

Berberis thunbergii flowers. ©2007 Gary Fewless. Herbarium Cofrin Center for Biodiversiry. University of Wisconsin Green Bay. Invasive Plantts of Wisconsin. uwgb.edu

Berberis thunbergii flowers. ©2007 Gary Fewless. Herbarium Cofrin Center for Biodiversiry. University of Wisconsin Green Bay. Invasive Plantts of Wisconsin. uwgb.edu (Accessed 10/2017).

Flowers yellow, radially symmetrical, 0.8 cm wide, petals and sepals 6 each in two rows of three, above 2-3 smaller, often reddish bracts; stamens 6, ovary superior; inflorescence of 1-3 flowers on slender stalks, dangling at each node along underside of branches; blooms May-June.

Berberis thunbergii.Liba Kopeckova.www.summitpost.org

Berberis thunbergii (fruit).Liba Kopečková.www.summitpost.org ( Accessed 7/2014).

Fruit fleshy, red, to 1 cm long; ripens Sept.-Nov., persistent, pulp lipid <10% (White and Stiles 1991), bird dispersed, especially wild turkey, also dispersed by deer (Ehrenfeld 1997).

Wetland status: FACU.

Frequency in NYC: Frequent.

Origin: Japan.

Habitat: Understory of disturbed woods, especially in alkaline soil, tolerates soil pH 5.5-7.2 (USDA, NRCS 2007). Shade tolerant.

Berberis thunbergii.Janet Novak.www.ct-botanical-society.org

Berberis thunbergii (invaded woodland).Janet Novak.www.ct-botanical-society.org. (Accessed 7/2014).

Notes: Displaces native herbs and shrubs (Young 1996). May form large monocultures (Ehrenfeld 1997). Some varieties carry the black stem-rust of wheat ( Puccinia graminis ) due to this B. thunbergii is banned in Canada (Flora of North America 1993+). Japanese barberry is listed as invasive in Connecticut, and prohibited in Massachusetts (USDA, NRCS 2007). It is listed as an invasive by Plant Conservation Alliance Alien Plant Working Group (Swearingen 2007). It was listed as one of the “top twenty” invasive alien plants by the NYS Natural Heritage Program’s Ad hoc committee on invasive plants. However, it is still sold and regularly planted as an ornamental. Large stands found to increase soil pH and nitrogen content (Kourtev et al. 1999).

Podophyllum peltatum mayapple Berberidaceae POPE3; Bx, br, pb, sf, vc, wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY, iw; Q, a; K, p (planted?); R, bd, d, h, gb; 

Podophyllum peltatumwww.R. Harrison Wiegand, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service. www.dnr.state.md.usnps.gov

Podophyllum peltatum.R. Harrison Wiegand, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service.  www.dnr.state.md.usnps.gov. (Accessed 11/2014).

Podophyllum peltatum is a perennial, summer green herb (Hicks and Chabot 1985), colonial from a rhizome, roots associated with VA mycorrhizas (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); stems erect, to 50 cm, large leaves form dense layer that shades out competing vegetation, contains cytotoxic resin, Podophyllotoxin, with violently cathartic effects (Davidson and Forman 1982; Kingsbury 1964), light saturated CO2 uptake adapted to decreasing light levels as canopy closes, (Taylor and Pearcy 1976). 

Leaves umbrella-shaped, rounded, to 40 cm wide, stem attached to leaf underside (peltate), deeply lobed; a summer green herb, leaves last 18 weeks (Hicks and Chabot 1985); stems with 2 leaves bear flowers. 

Flowers white with yellow center, 3-5 cm wide, anthers numerous; nodding below leaves, blooming May. Pollinated by bumble bees, Bombus pagansB. impatiens, B. affinus , honeybees (Apis mellifera), (Apidae), halictid bees; Halictus sp., Lasioglossum coriaceum (Halictidae), and Andrenid bees, Andrena vicina (Andrenidae). Mayapple does not offer nectar but Bombus queens depend on pollen to raise new workers in spring and move from clone to clone, effectively pollinating flowers; Mayapple requires outcrossing (pollen from another colony) to set fruit which make honeybees ineffective, since they tend to stay within one colony (Borror and White 1970; Swanson and Sohmer 1976; Rust and Roth 1981). 

Podophyllum peltatum in fruit. © Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011.www.discoverlife.org

Podophyllum peltatum in fruit. © Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011.www.discoverlife.org ( Accessed 11/2014).

Fruit yellow, fleshy, 4-5 cm wide, marginally edible, with occasional cathartic effects, seeds numerous, toxic, fruiting July- Aug. Adapted to dispersal by mammals (opossum, raccoon, skunk, fox) and turtles (Thompson 1980, 1981). Seeds dispersed by box turtles. Flesh attacked by some fruit-eating beetles and flies. Seeds probably eaten by cardinals, white-throated sparrows, white-footed mice and squirrels (Rust and Roth 1981). Dispersal to and establishment in new sites in successional forest contiguous to old regrowth stands has been calculated at a rate of 1.35 m/yr. (Matlack 1994). 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Moist, undisturbed woods, shade tolerant. Requires at least 0.5% sunlight in order to survive (compensation point), but cannot use more than 2.5% full sunlight (saturation point) (Hicks and Chabot 1985). Tolerates soil acidity down to pH 3.9 (Greller et al. 1990).

Notes: Occasionally infected by the bright orange rust fungus Puccinia podophylli, Basidiomycetes (Volk 1999; Agrios 1988).   

Caulophyllum thalictroides blue cohosh Berberidaceae CATH; Bx, pb, vc, wv (Yost et al. 1991); R, gb;

Caulophyllum thalictroideswisplants.uwsp.edu.Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point

Caulophyllum thalictroides. wisplants.uwsp.edu.Freckmann Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (Accessed 12/2014).

Caulophyllum thalictroides is a perennial herb from a large root crown, root system large, perennial, associated with VA mycorrhizas (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); stems and leaves waxy-pale (glaucous), a summer green herb (Hicks and Chabot 1985), however leaves tend to die off if no fruit is produced. 

Leaves mostly one per stem, twice 3 times compound, leaflets irregularly lobed, 4-5 cm long, about 3 cm wide, veins palmate at base. 

Caulophyllum thalictroides.flowers.Zihao Wang.4/2016. Torrey field trip

Caulophyllum thalictroides.flowers.Zihao Wang.4/2016. Torrey field trip

Flowers yellow-green or purplish, 6-parted, sepals about 1 cm long, larger than petals (Yatskievych 2006); blooming April-May. 

Fruit naked seeds blue, developing seeds breaking through ovary wall (Hannan and Prucher 1996). Seeds apparently dispersed by ingestion. Migration to distant or disconnected forest sites has been estimated at a rate of 0.19 m/yr (Matlack 1994). 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. Origin: Native. 

Habitat: An interior herb of moist forests (Matlack 1994), soil pH 4.5-7.0 (USDA 2006). Shade tolerant summer green herb. Leaves live 20 weeks. Requires at least 1.0% sunlight in order to survive (compensation point), but cannot use more than 30% full sunlight (saturation point) (Hicks and Chabot 1985).