Froelichia gracilis cottonweed Amaranthaceae FRGR(*); Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q, bp (Zihao Wang 2016); j (Stalter and Lamont 2002); tl (Zihao Wag 2016); K, m (Zihao Wang 2016); R, cp; ml (Zihao Wang 2016);

Froelichia_gracilis.© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 3.discoverlife.org

Froelichia_gracilis.© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 3.discoverlife.org (Accessed 7/2014).

Froelichia gracilis.Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseFroelichia gracilis.Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseFroelichia gracilis is an annual C4 herb (Downton 1971), to 70 cm tall, stems slender, to 0.2 cm diameter, appressed white-hairy, usually with divergent basal branches.

Leaves opposite mostly on lower part of stem, linear to 8 cm long.1 cm wide, densely silky-hairy on both sides.

Flowers very small, in 3 row spirals along whitish wooly spikes 1-3 cm long, 6-10 flowers per cm, late season stems often pink-red.

Fruit dry, wooly flask-shaped, winged, to 0.5 cm long; blooms and fruits July-Sept.

Wetland status: UPL.

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent.

Origin: Midwestern USA.

Habitat: Dry, sandy soil in open areas.

Amaranthus retroflexus red pigweed Amaranthaceae AMRE*; Bx, cn, pb, up; NY, rr; Q, i, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002); K, p; R, sm;

   

Amaranthus retroflexuscommons.wikimedia.org.(Accessed 10/2014)

Amaranthus retroflexuscommons.wikimedia.org.(Accessed 10/2014).

Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual C4 herb (Downton 1971; Costea and Tardif 2003), to 2 m tall, from a reddish taproot, stem stout, erect, branched, usually pale green but stressed plants often red-stemmed, at least below, mealy-wooly-hairy. 

Leaves alternate, stalk elongate, blade to 10 cm long egg-shaped to diamond-shaped, hairy below at least on veins, veins whitish below. 

Flowers pale greenish, male and female separate in same inflorescence (monoecious), (no petals) sepals 5, 0.3-0.4 cm (in fruit), curving slightly outward, tip blunt, often notched, longer than fruit, surrounded by stiff, awl-tipped bracts 0.4- 0.8 cm long, much longer than sepals; inflorescence of many dense, thick, compact, bristly, spike-like panicles, in nearly head-like clusters or lobes, the principle one to 20 cm. Flowers wind pollinated and self-fertile (autogamous), (Mulligan and Kevan 1973); blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct. 

Fruit dry, membranous, 0.2 cm splitting around center to release one blackish, shiny disk-shaped seed. Seeds eaten by numerous birds and small mammals. Seeds viable in soil up to 10 years, a few may survive up to 40 years (Costea et al. 2004). 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. Probably more frequent in weedy, uninventoried sites. 

Origin: Tropical America. 

Habitat: Open, disturbed areas, roadsides, sand, dry fill. 

Notes: Very similar to A. hybridus but hairier, paler green and with a wider inflorescence. Susceptible to numerous plant viruses, mostly those tested from crop plants (Brunt et al. 1996). Plants eaten by rabbits (Martin et al. 1951). Seed preyed upon by Coleophora lineapulvella, a micromoth whose only food consists of these seeds and those of Apowellii. Red pigweed is associated with a very long list of insects from numereous families. Plants preyed upon by a number of nematodes and infected by numerous fungi (Costea et al. 2004).

Amaranthus pumilus sea beach amaranth Amaranthaceae AMPU; Q, rb; R (DeCandido 2001);

   

Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth). Photo by Mike Burchett. Maryland Biodiversity Project, Assateague Island 8/2011. marylandbiodiersity.com

Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth). Photo by Mike Burchett. Maryland Biodiversity Project, Assateague Island 8/2011. marylandbiodiersity.com (Accessed 8/2017).

Amaranthus pumilus is an annual C4 herb (Costea and Tardif 2003); monoecious, stems fleshy, branched, to 40 cm long, prostrate to reclining, reddish to pale green usually forming mats. 

Leaves alternate, 1-2 cm long, in crowded rosettes toward tips of branches fleshy, pale blue-green, young leaves reddish, smooth, spoon-shaped, tip broadly rounded, often notched, base abruptly narrowed to short stalk, midrib and secondary veins deeply impressed the surface bulging and shiny between veins and sprinkled with tiny dots, margin entire. 

Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth) leaves and flowers. Photo by Gene Nieminen. US Fish & Wildlife Services. fws.gov

Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth) leaves and flowers. Photo by Gene Nieminen. US Fish & Wildlife Services. fws.gov (Accessed 8/2017)

Flowers greenish to yellow, 0.2-0.4 cm, in dense axillary clusters blooming and fruiting Aug.-Oct. 

Fruit fleshy, 0.4-0.5 cm long. 

Wetland status: FACW. 

Frequency in NYC: Rare, (G2; Fed. status LT; NYS S1). 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Beaches above high tide line. Found well above high tide line in Piping Plover nesting area on Rockaway Beach. 

Amaranthus hybridus smooth pigweed Amaranthaceae AMHY*; Bx, br, sf, pb (DeCandido 2001), wv (Yost et al. 1991); NY, bl (Stalter and Tang 2002), hb; Q, a; K, p; R, hs, lc, sm, wp;

   

Amaranthus hybridus. Peter Greenwood .www.arkive.org. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus hybridus. © Peter Greenwood .www.arkive.org. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus hybridus is an annual C4 herb (Costea and Tardif 2003), to 2 m tall, from a reddish taproot; stems branching, finely wooly-hairy above, often pinkish or red (especially if stressed), generally smoother and darker than A. retroflexus

Leaves alternate, stalk elongate, egg-shaped to rhombic, 5-15 cm long, tip blunt to acute, pale green to purplish below. 

Flowers dull green to reddish, male and female separate in same inflorescence, (no petals) sepals 5, 0.1-0.2 cm about equal to fruit, tip pointed, surrounded by bracts 0.3-0.4 cm, sharp-tipped, longer than flower, densely crowded; inflorescence of bristly spikes often nodding at tip. 

Fruit dry, papery, slightly puckered,1-seeded, opening by a suture around the middle; seeds dark, shiny lens-shaped, 0.1 cm. Seeds dispersed by wind, birds and mammals as well as farm machinery in rural areas. (Costea et al. 2004) 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional. 

Origin: Tropical America. 

Habitat: Weed of open areas, on bare soil, fill. 

Notes: Used a a vegetable in Tropical America and Africa. Ground seeds used in cereals in North America. Plants preyed upon by a number of nematodes and fungi and numerous insects (Costea et al. 2004).  

Amaranthus crispus crisp amaranth Amaranthaceae AMCR*; NY, bl (Stalter and Tang 2002); Q (DeCandido 2001);

   

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 5.

Amaranthus crispus. USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 5. (Accessed 8/2017).

Amaranthus crispus  is an annual C4 herb (Costea and Tardif 2003), 20-60 cm, stem prostrate, much branched. 

Leaves alternate, numerous, blade 0.5-1.5 cm long, egg-shaped to oblong, tip pointed to rounded, margin irregularly wavy (crisped). 

Flowers inconspicuous, 0.1 cm, sepals linear, minutely bristle-tipped (use lens); inflorescences in leaf axils, 0.3-1 cm long. 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, flattened, to 0.2 cm. 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Argentina. 

Habitat: Open sites, vacant lots, especially near ports. 

Amaranthus cannabinus (Acnida c.) tidemarsh amaranth; water hemp Amaranthaceae AMCA; NY, iw; Bx, cm, pb; R (DeCandido 2001);

Amaranthus cannabinus.Gary P. Fleming.Atlas of the Virginia Flora.www.vaplantatlas.org.2014. Virginia Botanical Associates, Blac

Amaranthus cannabinus.© Gary P. Fleming.Atlas of the Virginia Flora.www.vaplantatlas.org.2014. Virginia Botanical Associates, Black (Accessed 9/2015).

Amaranthus cannabinus is an annual C4 herb (Costea and Tardif 2003), 1-2.5 m tall, erect, stout.

Leaves alternate, stalks to 5 cm, blade to 15 cm long, 4 cm wide, narrowly lance-shaped, upper leaves smaller, tapered to a blunt tip.

Flowers green, inconspicuous, no petals, bracts at base 0.2 cm, scarcely bristly; sexes on different plants (dioecious); male flowers with 5 sepals to 0.3 cm, unequal, female flowers without sepals, style 3-5-branched, feathery-hairy, wind-pollinated (Quinn et al. 2000); inflorescence of large, branched clusters at top of plant, with numerous spikes female plants with leafy spikes, male plants with leafless spikes; blooming and fruiting July-Oct.

Fruit fleshy, 0.3-0.4 cm, 3-5 ribbed, often finely wrinkled; seed to 0.3 cm very flat, dark brown.

Wetland status: OBL.

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.

Origin: Native.

Habitat: High salt marshes and brackish or freshwater areas.

Amaranthus blitum  (A. lividus) slender amaranth; purple amaranth Amaranthaceae AMBL*; Bx, br, cn, pb, sl; Q, rb;

    

Amarthaum blitum.Marie Fourdrigniez.calphotos.berkely.edu.swbiodiversity.org.SEINet.org

Amarthaum blitum.Marie Fourdrigniez.calphotos.berkely.edu.swbiodiversity.org.SEINet.org

Amaranthus blitum is an annual C4 herb (Costea and Tardif 2003), coarse, stems prostrate to erect, 6-60 cm, pale green to reddish, rather fleshy. Possibly colonized by some mycorrhizal fungi (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Leaves alternate, stalk 1-3 cm long, blade 1-3 cm long, rhombic to egg-shaped, tip broadly notched, base wedge-shaped, dull dark green. 

Flowers greenish, sexes separate, sepals of female flowers 2, to 0.2 cm; mostly self pollinated (Costea and Tardif 2003); inflorescence of dense, mealy, axillary clusters or short spikes 2-8 cm long. 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, 0.2 cm. Seeds dispersed by birds and by water (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Infrequent. 

Origin: Old world. 

Habitat: Open, dry, disturbed soil, especially near shore. Also along street curbs, waste areas. 

Notes: Apparently edible but concentrates nitrates in chemically fertilized soils (Fern 2004). Has also been used for medicinal purposes. Red pigments are betacyanins. Plants eaten by rabbits and other mammals, seeds eaten by many birds (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Amaranthus blitoides  (A. graecizans) tumbleweed Amaranthaceae AMBL*; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); NY (DeCandido 2001); R (DeCandido 2001);

  

Amaranthus blitoides. Richard Old.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus blitoides. Richard Old.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus blitoides is an annual C4 herb (Downton 1971; Costea and Tardif 2003), to 60 cm, stems mostly prostrate, often pinkish to purplish, much branched. 

Leaves alternate, stalk elongate, blade to 2 cm long, oblong to widest above middle, pale green, tip rounded, base tapered to stalk, often crowded near tips of stems. 

Flowers greenish, very small, sexes separate, sepals 4-5, bracts about as long as sepals, barely bristle-tipped, veins conspicuous, green branching; inflorescence of short, dense axillary clusters; mostly self pollinated (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, to 0.2 cm, lens-shaped, mostly smooth, July-Oct. Seeds dispersed when old stem breaks and dry plant blows across the ground. Also dispersed by water (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Wetland status: UPL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Western N. America. 

Habitat: Open, dry areas. 

Notes: Seeds edible. Used by Native Americans. Red pigments are betacyanins. Plants eaten by rabbits and other mammals, seeds eaten by many birds. Host to the flies Asphondylia amaranthi and Tetanops myopaeformis (Costea and Tardif 2003).  

Amaranthus albus pale amaranth; tumbleweed Amaranthaceae AMAL(*); Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); Q (DeCandido 2001);

   

Amaranthus albus. Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus albus. Robin R. Buckallew @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. (Accessed 3/2014).

Amaranthus albus, is an annual C4 herb (Downton 1971; Costea and Tardif 2003), to 1 m, pale green to whitish, slender, erect to ascending, rigid, bushy-branched. 

Leaves alternate, stalk elongate, blades of early stem leaves to 7 cm long, widest above middle, tip rounded, base tapered to stalk, pale green, veins conspicuous, leaves of flowering branches to 0.3 cm. 

Flowers very small, colorless, sexes separate, in small, axillary clusters, amid bristly bracts longer than flowers, 3 sepals (no petals); mostly self-pollinated (Costea and Tardif 2003); blooming and fruiting July-Oct. 

Fruit dry, 1-seeded, lens-shaped, to 0.17 cm, enclosed by sepals, wrinkled when dry, seed to 0.1 cm. Seeds dispersed when old stem breaks and dry plant blows across the ground, a “tumbleweed”. 

Wetland status: FACU. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Native to Midwestern states. 

Habitat: Open areas. 

Notes: Host to the Bemisia argentifolia (Homoptera), also infected by a number of fungi (Costea and Tardif 2003). 

Amaranthus Genus amaranth Amaranthaceae

  

Amaranthus albus.Regina O. Hughs.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Amaranthus albus.Regina O. Hughs.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 12/2014).

Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence. Dr. James Altland Oregon State University North Willamette Research & Extension Center. oregonstate.edu

Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence. Dr. James Altland Oregon State University North Willamette Research & Extension Center. oregonstate.edu (Accessed 8/017).

Amaranth genus are annual C4 herbs, usually much branched. 

Amaranthus retroflexus plant. By Paul S. Drobot. Copyright © 2017 Paul S. Drobot. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, U. of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Amaranthus retroflexus plant. By Paul S. Drobot. Copyright © 2017 Paul S. Drobot. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, U. of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. gobotany.New England Wild Flower Society. newenglandwild.org (Accessed 8/2017)

Leaves alternate, stalked (petiolate), entire or with a wavy margin (sinuate). 

Flowers very small, radially symmetrical, subtended by bracts, no petals, sepals dry, membranous; inflorescence of dense clusters (glomerate). 

Amaranthus retroflexus roots. By Paul S. Drobot. Copyright © 2017 Paul S. Drobot. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, U. of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Amaranthus retroflexus roots. By Paul S. Drobot. Copyright © 2017 Paul S. Drobot. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium, U. of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 8/2017).

Fruit dry, small, thin-walled, 1-seeded, with a crown of dry stigmas.