Thelypteris Genus fern Aspleniaceae

Thelypteris noveboracensis.©Thomas Kent.Flora Finder.©florafinder.org

Thelypteris noveboracensis.©Thomas Kent.Flora Finder.©florafinder.org (Accessed 3/2017).

Thelypteris is a genus of medium-sized ferns from the tips of blackish, slender, slightly scaly rhizomes.

Leaves twice pinnate or once pinnate and pinnately lobed, midrib and major veins hairy, at least on upper side, leaf stalk straw-colored,

Thelypteris leaf veins.© Gary Fewless.University of Wisconsin - Green Bay.Cofrin Center for Biology.uwgb.edu

Thelypteris leaf veins.© Gary Fewless.University of Wisconsin – Green Bay.Cofrin Center for Biology.uwgb.edu (Accessed 3/2017).

Spore cases inside leaflet margins, along veins, kidney-shaped (Cobb 1963).

Thelypteris kunthii.fertile pinnule.© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011.discoverlife.org.hardyfernlibrary.com

Thelypteris kunthii.fertile pinnule.© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011.discoverlife.org.hardyfernlibrary.com (Accessed 3/2017).

Eupatorium torreyanum (E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum) Torrey’s thoroughwort Asteraceae EUTO6; R (Z. Wang 7/2016);

Eupatorium torreyanum.Torrey's throughwort.Zihao Wang.Richmond Co. NYC, 2016

Eupatorium torreyanum.Torrey’s throughwort.Zihao Wang.Richmond Co. NYC, 2016 (Accessed 73/2017).

Eupatorium torreyanum is a perennial herb from a short root crown; stems to 1.5 m tall, solitary, rough-hairy, unbranched below middle; axils with small tufts of leaves.

Leaves opposite, sometimes in whorls of 3-4, conspicuously 3-veined, margin coarsely toothed.

Flowers dull white, 5 per head, bracteate base about 0.5 cm tall, cylindrical, finely gray-hairy; inflorescence rounded; blooms Aug.-Oct.

Fruit A plumed achene.

Wetland status: NL.

Frequency in New York City: State Threatened species (S2G5), Threatened-State, S2 (State Rank), G5T4T5 (Global Rank)

Origin: Native.

Habitat: Open uplands.

Eupatorium torreyanum.Richard and Teresa Ware.Copyright © 2006-2017 JK Marlow.Name That Plant.namethatplant.net

Eupatorium torreyanum.Richard and Teresa Ware.Copyright © 2006-2017 JK Marlow.Name That Plant.namethatplant.net (Accessed 3/2017).

Notes: According to Flora of North America: “Eupatorium hyssopifolium includes both diploid and polyploid cytotypes and presents a complex situation taxonomically. The diploids are placed here in var. hyssopifolium, which also includes polyploids and is characterized by relatively narrow leaves. Variety laciniatum has broader leaves and molecular data suggest that it arose through hybridization between var. hyssopifolium and E. serotinum; the name E. torreyanum has been applied to plants of similar morphology, but these are hybrid derivatives of E. serotinum and E. mohrii.”

It is mentioned in Gleason and Cronquist under E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum as being a “stable entity,” but is not treated separately.

USDAPlants gives the image from Britton and Brown without further information: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Vol. 3: 358.

Eupatorium torreyanum – Short, is mentioned under E. hyssopifolium in Native Plants of the Carolinas & Georgia (Radford et al. 1968).

Goodyera pubescens downey rattlesnake-plantain Orchidaceae (unknown location found by Dave Taft 3/2017)

Goodyeara pubescens.Dave Taft.8/3/2016 (Accessed 3/2017)

Goodyera pubescens is a small, low herb 20-40 cm tall in flower. Like all orchids, Goodyera roots are associated with specialized mycorrhizal fungi.

Leaves in a basal rosette,  each with a broad white midrib and each vein lined with white or greenish- white;   broadly elliptic to broadly egg-shaped, 2.1–6.2 cm long, 1.3–3 cm wide, tip pointed to blunt.

Flowers white, bilaterally symmetrical, overall shape rounded, about 0.5 cm long and wide, 3 white sepals 3 white petals but , upper lip hood-shaped, lower petals fused in a sack-like shape, overall however, the flower is distinctly orchid-shaped; inflorescence is a spike, densely flowered, on a stalk 11-35 cm long; blooms July-Sept (see Flora of North America www.eFloras.org 2017).

Goodyera pubescens.leaf rosette.© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011.discoverlife.org

Goodyera pubescens.leaf rosette.© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011.discoverlife.org (Accessed 3/2017)

Fruit a dry 3-parted capsule, seeds powder-like, wind dispersed. In order to germinate, a seed must join with an appropriate fungus.

Wetland status: FACU

Frequency in NYC: very infrequent.

Habitat: Woodlands with acid soil; mostly on moist humus soils in shady, upland woods. Found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. (Flora of North America www.eFloras.org 2017)

Goodyera pubescens.flowers.©Stephen Darbyshire.m3ipbase.com

Goodyera pubescens.flowers.©Stephen Darbyshire.m3ipbase.com (Accessed 3/2017).

Notes: As with all wild orchids, Goodyera should NEVER be collected from the wild since it is very slow to regenerate and will almost never survive transplanting.

Pycnanthemum Genus mountain mint Lamiaceae

Pycnanthemum is a genus of perennial, aromatic herbs (ours) with 4-sided, erect stems, colonial from rhizomes.

Leaves opposite, simple, aromatic.

Flowers white to pink, small, bilaterally symmetrical, tubular, 2-lipped, the upper lip entire or slightly notched, the lower lip 3-lobed, usually purple-dotted; stamens 4, usually longer than the petal lobes; ovary 4-lobed; flowers usually crowded in head-like clusters in leaf axils or ends of stems.

Fruit dry, of 4 nutlets cupped in the bottom of the persistent calyx.

Polygala Genus milkwort Polygalaceae

Polygala pauciflora.New Hampshire Garden Solutions.nhgardensolutions.files.wordpress.com

Polygala pauciflora.New Hampshire Garden Solutions.nhgardensolutions.files.wordpress.com (Accessed 2/2017).

Polygala is a genus of small herbs (ours).

Leaves alternate or whorled (ours).

Flowers very irregular; 5 sepals, the 2 inner (wings) larger and often petal-like, the 3 outer sepals smaller; 3 petals, fused with filaments of the at base forming a tube, the 2 upper petals alike, the lower petal keel-shaped with a fringed crest; stamens 8 or sometimes 6; the flowers of our species small in heads or dense spike-like clusters.

Fruit 2-parted capsule, each part one-seeded with a fleshy attachment (aril). Arils generally adapted to ant dispersal.

Philadelphus Genus mock-orange Hydrangeaceae

Philadelphus inodorus. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Philadelphus inodorus. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 2/2017).

Philadelphus is a genus of shrubs; twigs without stipules; bark mostly shredding or flaking.

Leaves opposite, simple, margins entire to toothed ours are all deciduous with no notable fall color.

Flowers white, all but P. inodorus are sweet smelling; 4-parted, stamens numerous, ovary inferior, 4-parted.

Fruit a dry capsule with numerous small seeds, opening along the center of each of the 4 parts (loculicidal).

Notes: Widely cultivated and hybridized, often with numerous petals replacing stamens (as in cultivated roses).

Lonicera Genus honey suckle Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera canadensis.2004 © . Peter M. Dziuk.minnesotawildflowers.info

Lonicera canadensis fruit.2004 © Peter M. Dziuk.minnesotawildflowers.info (Accessed 1/2017).

Lonicera is a genus of woody  shrubs and vines, stems fibrous, bark shredding.

Leaves opposite, simple (margins mostly entire (not toothed or lobed); ; no stipules.

Flowers mostly white, yellowish or pinkish; bilaterally symmetrical, each flower with both sexes (perfect), 5 lobed, petals forming a tube; calyx small, 5-lobed; inflorescences of 2 flowers in axils or whorls of 6 flowers at ends of stems.

Fruit fleshy, a berry with several seeds.

SONY DSC

Lonicera flowers.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 1/2017).

Notes: Several are very invasive in our area.5302048

Lactuca Genus lettuce Asteraceae

Lactuca_virosa_L.en.wikipedia.org

Lactuca_virosa_L.en.wikipedia.org (Accessed 1/2017).

Lactuca is a genus of annual or biennial herbs with milky sap, from a taproot and generally forming a leafy rosette the first year.

Leaves alternate, otherwise very various

Flowers yellow, white or blue, in heads of 5-56 florets (in ours), all rays (ligulate) with both male and female function (perfect); bracteate base of each head (involucre) cylindrical, base of the involucre with several rows of small bractlets below the 2 rows of larger, narrow bracts (phyllaries), which are equally long, or nearly so; base of the involucre often broader in fruit.

Lactuca virosa_01012001.rosette.commons.wikimedia.org

Lactuca virosa_01012001.rosette.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 1/2017).

Fruit dry, a flattened, ribbed, plumed, achene (Cypselae); plume (pappus) is attached to the expanded tip of the achene and has 2 rows of very fine (capillary) bristles adapted for wind dispersal (Flora of North America, FNA Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 216, 258, 259).

Dryopteris Genus wood fern Aspleniaceae

dryopteris-filix-mas-commons-wikimedia-org

Dryopteris felix-mas.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 12/2016).

Dryopteris is a genus of usually terrestrial ferns, arising from short to short-creeping, stout, scaly underground stem  (rhizome), the base of the rhizome often shaggy from old leaf stalk (petiole) bases.

dryopteris-filix-mas-pinnule-with-grooves-along-top-surface-david-fenwick-2014-01-06-08-aphotoflora-com

Dryopteris filix-mas pinnule with grooves along top surface.© David Fenwick 2014.01-06-08.aphotoflora.com

Leaves with stalk shorter than blade (1/4-2/3 length); blade 1-3 times pinnate or pinnately-divided (pinnatifid), divisions reduced upward to tip; leaflet stalks broadly attached to leaf stalks (“minor axes decurrent on major ones”); all veins on the upper surface of the leaf (adaxial) grooved, the grooves continuous from the major to the minor veins; leaves scaly on under (abaxial side; mostly smooth on upper side; veins forked at ends and not extending to the leaflet margins (free).

dryopteris-carthusiana-pinnule-sori-david-fenwick-2014-05-08-10-aphotoflora-com

Dryopteris carthusiana pinnule, sori.© David Fenwick 2014.05-08-10.aphotoflora.com

Spore cases (sori) in one row between the margin and midrib of the leaflets, round; the covering over the sori (indusia) round to kidney-shaped (J. D. Montgomery and W. H. Wagner Jr. Flora of North America, Vol. 2, www.eFloras.org; Accessed 1/2016).

Carya Genus Hickory Juglandaceae

Carya ovata fall color. Jason Sharman, Vitalitree, Bugwood.org Creative Commons License. Noncommercial 3.0 License. forestry images.org

Carya ovata fall color. Jason Sharman, Vitalitree, Bugwood.org Creative Commons License. Noncommercial 3.0 License. forestry images.org (Accessed 12/2017).

Carya species are large hardwood trees (ours).

carya sp. compound leaves. W. John Hayden. University of Richmond. facultystaff.richmond.edu

carya sp. compound leaves. W. John Hayden. University of Richmond. facultystaff.richmond.edu (Accessed 12/2017).

Leaves alternate, odd-pinnately compound, largest leaflets are the 3 terminal ones. Aromatic if crushed. Typical Autumn color is deep yellow.

Flowers tiny, in catkins. Staminate catkins elongate, in groups of 3, pistillate catkins in spikes of 1-10 at ends of twigs.

Carya tomentosa staminate flowers. By Steven Baskauf. Copyright © 2017 CC-BY-NC-SA. www.cas.vanderbilt.edu. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Carya tomentosa staminate flowers. By Steven Baskauf. Copyright © 2017 CC-BY-NC-SA. www.cas.vanderbilt.edu. New England Wild Flower Society. gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 12/2017).

Carya sp. old pistillate flower. Texas A&M University. botany.csl.tamu.edu

Carya sp. old pistillate flower. Texas A&M University. botany.csl.tamu.edu (Accessed 12/2017).

Fruit a nut, enclosed in a large, fibrous, 4-parted, aromatic husk.