Trees

Acer campestre hedge maple Aceraceae ACCA*; Bx, cn, pb, vc; Q, a, cu (Greller 1985); K; - Acer campestre is a small tree to 10 m tall, bark dark lightly ridged and furrowed, (similar to Norway maple).  Leaves opposite, petiole 3-9 cm long, sap milky, blade 5-16 cm long, 5-10 cm wide, 3-5 blunt lobes, few blunt teeth, margin wavy, dark green above, finely hairy below.  Flowers yellow-green, radially symmetrical, small, inflorescence erect,of branched clusters; […]
Acer negundo boxelder Aceraceae ACNE; Bx, br, bz, pb, sd, up, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002), u; K, p; R, bm, h, hs (planted), is, lc, pr, se; - Acer negundo is a tree to 20 m tall, usually shrubby, leaning, short-lived, about 60 years, fast growing, but sometimes becoming large trees; roots associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM, endomycorrhizae, Zygomycotina, order Glomales, family Endogonaceae) (Decker and Boerner 1997; Carreiro 1999); twigs pale green to green-purple, with waxy bloom, cut plants stump sprout readily; winter buds blue to purplish, […]
Acer nigrum (Acer saccharum ssp. nigrum) black maple Aceraceae ACNI; Bx, pb (DeCandido 2001); - Acer nigrum   is much like A. saccharum. Distinguished by darker, more deeply furrowed bark. Leaves darker green, duller above, often finely hairy below, sides and tip often drooping, lowest lobes often reduced or none, lobes usually with fewer, shorter, blunt teeth, central lobe tapered from base. Flowers pale yellow-green, small, in wispy clusters, April-May, wind pollinated, (not reproductive […]
Acer palmatum Japanese maple Aceraceae ACPA*; Bx, cf, wv; K (DeCandido 2001); R, gb, r; - Acer palmatum is a small tree to about 6 m tall, often multi-stemmed, bark smooth, gray; twigs green-red.  Leaves opposite, to 10 cm long, about as wide, green to red, deeply palmate 5-9 lobed and toothed, lobes long, narrow, tips pointed, smaller than leaves of other maple.  Flowers red-purple, radially symmetrical, small, in umbrella-shaped clusters; blooms May-June.  Fruit dry thin, […]
Acer platanoides Norway maple Aceraceae ACPL*p; Bx, bg, br, cf, g, pb, rd, sd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, tr, wr; Q, a, bw, cu, f, ft, i, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002), rw, u; K, ow, p; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bg, bk, c, cg, cl, e, fk, gr, h, hs (1 planted), is, js, jw, mls, ok, r, se, sv, w; - Acer platanoides is a canopy tree, old bark black, narrowly, longitudinally fissured and ridged in a fairly regular pattern, bark of young trees gray, smooth; terminal winter buds large, 0.6-0.9 cm, wider than twig tip, green, to dark purplish, bud scales 3-4 pairs; twig and leaf stalk sap milky.  Leaves opposite, blade 8-18 cm wide, wider […]
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore maple Aceraceae ACPS*p; Bx, br, bz, pb, rd, sd, sn, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, rr, tr; Q, a, cg, f, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002), wl; K, ow; R, bg, cg, r, sv; - Acer pseudoplatanus Bark pale gray to yellow-gray, smooth, sometimes becoming flaky in older trees; terminal winter buds to 0.8 cm wide, greenish, scarcely pointed, wider than end of twig.  Leaves opposite, stalk sap milky, blade 8-15 cm wide, 5-lobed, tips usually rather blunt, dark green above, underside whitish, veins closely spaced, prominent with a characteristic “fish-bone” […]
Acer rubrum Red maple Aceraceae ACRU; Bx, bg, br, bz, g, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr; Q, a, cu, f, j, rw, tl, u; K, m, p; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, d, ev, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, is, js, k, lp, lt, mc, mls, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, rw, se, sm, sp, sv, t, w, wp, wt, v, x; - Acer rubrum, canopy tree to 35 m; life span to 150 years; branches and twigs ascending or spreading, new twigs red, usually elongate and curved upward, often in opposite pairs if both survive; bark smooth, silver-gray on young trees, coarsely, irregularly fissured on older trees; roots fibrous, growing horizontal mostly in the top 25 cm […]
Acer saccharinum silver maple Aceraceae ACSA; Bx, br, bz, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, n, rw, Q, a, ft, j (Stalter and Lamont 2002), u; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, bm, c, cg, fk, h, js, jw, lp, mls, ok, sv, t, v, w, wt, x; -    Acer saccharinum is a tree to 30 m tall, bark silver-gray, flaky on older trees; twigs red to orange, rank odor when crushed; winter flower buds reddish to brownish, knobby, wider than twig; roots shallow, fibrous; associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) (endomycorrhizae, Zygomycotina, order Glomales, family Endogonaceae) (Decker and Boerner 1997; Carreiro 1999) […]
Aesculus flava yellow buckeye Hippocastanaceae AEFL(*); Bx, pb; - Aesculus flava is a tree to 30 m tall.  Leaves opposite, palmately compound, leaflets 5, widest oboe middle, to 15 cm long, margin finely toothed, young leaves hairy below.  Flowers dull yellow, irregular, petals 4, the larger to 3 cm, broad above, narrow at base; blooms May-June.  Fruit a large 1-seeded smooth capsule to 8 cm.  Wetland status: […]
Aesculus hippocastanum horse chestnut Hippocastanaceae AEHI*; Bx, br, pb, rd, vc, wv; NY; Q, u; K, p; R, ah, cl, h; - Aesculus hippocastanum is a tree to 25 m tall; bark brown, flaky; winter buds large, blackish, sticky.  Leaves opposite, palmately compound with 7 leaflets; term buds large, sticky; inflorescence large, many flowered.  Flowers white, marked with red or yellow.  Fruit rounded, spiny to 5 cm with one large brown seed.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in New York City: […]
Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven Simaroubaceae AIAL *p; Bx, br, bz, cf, cm, cn, g, ht, pb, rd, sf, sn, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, n, rr, wr; Q, a, cu, f, fa, fr, ft, i, j, rw, tl; K, do, fl, fs, m, ow, pl, sc; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bg, bm, c, cl, cg, cs, d, e, fk, gb, gr, hs, is, js, k, lp, lt, ml, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, se, sm, sv, t, w, wp, wt, x; - Ailanthus altissima is a tree to 20 m tall, dioecious; clonal from root sprouts, roots near trunk form thick storage structures, bark smooth, pale gray-brown; branches few, stout, twigs more or less 1 cm wide, with large brown pith, marked with large, shield-shaped leaf scars about 1 cm wide, winter bud low, dome-shaped, scales overlaping, inserted […]
Albizia julibrissin mimosa/silk-tree Mimosaceae ALJU*; Bx, pb, wv; K; Q, j; R, lp, ty; -     Albizia julibrissin tree to 10 m tall, about as broad as tall, often multi-stemmed, bark smooth, gray-brown.  Leaves alternate, twice pinnate, finely divided, pinnae 4-12 pairs, opposite, to 20 cm long, leaflets opposite, 20-30 pairs, to 1.5 cm long, oblong, tip blunt, base very unequal, leafs out very late, late May to early June, killed […]
Alnus glutinosa European (black) alder Betulaceae ALGL*; Bx, br, bz, sf (planted in restoration); Q, a, j; R, gb, h (planted in BH-5), js (planted), lp, rc - Alnus glutinosa is a tree to 20 m tall, appears to be colonial from root sprouts, bark dark, rough, twigs green with prominent, small pale lenticels, becoming pale gray, gummy, young leaves gummy.  Leaves alternate, to 12 cm long, broadly oval to rounded, blunt or notched at tip, (i.e. if tip notched then it is European […]
Asimina triloba Pawpaw Annonaceae ASTR; R ro; - Asimina triloba is a shrubby tree, to 10 m., colonial.  Leaves alternate, widest at or above middle, tip abruptly pointed, base gradually tapered, margins entire, buds naked, hairy.  Flowers solitary, greenish purple to 4 cm wide, regular; blooms April-May.  Fruit about 10cm long, greenish yellow turning black when ripe; Aug.-Sept., flesh edible, several flat, hard seeds.  Wetland status: […]
Betula alleghaniensis yellow birch Betulaceae BEAL; Bx, pb; Q; - Betula alleghaniensis is a tree to 30 m tall, bark shiny, yellow-silvery-gray, peeling in thin, filmy strips, appearing shaggy; old bark dark, rough; crushed twigs slightly aromatic, of wintergreen. Leaves alternate, (sometimes paired on short twigs) egg-shaped, to 10 cm long, coarsely, tip pointed, base rounded (to slightly lobed), veins below softly hairy, margin sharply toothed.  […]
Betula lenta black; sweet birch Betulaceae BELE; Bx, bg, br, g, pb, rd, sd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr; Q, a, ca, cu, f; K, p; R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, h, d, fw, gb, is, k, lp, r, sv, w, x -     Betula lenta is a tree to 25 m; roots of birches associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, especially the Basidiomycete family Russulaceae (Bills et al. 1986; Smith and Read 1997); outer bark black, smooth dark when young, often shiny, rough with age, with thick loose edged plates, lenticels horizontal, twigs and inner bark sweetly aromatic, wintergreen […]
Betula nigra River birch Betulaceae BENI; Bx, br; Q, a; R, cp, pm, t; - Betula nigra is a tree to 30 m tall (smaller in NYC); bark orange-brown, peeling, shaggy, old bark rough, scaling, twigs hairy.  Leaves egg-shaped, to 8 cm long, sharply double toothed near tip, entire near base, stalk fuzzy.  Flowers very small, in catkins, wind pollinated; blooms March-April.  Fruit dry, winged nuts, wind dispersed. Seeds, buds and catkins eaten […]
Betula papyrifera paper birch Betulaceae BEPA; R; - Betula papyrifera is a small to medium sized tree, usually leaning; bark white, peeling in thin sheets, with black, horizontal or half-moon-shaped strips around branches, underbark is pink.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, to 10 cm long, tip long-pointed, base round, margin sharply toothed.  Flowers tiny, in catkins; blooms April-May, wind pollinated before leafing out.  Fruit: dry, tiny winged […]
Betula populifolia gray birch Betulaceae BEPO; Bx, g, pb, vc; NY, hb; Q, a, bw, cu, fa, fr, i, j, tl; K, fl (planted), m, p; R, ah, bd, bm, c, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, e, fk, gb, go, gr, js, jw, k, lp, lt, mc, mm, pm, pr, r, ro, sb, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt, x; - Betula populifolia is a small tree to 10 m; usually with multiple stems, trunks mostly less than 15 cm diam., mature bark very white with black chevron-shaped markings at each branch base, as well as numerous black horizontal lines (lenticels), bark of young trees and branches red-brown, shiny, bark not peeling; colonial from root sprouts […]
Broussonetia papyrifera paper mulberry Moraceae BRPA*; Bx, pb, sf, up, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q; K; R, c; -      Broussonetia papyrifera is a tree to 20 m tall but usually smaller, crooked or leaning, bark yellowish with smooth network of fine ridges, twigs rough textured, gray-hairy, sap milky.  Leaves alternate, to 20 x 9 cm, rough above, densely velvety hairy below, usually lobed, (similar to Morus alba) very variable, margin toothed.  Flowers in gray catkins; blooms […]
Carpinus betulus European hornbeam Betulaceae CABE*; Bx, br, cn, vc; NY, ct; -     Carpinus betulus is a small tree to 20 m tall, habit tree-like, young bark gray-brown, smooth, lenticels prominent, bark on trunk gray, trunk corded, winter buds appressed to stems, curved inward, 0.5 cm long. Leaves alternate, to 12 cm long, 5 cm wide, egg-shaped, tip pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, margin doubly, sharply toothed, […]
Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam/ironwood Betulaceae CACA3; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, vc; NY, hb; Q, a, cu; K, p; R, ah, an, ar, bd, cp, cs, d, gb, gr, h, lp, lt, r, sv, w, wt; -     Carpinus caroliniana is a small understory tree, ca 10 m, wide, low habit, usually multi-stemmed or low branching, trunk corded, surface sinuous, bark smooth, dark; deeply rooted, winter buds to 0.3 cm.  Leaves alternate, narrowly egg-shaped to 2-10 cm long, 6 cm wide, tip long-pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, hairy on veins below with tufts […]
Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory Juglandaceae CACO2; Bx, br, cf, cn, pb, rd, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, tr; Q, a, cu, ft; K; R, bk, c, cs, lp, v, w; -      Carya cordiformis is a  tree to 18 m tall, 60 cm dbh (Petrides 1988), may live 200 years (Burns and Honkala 1990), slow growing; growth pattern strictly determinate (Marks 1973; Gargiullo personal observation); deeply taprooted, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997). Ectomycorrhizae, which form a sheath-like structure around small roots, are […]
Carya glabra pignut hickory Juglandaceae CAGL; Bx, cn, pb, wv; NY; Q, cu, f; K, p; R, bd, cl, gb, ty; -     Carya glabra is a tree to 27 m, 90 cm dbh, slow growing; may live over 300 years; bark gray, tight, smooth ridged, patterned on younger trees, becoming furrowed, twigs hairless, slender, to 0.3 cm wide; growth pattern strictly determinate (Marks 1973; Gargiullo personal observation); deeply taprooted, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); […]
Carya ovata shagbark hickory Juglandaceae CAOV; Bx, bg, br, cn, pb, sf, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu; R, ah, ar, bd, bm, cs, ev, gb, h, k, lp, sv, w; -     Carya ovata is a tree to 27 m tall, 90 cm dbh, lives about 300 years; bark gray, shaggy, peeling in large plates from top and bottom, twigs stout, dark reddish-brown; terminal winter leaf buds dark, outer scales persisting, large, over 1.3 cm long, usually wider than twig, scales overlapping, not falling early; growth pattern […]
Carya tomentosa mockernut hickory Juglandaceae CATO; Bx, pb, vc, wv; NY, ct; rw; Q cu, j, u; K, p; R; ah, ar, bd, bm, cp, d, fw; gb, h, is, k, lp, t; - Carya tomentosa is a tree to 24 m tall, 60 cm dbh (Petrides 1988), lives ca 200 yrs; slow growing; bark ridged, hard, tight, old bark deeply furrowed; taprooted, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); winter buds to 2.5 cm long, dark outer scales dropping in Autumn leaving bud wooly, gray, often wider […]
Castanea dentata  American chestnut Fagaceae CADE; Bx, pb, vc; Q, a; cu; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bd, cb, cl, cp, ev, gb, h, is, k, lp, sv, t, ty; - Castanea dentata was formerly a dominant forest tree to 30 m, now reduced to root sprouts by chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica (Endothia p.), a fungus introduced from Asia about 1904. Roots sprouts often grow large enough to flower and fruit but typically are attacked when mature bark begins to fissure. Young bark dark gray, shiny.  Leaves narrow, about […]
Catalpa bignonioides southern catalpa Bignoniaceae CABI(*);Q i, j, u; R, gr, lp, pr, sv; -     Catalpa bignonioides is a tree to 15 m tall, branches widely spreading; bark gray, flaky, twigs stout, hairless, pith continuous, leaf scars opposite, broad, nearly circular, vein scars forming a ring inside leaf scars; winter buds.  Leaves opposite, often whorled at ends of twigs, stalk 8-16 cm; blade, 10-20 cm long, 7-20 cm wide, broadly egg […]
Catalpa speciosa western catalpa Bignoniaceae CASP(*); Bx, br, pb; NY; Q, a; K; R; -     Catalpa speciosa is a tree to 30 m tall, pyramid-shaped, bark reddish-brown, thickly scaly becoming gray-brown, ridged and furrowed in older trees; leaf scars opposite, broad, nearly circular, vein scars forming a ring inside leaf scars.  Leaves opposite, stalk 10-15 cm long; blade 15-30 cm long, 7-20 cm wide, egg to heart-shaped, tip long-pointed, base […]
Celtis australis hackberry Ulmaceae CEAU*; Bx, br; -      Celtis australis is a tree to 25 m tall; twigs densely hairy, (bark of smaller branches dark gray, sprinkled with very small orange-brown lenticels, in this specimen).  Leaves alternate, stalk 0.5-1.5 cm long, densely hairy, blade elliptic to egg-shaped, 5-15 cm long, tip long-pointed, base rounded, sides unequal (oblique), (this specimen cordate with wide, shallow […]
Celtis occidentalis common hackberry Ulmaceae  CEOC2; Bx, br, bz, cm, pb, up, rd, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, tr; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), f, ft, j, rw; K, m, ow, pl; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bm, c, cg, hs, js, lp, mls, w; - Celtis occidentalis is a tree to 15 m tall, lives about 150 years; deep rooted, roots associated with ectomycorrhizae; bark silver-gray, usually warty; older twigs hairless, slender, zigzagged, pith chambered near nodes, stipule scars present, winter buds appressed to twig, triangular, pointed, scales 4-5, hairy, overlapping, leaf scars with 3 vein (bundle) scars (Harlow 1946; […]
Cercidiphyllum japonicum katsura-tree Cercidiphyllaceae CEJA*; K, p; -     Cercidiphyllum japonicum is a tree to 10 m tall, usually with several trunks, branches with short spurs bearing flowers and one leaf.  Leaves opposite on long shoots, solitary on spurs, stalk 2-3 cm long, blade 5-10 cm long, rounded, tip blunt, base lobed, dark blue-green above, waxy-pale below, margin blunt-toothed; new leaves purplish at first; […]
Cercis canadensis redbud Caesalpiniaceae CECA(*) Bx, pb, wv; NY; Q, j (planted); -     Cercis canadensis is a tree to 12 m tall, bark smooth, blackish with orange underbark, twigs zigzagged; widely branched.  Leaves broadly heart-shaped to 12 cm long, usually wider than long, tip blunt to pointed.  Flowers magenta-pink, to 1 cm long, irregular, somewhat pea-flower-shaped, in small clusters along stems, blooms May.  Fruit dry pods to 10 cm long,1.5 […]
Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic white cedar Cupressaceae CHTH; R (cp last known); -     Chamaecyparis thyoides is a to 25 m, slender evergreen tree.  Leaves scale-like to 0.4 cm, tightly overlapping along thin twigs, ca 0.1 cm wide, persistent, enlarging on older branches, aromatic, interior leaves and twigs eventually dying.  Flowers, Fruit none. Cones to 1 cm, angular, at first berry-like, blue-green, scales about 6, becoming brown, opening to disperse […]
Cladrastis kentukea  (C. lutea) American yellowwood Fabaceae CLLU(*); Bx, vc, wv; NY, iw; -     Cladrastis kentukea is a tree to 15 m tall, often multi-stemmed, bark smooth, gray, shallowly grooved (Petrides 1988).  Leaves alternate, pinnately compound leaflets 6-9, alternate along midrib, broadly egg-shaped, to 13 cm long.  Flowers white, fragrant, irregular, in showy drooping clusters to 30 cm; blooms May-June. Fruit dry pods to 10 cm, Sept.-Oct.  Wetland status: UPL.  Frequency in […]
Diospyros virginiana persimmon Ebenaceae DIVI2; Bx, pb; R, ah, gb, go, h, lp, pm, ro, sm, t, wp, x; -     Diospyros virginiana is a tree to 15 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, usually dioecious (sexes separate); stems often crooked, twigs gray, mature bark black, square fissures, twigs thin; winter buds very dark with two overlapping scales; vein scar one, linear (Harlow 1946; Petrides 1988).  Leaves alternate, stalk to 2 cm long, blade to 18 […]
Fagus grandifolia American beech Fagaceae FAGR; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, sf, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw; Q, a, cu, ft, u; K, p; R, ah, an, ar, bd, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, fw, gr, gb, h, is, k, lp, r, ro, sv, t, w; -     Fagus grandifolia is a tree to 30 m tall; may live 200 years; slow growing; growth pattern determinate (a single bout of stem and leaf growth early in season) (Marks 1975); shallow rooted; often colonial by root sprouts, especially if primary tree is injured; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Lactarius cinereus (family Russulaceae, Basidiomycotina) […]
Fagus sylvatica copper beech/European beech Fagaceae FASY*; Bx, cn, pb; NY ct, iw, n; K; R; -     Fagus sylvatica is a tree similar to F. grandifolia, bark somewhat darker.  Leaves alternate, stalk 0.5-1 cm long, blade 5-10 cm long, 4-6 cm wide (Dirr 1990) egg-shaped to elliptic, tip pointed, base broadly wedge-shaped to rounded, margin more wavy, not sharply toothed, veins 5-9 pairs, buds shorter than American beech; ‘Atroponicea’ Copper beech, (leaves […]
Fraxinus americana white ash Oleaceae FRAM; Bx, bg, br, bz, g, sd, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, tr, wr; Q, a, j; K, p; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, ca, cs, gb, lp, mls; - Fraxinus americana is a tree to 40 m tall; taprooted, roots associated with VA mycorrhizal fungi such as Gyrodon merulioides (syn. Gyrodon m., Boletinus porosus; shallow pore/ ash-tree bolete,) (Bills et al. 1986; Lincoff, 1981; Brundrett and Kendrick 1988);); bark dark gray, mature trees with reticulate ridges and grooves, twigs usually hairless; top of leaf scar “U” shaped, terminal […]
Fraxinus nigra black ash Oleaceae FRNI; Bx, pb; R, t; -     Fraxinus nigra is a tree to 25 m tall; fast growing; shallow rooted; bark furrowed & ridged somewhat scaly.  Leaves opposite, pinnately compound, leaflets ca 9, sessile, toothed, buds blackish.  Flowers dioecious, small, wind pollinated, May-June.  Fruit winged, flat, about 3 cm long, 0.8cm wide, blunt at both ends, winged to base, June-Sept., wind dispersed July-Oct. Seeds […]
Fraxinus pennsylvanica green ash Oleaceae  FRPE; Bx, br, bz, sf, up, vc; NY; Q, a; K; R, bd, bk, ev, gb, js, lp, mls, w, wt; - Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a tree to 25 m tall; about 100 years, fast growing; shallow rooted; bark flaky, buds brownish, terminal bud pointed, higher than wide, top of leaf scar with little or no notch, new growth often finely hairy.  Leaves opposite, pinnately compound, leaflets 5-9, usually 7, lance to egg-shaped, margin more-or-less toothed, underside not […]
Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo; maidenhair tree Ginkgoaceae GIBI; Bx; NY, ct; Q; K, p; R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017); -    Ginkgo biloba is a tree to 24 m tall, bark gray-brown, deeply fissured and ridged, branches stout.  Leaves alternate, fan-shaped, to 7 cm long and about as wide, notched and irregularly blunt-toothed along broadly curved top, base wedge-shaped, veins conspicuously parallel, in clusters of 3-5 on older short shoots or singly along elongate new stems, […]
Gleditsia triacanthos honey locust Fabaceae GLTR(*); Bx, pb, wv; NY, bl, ct, iw, n, tr; Q, a, j; K; R, hs; -     Gleditsia triacanthos is a tree to 20 m or more, trunk, branches and twigs armed with numerous, large, often branched thorns, bark black with few irregular fissures, and plates.  Leaves alternate, pinnately once or twice compound, leaflets oblong, obscurely toothed, 1-4 cm; leaves expand mid-May; winter plant leafless 180 days (Britton 1874).  Flowers small, greenish, pea-flower-shaped, […]
Gymnocladus dioica (G. dioicus) Kentucky coffeetree Caesalpiniaceae GYDI*; Bx, br, pb; NY, iw; Q; R; -      Gymnocladus dioica is a tree to 30 m tall, twigs very stout, often whitish, leaf scars large, shield-shaped, buds silky, pith pinkish (Petrides 1988).  Leaves alternate, twice pinnately compound, often nearly 1 m long, 3-6 pairs pinnae, leaflets to 8 cm long, 4 cm wide, margins entire, sometimes the lower pinnae replaced by leaflets.  Flowers greenish- […]
Juglans cinerea butternut Juglandaceae JUCI; Bx, pb, vc; NY, iw, tr (1); -     Juglans cinerea is a tree to 30 m tall, short lived, not more than 75 years, bark gray-brown with smooth rather shiny ridges; taprooted but root system more fibrous than J. nigra; upper margin of leaf scar densely hairy.  Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, leaflets 7-17, opposite (Petrides 1988).  Flowers monoecious, catkins, male on last years shoots, female […]
Juglans nigra black walnut  Juglandaceae JUNI; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q, a, fr; R, ar, bk, h, lt; -    Juglans nigra is a tree to 30 m tall; bark almost black, deeply grooved, ridges rough, pith chambered, tan; leaf scars conspicuous, shield-shaped to 3-lobed, vein scars 3, often horse-shoe shaped, winter buds white-wooly; taprooted with wide lateral root spread, forms vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); growth pattern indeterminate (Gargiullo personal observation).  Leaves pinnately […]
Juniperus virginiana eastern red cedar Cupressaceae JUVI; Bx, pb; Q, fr, i, j, tl; K, m (planted), pl (planted); R, 440, ca, cp, lc (planted), k, wp, wt; -     Juniperus virginiana is an evergreen conifer tree to 20 m tall; habit upright, narrow; taprooted in deep soil; fibrous, wide spreading roots in shallow, rocky soil; bark brown, shredding.  Leaves: evergreen, scale-like, tightly overlapping, juvenile leaves needle-like.  Flowers: none. Dioecious; male cones small yellow-brown on branch tips in winter, wind pollinated; March-May.  Fruit none. Female […]
Koelreuteria paniculata goldenrain tree; pride-of-India Sapindaceae KOPA*; Bx, pb, up; NY, ct; Q, a, f; K; -     Koelreuteria paniculata is a tree to 10 m; bark light brown, furrowed, twigs with raised orange brown speckles (lenticels).  Leaves alternate pinnate, to 30 cm long, leaflets 7- 15, irregularly lobed and toothed, to 8 cm long.  Flowers yellow, about 1 cm wide in large branched clusters to 35 cm long, June-July.  Fruit papery 3-parted inflated capsule […]
Larix laricina tamarack Pinaceae Bx, pb (planted); NY planted; -    Larix laricina is a conifer tree to 20 m tall.  Leaves: needle-like, deciduous, soft, to 2.5 cm long, in clusters on short shoots or scattered along new growth.  Flowers: None. Gymnosperm.  Fruit: none. Cones to 2 cm long, with 10-18 scales.  Wetland status: FACW.  Frequency in New York City: Very infrequent, mostly planted.  Origin: […]
Liquidambar styraciflua sweet gum Hamamelidaceae LIST; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, wr; Q, a, cu, j (escaped), ri; K, p; R, ah, an, ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cp, cs, d, ev, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, is, jl, js, k, lp, lt, mls, pm, r, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, wt; -     Liquidambar styraciflua tree to about 30 m; lives about 150 years; bark gray, fissured, twigs often with corky wings, stubby spur branches with crowded leaf scars or leaves; taprooted on well drained sites; may be vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus mosseae).  Leaves alternate, star-shaped, about 12-20 cm wide, 5-7 lobed (Petrides 1988), lobes finely toothed. Leaves expand […]
Liriodendron tulipifera tulip tree/ yellow poplar Magnoliaceae LITU; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, f, u; K, p; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bm, cl, cp, cr (U. Lorimer 2017), d, fw, gb, h, lp, lt, r, sp, sv, w, wp, wt; -     Liriodendron tulipifera is a tree to 60 m tall; may live about 200 years; taproot and lateral roots; trunk columnar, bark gray, older bark shallowly fissured, grooves often whitish, twigs with white lenticels, nodes encircled by stipule scars (Harlow 1946; Petrides 1988); roots associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); fine root […]
Maclura pomifera Osage-orange Moraceae MAPO(*); Bx, pb, wv; R, c, jw, lc; -     Maclura pomifera is a tree to 20 m; rooting deep and wide; trunk usually leaning or curved, branches low, branches curved downward, thorny when growing in sun; shaded dead branches persistent; bark brown, grooved, sap milky.  Leaves alternate, narrowly egg-shaped, about 8 cm.  Flowers green, 4-parted, sexes on separate plants (dioecious), males in racemes, females in round […]
Magnolia acuminata cucumber magnolia Magnoliaceae MAAC(*); NY; Q, a; K; -    Magnolia acuminata is a tree, to 25 m tall, slender, trunk straight, bark furrowed, brown.  Leaves alternate, deciduous, oblong-elliptic, to 25 cm long, tip abruptly pointed, base blunt or wedge-shaped, green, minutely hairy below, base of stalk and leaf scar “U” shaped.  Flowers yellow-green, 6 petals, odor unpleasant, to 8 cm long, falling early; blooms May-June.  […]
Magnolia virginiana sweet-bay Magnoliaceae MAVI; R, cp, ev, t; -     Magnolia virginiana is a to 20 m, usually smaller, multistemmed, leaning habit; bark smooth, gray.  Leaves alternate, late-deciduous, Rhododendron-like, aromatic, white below.  Flowers white, fragrant, about 5 cm wide, solitary; blooms May-July.  Fruit green becoming brown, lumpy, cone-shaped about 4 cm long, opening to release seeds with red, fleshy coat (aril), Sept.-Oct., seeds dispersed by birds. Seed […]
Malus baccata Siberian crab-apple Rosaceae PYBA*; Bx, br, sd, pb; NY; Q, a, cu, dp, f; R, is; -     Malus baccata is a tree to 14 m (usually much smaller), slender, twigs smooth.  Leaves alternate, elliptic to egg-shaped, tip long pointed, base rounded to wedge-shaped, often hairy below, especially when young, margin finely toothed.  Flowers white, about 3 cm wide, sepals hairless, lobes long-pointed, stalks 2-4 cm.  Fruit fleshy, red or yellow, rounded to 1 cm wide, […]
Melia azedarach chinaberry Meliaceae MEAZ*; NY, ct; Q, a; -     Melia azedarach is a tree to 15 m; bark gray shallowly fissured; leaf scar triangular; buds gray, fuzzy.  Leaves alternate doubly pinnate, leaflets opposite, irregularly toothed and lobed.  Flowers lilac, malodorous; inflorescence branched, to 40 cm long; blooms May.  Fruit fleshy, yellow, about 1 cm wide, rounded, 1-seeded, Sept.-Oct, persisting into winter (Dirr 1990); fruit poisonous, […]
Morus alba white mulberry Moraceae MOAL*p; Bx, bg, br, bz, cf, cm, cn, hi, rd, sf, sn, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, n, rr, tr, wr; Q, a, cu, dp, f, fa, fr, ft, i, j, rw, tl, vb, wl; K, do, fs, m, ow, p, pl; R, bg, bk, bm, c, cg, cl, cs, e, fk, gb, gr, hs, is, jl, js, lp, mls, mm, ok, pm, pr, se, sm, sv, wp; -    Morus alba is a tree to 15 m, trunk branching low, curved, crooked; bark yellow-brown, deeply fissured, ridged; twigs yellowish. Winter buds round to bluntly elliptic, roughly 0.4 cm wide, red-brown, scales overlapping; leaf scars roughly 0.3 cm wide flat across top, shallowly shield-shaped (Gargiullo personal observation). Leaves alternate, very variable, from unlobed (especially leaves on […]
Morus rubra red mulberry Moraceae MORU; Bx, bg (Z. Wang 2017), pb; Q; K; R; -     Morus rubra is a tree to 20 m tall, bark red-brown.  Leaves hairy below, rough above, veins impressed above, base lobes equal, (Petrides 1988) winter buds greenish-brown.  Flowers dioecious or monoecious, tiny, in short catkins; blooms April-May.  Fruit multiple drupes, dark purple, June-Aug. Seed load 4%. Pulp nutrients: water 86%, lipid 1%, protein 6%, CHO 66% (White […]
Nyssa sylvatica black tupelo Cornaceae NYSY; Bx, bg, br, pb sf, vc, wv; NY, hb; Q, a, cu, j, rw; R, ah, an, ar, bd, bk, c, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, ev, fk, gb, gr, h, is, js, k, lp, lt, pm, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, w, wp, wt; -     Nyssa sylvatica is a tree to 30 m, young bark smooth, gray, bark of young trees trunks pale gray-brown, flaky, pith chambered, bark on old trees becoming deeply, broadly fissured; habit stiff, branches at right angle to trunk, usually slender compared to trunk (branching pattern “spider-web like” when viewed from below), twigs zigzagged; winter […]
Ostrya virginiana American hophornbeam Betulaceae OSVI; Bx, pb, wv; NY, hb; R; -     Ostrya virginiana is a tree to 20 m tall; bark brown, shaggy.  Leaves alternate, elm-like, veins pinnate, deeply impressed, margin sharply toothed.  Flowers monoecious, male in catkins, female in small clusters April-May, wind pollinated.  Fruit is a nutlet, about 0.5 cm, surrounded by bracts, enclosed in an inflated sac about 2 cm, Sept., dispersed by wind through […]
Paulownia tomentosa princess tree Bignoniaceae PATO*p; Bx, br, cf, pb, sn, vc; NY, ct, hb, mn, rr, wr; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), ft, j; K; R, ah, bd, cs, fk, hs (1 planted), jl, k, lp, pm, pr, sm, t, x; -     Paulownia tomentosa is a tree to 15 m, bark rough with interlaced smooth areas, twigs stout sprinkled with small raised lenticels, new growth sticky-hairy, pith hollow or chambered; leaf scars round, vein scars numerous, forming a circle within leaf scar (Harlow 1946); very fast growing, indeterminate growth pattern (Gargiullo personal observation). Leaves opposite, stalk 8-20 […]
Phellodendron amurense Amur corktree Rutaceae PHAM*p; Bx, bg, br, up, vc; NY, ct, hb; Q, f, ft; -     Phellodendron amurense is a tree to 15 m. tall,  branching low, bark light gray, with small, prominent pale lenticels, corky on older trees, deeply fissured, under-bark bright yellow or greenish yellow, older twigs yellowish, crushed foliage aromatic-foul-smelling; winter buds 2-scaled, covered with reddish silky hairs, enclosed by base of leaf stalk.  Leaves opposite, pinnately compound, stalk […]
Phellodendron japonicum Japanese corktree Rutaceae PHJA*p; Bx, pb; NY; Q, cu (Greller 1977); R; -     Phellodendron japonicum is a tree to 10 m tall, bark dark brown, thin, slightly fissured, older twigs reddish-brown.  Leaves opposite, pinnately compound, rachis hairy, leaflets 9-13, 6-10 cm, tip long pointed, base blunt, very unequal, dull green above, hairy below. Flowers yellow-green,  in small hairy, branched clusters (panicles); blooms May-June (Rehder 1986). Fruit black, fleshy, a rounded […]
Picea abies Norway spruce Pinaceae PIAB*; Bx, pb, up, wv; NY; K; R, gb; -     Picea abies is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 30 m tall, bark rusty-brown, flaking, habit pyramidal, branches droop, secondary branches pendulous, as if draped along branches, young trees with stiffer habit.  Leaves: Needles, dark green, about 2 cm long, stiff, straight.  Flowers: None; gymnosperm; cones monoecious, males short, red, females about 12 cm long […]
Pinus echinata  short-leaf pine Pinaceae PIEC; R, cp, k; -    Pinus echinata is a gymnosperm evergreen tree to 35 m, bark scaly, blackish becoming red-brown plated, twigs breaking sharply, waxy-pale.  Leaves needle-like, mostly in 2’s, occasionally in 3’s, 7-12 cm long, about 0.1 cm wide, sharp-tipped, flexible, persisting 2-4 years.  Flowers: None; gymnosperm, cones monoecious; male cones deciduous, in dense clusters at ends of stems; […]
Pinus Genus pine Pinaceae - Pinus is a genus of evergreen gymnosperm trees, or sometimes shrubs, sap aromatic. Leaves: Needles, mostly in tight bunches of 2-5, growing on very short shoots. The needles develop from the short shoot and are surrounded at their base by one to several membranous scale-like leaves. The needles and tiny branches fall as a unit after two […]
Pinus nigra Austrian pine; European black pine Pinaceae PINI*; Bx, pb, rd; NY; Q; K, fl; R, c, x; -     Pinus nigra is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 30 m, erect, habit stout pyramidal, becoming broad or flat-topped with age, bark dark brown, furrowed.  Leaves needle-like in 2’s, 9-16 cm long, stiff, sharp-tipped, but do not snap, persisting 4 years.  Flowers: None. Gymnosperm. Male cones yellow, deciduous, clustered; female cones becoming 5-8 cm; scales about 2.5 […]
Pinus resinosa red pine Pinaceae PIRE; Bx, pb; R; -     Pinus resinosa is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 40 m tall, habit broadly pyramidal, bark light red-brown, shallowly fissured, with scaly plates.  Leaves needle-like in 2’s, 9-16 cm long, snap cleanly when bent.  Flowers: None. Gymnosperm. Male cones yellow, deciduous, clustered; female cones becoming 5-8 cm; scales about 2.5 cm; mature female cone stalkless (sessile), […]
Pinus rigida pitch pine Pinaceae PIRI2; Bx, pb, wv; Q; i; K; R, bd, cp, gb, k, lp (planted), ok (2 planted); -     Pinus rigida is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 20 m, ca 200 years; trunk often crooked, habit irregularly pyramidal, gnarled with age, bark flaky, rough, dark, twigs brown, rough, leafy short shoots often sprouting from trunk and larger branches, able to resprout along trunk and branches or from base after fire; easily overtopped by […]
Pinus strobus Eastern white pine Pinaceae PIST; Bx br, bz, pb, rd, vc, wv; NY, iw; Q, a, j (planted); K, p; R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), cl, fk, gb, gr, h, k, lp, ro, sv, x; -     Pinus strobus is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 70 m; lives about 200 years; roots associated with ectomycorrhizae (Berliner and Torrey 1989), including the Basidiomycete fungal species: Suillus granulatus (granulated bolete), Amanita brunnescens (Nantel and Neumann 1992) and Boletinus pictus. Old bark fissured, young stems smooth, somewhat shiny, dark gray.  Leaves needle-like, soft, thin, in bundles of 5, about 10 […]
Pinus sylvestris Scots pine Pinaceae PISY*; Bx, pb; Q; R; -    Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 18 m tall; habit usually asymmetrical, older trees spreading and often flat-topped; bark of twigs and upper branches orange-brown, thin, peeling in flakes, near base bark dark brown, fissured in plates.  Leaves needle-like in bundles of two, to 7 cm long, twisted, waxy blue-green.  Flowers: None. Gymnosperm. […]
Pinus thunbergiana  Japanese black pine Pinaceae PITH*; Q, j (planted), tl; K, gt (planted); - Pinus thunbergiana is an evergreen gymnosperm tree to 30 m, usually irregular in form branches often somewhat drooping, bark flaky-fissured, blackish, winter buds grayish-white, cylindrical, ca 1.5 cm, scales appressed, fringed, not resinous.  Leaves needle-like in bundles of two, 6-11 cm long, dark, glossy green, tip sharp-pointed, twisted, margins finely toothed, lines on each surface, sheath […]
Pinus virginiana Virginia pine; scrub pine Pinaceae PIVI; Q, i; R, cp; -   Pinus virginiana is a small evergreen gymnosperm tree 10-23 m tall, branches long, horizontal, twigs purplish smooth, tough, fibrous, not breaking sharply. Leaves needle-like, in bundles of two, to 8 cm long, 0.1 cm wide. Flowers: None. Gymnosperm. Monoecious; male cones small, deciduous. Female cones conical, 4-7 cm, persistent, scales prickle-tipped (Sullivan 1993). Fruit: None. seeds […]
Platanus occidentalis American sycamore Platanaceae PLOC; Bx, br, pb, rd, sf; NY, hb; Q, a, fa, ft; K; R, gb, jl, js, lp, pm, pr, wt; -      Platanus occidentalis is a tree to 50 m, attains diameters to 3 m; lives about 200 yrs; bark thin, smooth, gray-brown exterior bark peels leaving whitish patches; underbark usually chalky white to creamy, very distinctive in winter; winter buds to 0.9 cm long, conical, blunt-pointed, 1 outer scale, formed inside leaf stalk base; […]
Platanus x hybrida  (P. x acerifolia) London plane tree Platanaceae PLxHY*; Common street and park tree throughout NYC; Bx, br, hi, wv; NY, bl, ct, rr; Q, j (planted); K (planted); R (planted); - Platanus x hybrida is a tree similar to P. occidentalis but under-bark is yellowish to olive, not white, external bark is brownish to greenish, smooth, peeling in patches to reveal under-bark, young stems densely brown-wooly. Leaves essentially hairless when mature, 3-5 lobed, middle lobe about as long as wide, sinuses to about 1/3 length of blade. Flowers in round clusters, female […]
Populus alba white poplar Salicaceae POAL*p; Bx, br, pb, vc; NY, ct; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), ft, j, tl, vb; K, gt, m, pl; R, bm, hs; -     Populus alba is a tree to 30 m tall, usually colonial from root sprouts bark whitish, smooth, often dark at base, twigs white-wooly; growth pattern indeterminate (Gargiullo personal observation).  Leaves alternate, palmately lobed, lobes blunt, dark green above, white-wooly below.  Flowers in catkins.  Fruit dry, plumed, wind-dispersed.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in New York City: Occasional.  Origin: […]
Populus balsamifera balsam poplar; balm of Gilead Salicaceae POBA; NY; R, cb (planted); -     Populus balsamifera is a tree to 28 m tall, 90 cm dbh, young bark dull gray, old bark furrowed, buds smooth, brown, sharply pointed, often colonial from root sprouts, buds contain aromatic chemicals that are released at bud break.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, tip pointed, base blunt to rounded or slightly lobed, margin usually finely serrate, […]
Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Salicaceae PODE; Bx, br, cm, hi, pb, rd, sf, sn; NY, bl, hb, rr, wr; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), dp, a, fr, i, j, rb, ri, rw, tl, u, wl; K, fl, fs, m, pl; R, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, ev, fk, gr, jl, js, k, lc, lp, ok, pm, pr, r, sb, se, sm, t, ty, wt, x ; -     Populus deltoides is a tree to 30 m tall, to 100 cm dbh; roots shallow; vigorous, new long shoots angled, young bark smooth, yellow-green; old bark gray-brown, deeply ridged and furrowed, terminal winter buds to 2.5 cm long with 6-7 scales, very gummy   Leaves alternate, triangular (deltoid), coarsely toothed, tip pointed, base broadly truncate, […]
Populus Genus poplar Salicaceae - Populus is a genus of trees. Winter buds scaly, often sticky. Stipules (leaf-like appendages at the base of the leaf) often deciduous. Leaves deciduous, egg-shaped to more-or-less triangular (deltoid). Margins toothed to lobed. Leaf stalk often flattened. Flowers small, dull, in drooping catkins that mature before tree leafs out. Each flower set in a cup-shaped disk Fruit […]
Populus grandidentata big-toothed aspen Salicaceae POGR; Bx, pb, sf; NY, rr; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), ft, i, ri; K, p; R, ah, bd, bm, ca, gb, hs, is, js, k, lp, lt, sm, sv, t, ty, w; -     Populus grandidentata is a tree to 24 m tall; 60 cm dbh; short-lived, fast-growing, colonial from shallow lateral roots, especially if disturbed; roots associated with ectomycorrhizae (Basidiomycotina, including: Boletus piperatus, pepper bolete; Cantharellus cibarius, chanterelle; Suillus granulatus, granulated bolete; and Hygrophorus unguinosus), (Nantel and Neumann 1992); young bark smooth yellow-green, becoming brown, furrowed in age; terminal buds dull, […]
Populus heterophylla swamp cottonwood Salicaceae POHE; R, t (1 clone); -     Populus heterophylla is a colonial tree, with many similar sized stems close together, bark deeply furrowed, gray-brown.  Leaves broadly egg-shaped, large, about 18 cm long, tip blunt, base lobed, margin toothed, petiole only slightly flattened near top.  Flowers sexes on separate individuals (dioecious) catkins.  Fruits dry, oval, about 1 cm long.in cottony fibers.  Wetland status: FACW+.  Frequency […]
Populus tremuloides quaking aspen Salicaceae POTR; Bx, pb; Q, cu (Greller 1977), j; K, gt; R, bm, cp, d, gb, gr, jl, k, pr, ty; -     Populus tremuloides is a tree to about 20 m; 20 cm dbh; fast growing, short-lived, about 50 years; root system, shallow with vertical “sinker” roots at intervals; form dense clones, sprouting from shallow, lateral roots if primary stem is damaged (auxin mediated apical dominance stops due to cutting, burning or warm soil temperatures); roots […]
Prunus americana wild plum Rosaceae PRAM; Bx, pb; - Prunus americana is a shrub or small tree to 8 m tall, colonial in thickets from root sprouts, trunks to 30 cm diameter, bark dark, twigs often with spines. Leaves alternate, widest above middle to 10 cm long, tip abruptly long-pointed, base pointed to blunt, usually hairy below, margin sharply, coarsely toothed, teeth to 0.2 cm […]
Prunus avium sweet cherry Rosaceae PRAV*; Bx, br, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw; Q, a, cu, wl; K; R, ca, e, mls, pr; -     Prunus avium is a tree to 20 m, bark smooth, dark reddish-black with horizontal stripes. The commercial cherry.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped to 15 x 5 cm, hairy below, especially along veins, margins coarsely, often doubly, toothed with tiny brownish indentation at tips of teeth, dull dark green above, pale below, stalk about 3 cm long […]
Prunus cerasus sour cherry Rosaceae  PRCE*; Q; R; -   Prunus cerasus is a tree, almost identical to P. avium, differing in that the leaf underside is essentially hairless. Glands of leaf teeth near base of tooth.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in New York City: Very infrequent.  Origin: Possibly a hybrid of P. avium and P. fruticosa.  Notes: Listed as invasive in some parts on NYS. 
Prunus Genus cherry Rosaceae -     Prunus is a genus of trees or shrubs, the bark usually with characteristic horizontal stripes (lenticels), otherwise smooth, usually shiny. Often becoming rough and very dark in age.  Leaves alternate, simple, margin toothed usually with two glands at the junction with the leaf stalk (petiole). Leaves of some species contain toxic levels of cyanide in […]
Prunus nigra Canada plum Rosaceae PRNI; Bx, vc; horticultural in NYC -    Prunus nigra is a small tree to 10 m. much branched, bark of twigs noted to be gray-brown with pale lenticels (described as having blackish bark).  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, 7-12 cm long more than half as wide as long, tip long-pointed, base blunt, margin toothed, each tooth tipped with a dark gland, leaf stalk with […]
Prunus padus European bird cherry Rosaceae PRPU*; NY, iw; Bx, br; - Prunus padus is a tree to 15 m tall, bark black, finely grainy, twigs dark, with small pale dots (lenticels). Leaves alternate, stalk 1-1.5 cm, blade elliptic to widest above middle (obovate), 6-12 cm long, tip abruptly pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, margin finely toothed, dull green above, grayish below, usually hairless. Flowers white, 1-1.5 cm […]
Prunus pensylvanica pin cherry/fire cherry Rosaceae PRPE; Bx, pb; NY, ct; Q, a; K; R; (possibly P. serotina misidentified, in some cases). -    Prunus pensylvanica is a small tree to 15 m tall, about 30 years; bark smooth, twigs reddish; shallow rooted, colonial from root sprouts.  Leaves alternate, narrow, hairless, about 9 cm long, tip long-pointed, toothed, petiole with glands at top; leaves or winter buds crowded at ends of twigs.  Flowers white, about 0.6 cm, in small, umbrella-shaped […]
Prunus persica peach Rosaceae PRPE*; Q, j, tl; -    Prunus persica is a small tree to 10 m, stems smooth, winter buds hairy.  Leaves alternate, lance-shaped to 15 cm long, tip long-pointed, base wedge-shaped, margin finely toothed, shiny dark green above, stalks to 1.5 cm, glandular, foliage usually overlapping and drooping in a characteristic pattern on tree.  Flowers pink, solitary, to 3.5 cm wide, sepals […]
Prunus serotina black cherry Rosaceae PRSE; Bx, br, bz, cf, pb, rd, sf, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, bl, ct, hb, iw, n, tr, wr; Q, a, cb, cu, dp, f, fr, ft, j, rw, tl, u, vb, wl; K, do, fl, fs, m, ow, p, pl; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bg, bk, bm, bd, c, ca, cg, ch, cl, cn, cs, d, e, ev, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, hs, is, js, jl, k, lp, lt, mc, mls, mm, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, sb, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, w, wp, x; -     Prunus serotina is a tree to 30 m tall, 70 cm diameter (Yatskievych 2006); lives to 100 years; fast growing, often weedy; trunk often crooked, roots shallow, spreading (Mulligan and Munroe 1981) associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); mature bark black, rough, flaky, young bark shiny, dark reddish-black with horizontal lenticels, […]
Prunus virginiana choke-cherry Rosaceae PRVI; K (USDA, NRCS 2010); -     Prunus virginiana is a small, shrubby tree To 10 m tall; bark not aromatic.  Leaves alternate, about 8 cm long, veins about 9 pairs, conspicuous, teeth sharp ascending, leaf teeth sharper and smaller than those of P. serotina.  Flowers white, in racemes at ends of twigs, sepal lobes blunt, deciduous.  Fruit dark red-black, astringent, pulp lipid <10% (White […]
Pyrus calleryana Callery pear Rosaceae PYCA*; NY, ct; R, ca; Rt. 440, h, ty; -     Pyrus calleryana is a tree to 15 m tall, older bark dark, rough, branches usually spiny, except in “Bradford” cultivars, winter buds finely gray-hairy; pears seeded in from fruit revert to spiny habit.  Leaves alternate, broadly egg-shaped, to 8 cm long, dark green, glossy, margin toothed, fall color dark red, leafs out early keeps leaves […]
Pyrus communis pear Rosaceae PYCO*; Bx, pb, wv; Q; R; -     Pyrus communis is a tree to 15 m tall, habit usually narrow, upright, young bark dark, shiny, older bark with small rather regular and square, shallow fissures, branches often curve downward, sometimes spiny.  Leaves alternate, broadly elliptic, shiny, dark green, coarsely toothed to 8 cm long.  Flowers dull white, about 3 cm wide, regular.  Fruit fleshy pear-shaped […]
Pyrus coronaria (Malus c.) wild sweet crabapple Rosaceae PYCO2; Q, cu (Greller 1977), j; -     Pyrus coronaria is a small tree to 8 m tall, or large shrub, with thorny branches.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, tip pointed, base rounded or lobed, to 10 cm long, smooth below when mature, margin toothed or with few triangular lobes near center.  Flowers pinkish white, anthers pink, flower base and sepal lobes hairless when mature (sparsely […]
Pyrus Genus apples; pears Rosaceae  -   Pyrus is a genus of trees or shrubs, sometimes with thorns.  Leaves alternate, simple, toothed, sometimes lobed.  Flowers showy, white to pink; radially symmetrical, five parted, petals arising from a rounded structure (hypanthium) that surrounds the ovary, stamens 15-50, shorter than petals, styles 2-5.  Fruit outer layer fleshy enclosing several stiff, cartilaginous seed cavities (core) each containing […]
Pyrus malus (Malus sylvestris; M. domestica; M. pumila) domestic apple/European crabapple Rosaceae PYMA*; Bx, g, vc; NY, hb; Q, cu, fr, j, tl; R, bd, cg, jw, pr, r, x; -      Pyrus malus is a small tree to 15 m tall, mostly smaller, widely spreading, bark dark gray, smooth when young, becoming irregularly flaky-rough, tends to root sprout especially if injured, branches with many short, rough, leafy twigs.  Leaves alternate, elliptic to egg-shaped, toothed, white-hairy below often lobed leaves expand mid-May (Britton 1874).  Flowers white, tinged with […]
Pyrus prunifolia (Malus p.) crabapple Rosaceae PYPR*; Bx, br; Q, a; -      Pyrus prunifolia is a small tree, young twigs finely hairy.  Leaves alternate, elliptic to egg-shaped, 5-10 cm long, tip pointed, base blunt, margin sharply toothed, hairy on veins below, stalks slender, 2-5 cm; leaves expand late April-early May (Britton 1874).  Flowers white, 3 cm wide, on individual stalks 2-3.5 cm long, very slender; blooms mid-April (Britton […]
Pyrus pumila  (Malus p.) paradise apple Rosaceae PYPU*; Bx, pb, sf; Q; K; R, hs (1); -    Pyrus pumila is a small tree to 15 m tall, buds hairy, young twigs wooly-hairy.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, to 10 x 5.5 cm, tip pointed, margin toothed, hairy below, leaf stalks hairy, stout, to 3 cm long.  Flowers pinkish-white, calyx wooly-hairy, styles, hairy above.  Fruit fleshy with cartilaginous, seedy core, round, 2 cm wide or more, impressed […]
Quercus alba white oak Fagaceae QUAL; Bx, bg, bz, cf, cn?, pb, sf, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr; Q, a, bw, cu, f, rw; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bm, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, ev, gb, gr, fw, h, is, k, lp, lt, pm, r, ro, sm, sv, t, ty, w; -     Quercus alba is a tree to 25 m tall; 100 cm dbh; may live over 300 years (some recorded at over 400 years); (white oak group, subgenus Lepidobalanus); bark light gray, flaky, shallowly furrowed; deep rooted with fine root mats in upper soil, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); winter buds […]
Quercus bicolor swamp white oak Fagaceae  QUBI; Bx, br, pb, vc; NY, ct (D. Burg 2016), hb; Q, cu, hb, wl (planted); R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), bd, c, gb, gr, h, is, js, k, lp, mc, ml, ro, sm, sv, t, v, wt; -   Quercus bicolor is a tree to 30 m tall; 80 cm dbh; to 300 years; bark gray, flaky, becoming deeply fissured and flat-ridged in older trees; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus), roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, widest well above middle, with 4-6 pairs broadly rounded (sometimes pointed but not […]
Quercus cerris European turkey oak Fagaceae QUCE*; Bx, vc; NY, ct; K, p; -    Quercus cerris is a tree, red oak group, to 20 m tall, bark dark, with deep, rather regular, rectangular fissures.  Leaves alternate, oblong, pinnately, lobed (coarsely saw-toothed), lobes bristle tipped; dark green above, hairy below.  Flowers catkins, wind pollinated.  Fruit, acorns smooth, about 2.5 cm, with scales of cap elongated like very coarse, tangled hairs.  Wetland status: […]
Quercus coccinea scarlet oak Fagaceae QUCO; Bx, bz, cn, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, n; Q, cu, j (planted); K, p; R, ar, bd, ca, cl, cp, gb, k, lp, sv, t; -     Quercus coccinea is a tree to 25 m tall; about 100 cm dbh; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark, rough with narrow smoother patches, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); terminal winter buds less than 0.6 cm long, hairy, tips often whitish and blunt.  Leaves alternate, hairless, more deeply lobed, than […]
Quercus Genus oak Fagaceae -    Quercus is a  genus of trees or shrubs; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Smith and Read 1997); stipules deciduous.  Leaves alternate, simple, margins entire to deeply lobed, veins pinnate.  Flowers monoecious, tiny, staminate flowers in catkins, pistillate flowers subtended by a scaly structure that develops into the acorn cap; flowers 1-several at the base of the […]
Quercus macrocarpa bur oak; mossycup oak Fagaceae QUMA(*); Bx, br, pb; NY, ct; -     Quercus macrocarpa is a tree to 24 m; bark light gray, rough, (white oak group, subgenus Lepidobalanus) deeply furrowed.  Leaves alternate, deeply lobed to 25 cm long, widest above middle, lobes 4-7 per side, blunt, often with secondary blunt lobes.  Flowers monoecious. Males catkins.  Fruit acorn to 4 cm thick, cups bowl shaped, often covering most […]
Quercus marilandica blackjack oak Fagaceae QUMA2; R, cp, lp, ro, sm, sv, t, x; - Quercus marilandica is a tree to 15 m tall; red oak group, (subgenus Erythrobalanus), bark black, fissures blocky, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997). Leaves alternate, wide near top, lobes shallow, 3-5, base rounded, leathery, shiny above tan hairy in veins below.  Flowers green, monoecious, male in catkins, female flowers 1-few together; blooms April-May, […]
Quercus michauxii swamp chestnut oak Fagaceae QUMI; R, kf, w (E. Danielsen 2016); - Quercus michauxii is a tree to 30 m tall. white oak group (Lepidobalanus). Bark light gray, coarsely flaky, shallowly furrowed like that of Q. alba. Leaves alternate, leaf stalks to 3 cm long, hairy below. Blade egg-shaped but widest above middle (obovate), base tapered to stalk, sometimes slightly lobed, 7-11 cm wide, whitish hairy on […]
Quercus montana  (Q. prinus) chestnut oak Fagaceae QUPR; Bx, pb, vc; NY, iw, hb, tr; Q, cu, f; R, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, ev, fw, gb, h, k, lp, ro, t, sm, sv;  -     Quercus montana is a tree to 30 m tall; to 120 cm dbh; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus); root system of lateral roots with fine root mat near surface (not as deep rooted as white oak), roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); bark dark, deep furrows with wide, flat ridges.  […]
Quercus palustris pin oak Fagaceae QUPA; Bx, br, bz, cn, ht, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n; Q, a, bz, cu, ft, j, tl; K, gt, ow, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cs, e, ev, h, is, js, gr, gb, is, js, k, lp, lt, mc, mls, o, ok, pm, pr, ro, sm, sp, sv, t, ty, v, wp, wt, x; - Quercus palustris is a tree to 30 m tall; to 90 cm dbh; lives about 100 years, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); young trees strongly taprooted in well-drained soil, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997), trunk usually single, straight, undivided; lower branches point down, retains dead branches; bark dark gray, slightly furrowed with […]
Quercus phellos willow oak Fagaceae QUPH; Bx, br, sf, vc; Q, f (planted along roads), j (escaped); K; R, ca, cp, d, gb, lp (P.S.6), js, ro (planted along highways, in other parks, naturalized in Van Cortlandt Park); -      Quercus phellos  is a tree to 25 m tall, to 90 cm dbh, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark gray, rough, twigs slender, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, to 12 cm long, 2 cm wide, narrow, unlobed, willow-like, bristle-tipped.  Flowers green, monoecious, male catkins, female flowers 1-few; blooms […]
Quercus robur English oak Fagaceae QURO*; Bx pb; Q, a; NY; ct, ro (1) -     Quercus robur is a tree in white oak group. Bark deeply furrowed, blackish.  Leaves alternate, small to 12 cm long, 6 cm wide with rounded lobes, widest above middle, but usually narrower than native oaks; leaf base lobed; stays green into Nov.-Dec, long after native oaks are brown or leaves fallen.  Flowers monoecious, males […]
Quercus rubra northern red oak Fagaceae QURU; Bx, bg, bz, cn, pb, rd, sf, sd, up, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, tr; Q, a, cu, f, i, j (planted), wl; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, ev, fw, gb, gr, is, k, lp, lt, mls, r, ro, sv, t, w, wp; -     Quercus rubra is a tree to 50 m tall; to 120 cm dbh, red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark dark gray, shallowly furrowed with wide, smooth, flat gray ridges, twigs hairless; growth pattern usually determinate (a single bout of stem and leaf growth early in season) but may flush once more under very […]
Quercus stellata post oak Fagaceae QUST; Bx, pb, R, cp (U. Lorimer 2017), lp,ro, sm, sv, t; -     Quercus stellata is a tree to 16 m; 30 cm dbh; white oak group (subgenus Lepidobalanus), twigs hairy, bark brownish, rough, shallowly fissured, older bark with rectangular blocks, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, to 15 x 10 cm, leathery, young leaves brownish hairy older leaves shiny above, gray […]
Quercus velutina black oak Fagaceae  QUVE; Bx, cn, pb, rd, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, n; Q, a, bd, cu, f, ft, rw; K, p; R, ah, an, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, b, ca, cb, cg, cl, d, e, fw, h, is, k, lp, r, sm, sv, t, ty; -    Quercus velutina is a tree to about 20 m tall; 70cm dbh; lives 150 years; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus); bark blackish, rough, fissures making squarish, chunky pattern, twigs usually thinly hairy, winter buds 4-angled, densely finely hairy, 0.7-1 cm long; roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997).  Leaves alternate, with 7-11 shallow, […]
Quercus x brittonii (Q. ilicifolia x marilandica; ferruginea hybrida) Britton’s oak Fagaceae QUXBR; R, pr (planted), ro, t, x; -      Quercus x brittonii is a shrub or small tree.  Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, leathery; base wedge-shaped; 1-3 lobes each side; dark green above, hairs on veins; grey-green,  yellowish hairy below; good fall color (Hélardot 2015). Flowers: Monoecious, males in catkins. Females solitary or few together. Fruit: Acorns Wetland status: NL Frequency in NYC: Rare, but not […]
Quercus x bushii  (Q. marilandica x velutina) Bush’s oak Fagaceae  QUXBU; R, pr (planted), ro, x; -    Quercus x bushii is a tree to 9 m tall. Twigs stout, densely hairy when young; winter buds 1 cm long. Leaves Alternate; red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus), more like Q. marilandica than Q. velutina; stalk 3 cm long, blade 10-13 cm long, egg-shaped, widest near tip, 3-7 lobes; shiny dark green above, slightly yellow-hairy below; base rounded to wedge-shaped; fall […]
Quercus x filialis  (Q. phellos x velutina) hybrid oak Fagaceae QUXFI; R, pr (planted), ro; -     Quercus x filialis is a tree, in the red oak group, possibly only one or two left in NYC. Leaves narrow with variable lobes . Flowers monoecious. males in cakins, females 1 to several together. Fruit acorns.
Quercus x heterophylla  (Q. rubra x phellos) Bartram’s oak Fagaceae QUXHE; R, ro, x; - Quercus x heterophylla is a tree, 16 to 20 m tall or more.  It is in the red oak group,  Leaves stalk 1.2-2.5 cm long; blade 5-8 cm long; lance-shaped, oblong, or elliptical; with 1 to 4 bristle-tipped, shallow lobes; dark green above, paler below, hairy at axils; leaves shape is variable, even on the same tree; Flowers monoecious, small, males in catkins, […]
Quercus x rudkinii  (Q. marilandica x phellos) hybrid oak Fagaceae QUXRU; R, pr (planted), ro, x; -    Quercus x rudkinii is a tree in the red oak group. Leaves very variable, even on the same twig; stalk very short, top blunt with bristle tip; base rounded to slightly lobed; margin entire or with blunt lobes; young leaves hairy, often rusty coloured below. Flowers monoecious, small, males in catkins, females 1-few together. Fruit acorns. Wetland status: NL.  […]
Robinia pseudoacacia black locust Fabaceae ROPS(*)p; Bx, br, cf, cm, g, pb, rd, sf, sn, up, vc; NY, ct, hb, iw, n, rr, tr, wr; Q, a, cu, f, fa, fr, i, j, rw; K, do, fs, p, pl, wl; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bm, c, ca, cb, cg, cl, cp, e, ev, fk, fw, gb, gr, h, hs (planted), is, jl, js, lp, mc, mls, mm, ok, pm, ro, se, sm, sv, t;  - Robinia pseudoacacia is a tree to 25 m tall; 50 cm dbh at about 40 years. Mature bark gray with deep, sinuous grooves. Trunk divides about 5 m up. Roots shallow, wide spreading. Colonial from root sprouts (Hardt & Forman 1989). Very fast growing with high nutrient uptake (Boring and Swank 1984). Roots associated with […]
Robinia viscosa clammy locust Fabaceae ROVI(*); R; -     Robinia viscosa is a small tree or large shrub to 5 m, twigs sticky-glandular.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 13-25, narrowly egg-shaped to oval, stipules linear.  Flowers pink to white with a yellow spot, pea-flower-shaped, 2.5 cm.  Fruit a pod glandular-hairy-sticky.  Wetland status: NL.  Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.  Origin: Native to mountains of PA and south.  […]
Salix alba white willow Salicaceae SAAL*; Bx, pb, sf; R, g, sb; - Salix alba is a tree to 25 m tall; fibrous rooted; branching low, flexible, not especially brittle at base, twigs erect or spreading, silky hairy, dull yellow-greenish to brown, stipules minute, soon deciduous. Leaves alternate, stalk 0.3-0.6 cm, silky-hairy (leaf stalks of young shoots glandular at tip), blade narrowly lance-shaped, tip long-pointed, white-hairy above and below, 4-10 […]
Salix babylonica weeping willow Salicaceae SABA*; Bx, br, pb; NY; Q, a, j; K; R, fk, is, w; -      Salix babylonica is a tree to 12 m tall; twigs yellowish, branches long, slender, drooping, brittle at base.  Leaves alternate, about 10 cm long, 1 cm wide.Leaves expand early May; winter plant leafless 134 days (Britton 1874). Flowers dioecious, in catkins, emerging with leaves, April-May, insect and wind pollinated. Fruit a small capsule. Wetland status: NL […]
Salix fragilis  (S. x rubens) crack willow Salicaceae SAFR* Bx, bg, br, bz, pb; Q, wl; K, do; R, ok, t; - Salix fragilis is a tree to 20 m tall, to 1 m diameter, winter buds sticky; bark thick, deeply fissured, twigs smooth or slightly hairy, erect or spreading, stout, dull-green to dark red, very brittle at base, stipules small or none. Leaves alternate, stalk 0.7-2 cm long, blade 7-12 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, narrowly lance-shaped, […]
Salix nigra black willow Salicaceae SANI; Bx, br, bz, g, sf, vc; NY ct, hb, iw, wr; Q, a, dp, fa, fr, j, ri, tl, wl; K, m, ow, pl; R, al, c, ch, cl, cp, cs, ev, fk, gb, gr, h, is, js, lc, mc, mls, pm, sb, se, sm, t, u, w, wt; -     Salix nigra is a tree to 20 m tall; 50 cm dbh; lives to about 55 years; shallow rooted, may form adventitious roots low on trunk; trunks 1-4, leaning, colonial from root sprouts; twigs yellowish, slightly hairy when young. Stipules to 1.2 cm, semi-cordate, pointed, toothed; leaf  Leaves alternate, stalk 0.7 cm, hairy, glandular at […]
Sassafras albidum sassafras Lauraceae SAAL2; Bx, bg, br, bz, pb, sf, vc, wv; NY, ct, hb, iw, tr; Q, a, cu, f, i, j; K, p; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bd, bk, bm, c, ca, cb, cl, cs, d, e, ev, fk, gb, gr, is, js, k, lp, lt, ml, mls, ok, pm, pr, r, ro, sm, sv, t, ty, w, wp;  - Sassafras albidum is a tree to 30 m tall (usually smaller), 20 cm dbh. Shallow rooted with extensive lateral roots. Most parts pleasantly aromatic. Colonial from root sprouts, forming dense stands; habit pagoda-like; trunk and branches sinuous; twigs pale green, spicy smelling, curving upward; older bark dark brown, deeply furrowed; winter buds irregularly elliptic, scales […]
Sorbus aucuparia European mountain-ash; rowan Rosaceae SOAU*; Q, f; R; -     Sorbus aucuparia  is a tree to 10 m tall, young branches white-hairy; stipules on young stems, about 0.5 cm, deeply toothed.  Leaves alternate, pinnately compound to 22 cm long, leaflets almost sessile, 9-15, to 5 cm long, oblong, tip pointed, base rounded, margin toothed, or double-toothed, dull green above, pale-hairy below.  Flowers white, radially symmetrical, […]
Styphnolobium japonicum (Sophora japonica) Japanese pagoda tree; scholar tree Fabaceae SOJA*; NY, iw, n, rv; K, p; -      Styphnolobium japonicum is a tree to 25 m tall, saplings forming a deep, thick taproot, young stems smooth, deep green, with prominent grayish corky lenticels, older bark gray, deeply fissured similar to black locust, buds blackish, small appressed, fitting into “v” shaped leaf scar.  Leaves alternate, pinnate, to 25 cm long, leaflets 7-17, stalked, […]
Taxodium distichum bald cypress Taxodiaceae TADI*; Bx, pb (planted); K, p (planted); -    Taxodium distichum is a tree to 40 m; Gymnosperm; trunk buttressed at base, bark reddish brown, shallowly furrowed, fibrous-flaky; lateral roots forming “knee” projecting above level of water or wet soil around the tree.  Leaves: needles and small twigs deciduous; linear, flat, to 1.5 cm long, appearing 2-ranked along twigs.  Flowers and Fruit none. Monoecious; female cones […]
Tilia americana American linden; basswood Tiliaceae TIAM; Bx, bg, br, pb, vc, wv; NY, ct, iw, tr; Q, a, cu; K, p; R, cr (U. Lorimer 2017), gb, k; -      Tilia americana is a tree to 40 m tall; 90 cm dbh; may live 100 years; roots shallow, associated with ectomycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); bark of branches dark gray, older bark fissured; often multiple trunks from stump sprouting.  Leaves alternate, heart-shaped to rounded to 15 cm long, 13 cm wide, tip abruptly pointed, […]
Tilia cordata small-leaved linden Tiliaceae TICO*; Bx, pb, wv; NY, bl, ct; Q, cu (Greller 1977), f; - Tilia cordata is a tree to 30 m tall. Leaves alternate, 3-6 cm long, about 5 cm wide sometimes wider than long, dark green rather shiny above, pale-waxy below with tufts of brown hair in vein axils, margin finely toothed.  Flowers yellowish-white, fragrant, in small clusters of 5-7, floral bract 4-9 cm long.  Fruit shell thin.  Wetland status: […]
Tilia tomentosa silver linden TITO*; Bx, cn; - Tilia tomentosa is planted as a park tree and apparently has not escaped into natural areas.  Leaves alternate are densely white wooly-hairy below, at least when young.
Toona sinensis   (Cedrela s.) toona  Meliaceae TOSI*; Bx, br; -    Toona sinensis is a tree to 16 m, bark shredding, twigs gray-brown with fine yellow tiny dots (lenticels), surface softly, velvety; winter bud densely brown hairy.  Leaves alternate, evenly pinnate, stalk elongate, blade 25-50 cm, with 10-22 leaflets, oblong 8-15 cm long, tip long-pointed, margin sometimes with few shallow teeth.  Flowers white, fragrant, small, 0.5 cm […]
Tsuga canadensis Canadian hemlock Pinaceae TSCA; Bx, bg, wv; NY; Q; R, gb; -     Tsuga canadensis is a tree to 30 m tall; gymnosperm; evergreen, shade tolerant, branches angled downward. Roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Berliner and Torrey 1989).  Leaves: Needles short to 1.5 cm, flat, in flat sprays.  Flowers and Fruit none. Cones small, to 2 cm long, scales thin. Seeds eaten by birds and small mammals (Martin et […]
Ulmus americana American elm Ulmaceae ULAM; Bx, bg, br, cf, cn, sf, sn, up, c; NY, ct, hb, iw, rr; Q, a, cu (Greller 1977), ri; R, ah, ap (E. Danielsen 4/2017), ar, bm, c, cs, d, fk, js, jw, lp, wt; -     Ulmus americana is a tree to 40 m; 130 cm dbh; 200 yrs; root depth variable with soil moisture, roots associated with VA mycorrhizae (Brundrett and Kendrick 1988); bark gray, interlacing fissures; vase shaped habit, trunk divides low; twigs and leaf buds relatively hairless, buds smooth to slightly pale hairy, less than 0.6 cm long, […]
Ulmus Genus elm Ulmaceae - Ulmus is a genus of trees; leaves in two ranks along twigs, stipules small, soon deciduous. Leaves alternate, stalk (petiole) short, blade simple, veins pinnate, base unequal, slightly lobed (cordate), margins mostly doubly toothed. Flowers reddish-purple to yellowish, very small, no petals, calyx bell-shaped, (campanulate); inflorescences of lateral clusters; appearing before leaves; Feb.-March, wind pollinated. Fruit […]
Ulmus glabra ‘cornuta’ Scotch elm Ulmaceae ULGL*; NY, ct; -    Ulmus glabra ‘cornuta’ is a tree to 40 m tall; bark often smooth in young trees, new growth hairy, becoming red-brown on older twigs.  Leaves alternate, stalk to 0.3-0.6 cm long, blade 8-16 cm long, inversely egg-shaped, of two types, both unlobed and 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed) at broad apex, tips pointed, base unequal, upper surface […]
Ulmus parvifolia  Chinese elm; lacebark elm  Ulmaceae ULPA*; Bx, bs; R; -   Ulmus parvifolia is a tree 15-25 m tall, trunks sometimes fluted, bark mottled, flaking, twigs slender, finely hairy; winter buds small, to 0.3 cm long; stipules linear, base narrow.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, 2-5 cm long, tip pointed, base unequal, smooth above, becoming leathery, margin toothed.  Flowers green, small, in axillary clusters; blooms Aug.-Sept.  Fruit dry, 1-seeded, elliptic […]
Ulmus procera English elm Ulmaceae ULPR; NY, ct; K, p;  -    Ulmus procera is a tree to 40 m tall, bark finely fissured into rectangles; vigorously colonial from root suckers, new twigs sometimes with corky wings.  Leaves alternate, 5-8 cm long, broadly elliptic to egg-shaped, base very unequal, rough above, softly hairy below with tufts of white hairs in vein axils, margin doubly toothed.  Flowers green, small.  Fruit dry, […]
Ulmus pumila Siberian elm Ulmaceae ULPU*; Bx, pb, sd, sn, wv; NY, bl, hb, rr, tr; Q, j; K, fs; R, ok; - Ulmus pumila is a tree to 25 m tall, sometimes shrubby, bark rough, twigs slender, gray-green, hairy when young, branches brittle, tending to break, winter buds round, large, 0.6 cm wide, blackish, scale margins hairy.  Leaves alternate, elliptic, 2-7 cm long, size very various on one twig, leaves near twig base often much smaller than those near […]
Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmaceae ULRU; Bx, br, bz, pb, rd, sf, wv; NY, iw; Q, cu (Greller 1977); K; R; gb, w; -     Ulmus rubra is a tree to 20 m; 70 cm dbh; twigs rough, hairy, gray; buds dark, red-hairy, margins very dark, less than 0.3 cm long.  Leaves alternate, stalk to 0.8 cm, blade 10-20 cm long, thick and stiff, very rough, scratchy above, hairy below.  Flowers small, stigmas pink, sepals green and pink. March-April.  Fruit dry, flat, 1-seeded, winged, […]
Zelkova carpinifolia zelkova Ulmaceae ZECA*; Bx, br; -    Zelkova carpinifolia is a tree to 25 m tall, bark smooth, gray; twigs finely hairy, at least when young; apparently colonial from root sprouts if cut.  Leaves alternate, stalk 0.1-0.2 cm long, blade 2-5 cm long (to 9 cm on shoots), tip pointed, base rounded to slightly lobed, hairy on both sides, veins 6-8 per […]
Zelkova serrata Japanese zelkova Ulmaceae ZESE*; seedling on Prall’s island; -      Zelkova serrata is a tree to 30 m tall. Bark smooth, gray.  Leaves alternate, stalk 2-5 cm long, blade lanceolate-ovate, 3-6 cm long (to 12 cm on shoots) to 2.2 cm wide, tip acuminate, base rounded, margin with large teeth, one for each vein pair, teeth acute, veins 8-14 per side, extending into tips […]