Carya tomentosa mockernut hickory Juglandaceae CATO; Bx, pb, vc, wv; NY, ct; rw; Q cu, j, u; K, p; R; ah, ar, bd, bm, cp, d, fw; gb, h, is, k, lp, t;

Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory) autumn foliage. plantplaces.com

Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory) autumn foliage. plantplaces.com (Accessed 12/2016).

Carya tomentosa is a tree to 24 m tall, 60 cm dbh (Petrides 1988), lives ca 200 yrs; slow growing; bark ridged, hard, tight, old bark deeply furrowed; taprooted, roots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Decker and Boerner 1997); winter buds to 2.5 cm long, dark outer scales dropping in Autumn leaving bud wooly, gray, often wider than twig; twigs wooly; growth pattern strictly determinate (Marks 1973; Gargiullo personal observation). 

Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory) leaf, fruit, bark, buds). by Richard & Teresa Ware .Georgia Botanical Society. gabotsoc.org

Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory) leaf, fruit, bark, buds). by Richard & Teresa Ware .Georgia Botanical Society. gabotsoc.org (Accessed 12/2016).

Leaves alternate, to 38 cm long, pinnate, leaflets 7-9, brownish-wooly-hairy below, terminal leaflet widest above middle, very fragrant when crushed; leaves expand mid-late May; winter plant leafless 166 days (Britton 1874). 

Carya tomentosa male catkins, leaves, female flowers (far r. side). David G. Smith. Delaware  Wildflowers. delawarewildflowers.org

Carya tomentosa male catkins, leaves, female flowers (far R. side). David G. Smith. Delaware Wildflowers. delawarewildflowers.org (Accessed 12/2017).

Flowers monoecious; male (staminate) catkins in dangling clusters, female (pistillate) few together  at ends of twigs; wind pollinated; blooms May. 

Fruit to 5 cm, round, slightly 4-ribbed, husk to 0.6 cm thick, splitting to base, nut to 3 cm, 4-angled, base rounded, Sept.-Oct.; seeds dispersed Sept.-Dec. by gravity and mammals that bury nuts. Seeds must overwinter to germinate. Nuts eaten by many mammals and some birds; jays, crows, pheasants (Martin, et al., 1951). 

Wetland status: FACU-. 

Frequency in New York City: Frequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Upland moist to dry forests. Soil pH 4.7-6.9 (USDA, NRCS 2010). Found in forest soil pH 5.0 (Gargiullo unpublished data). Rather intolerant of shade, index 2-4. Intolerant of flooding, salt, compaction. 

Notes: Flowers and bark eaten by a few birds and mammals (Martin, et al., 1951).Very susceptible to fire (Hightshoe 1988). Young trees stump sprout if cut. Attacked by same fungi and insects as other hickories.