Liparis loeselii Loesel’s twayblade; yellow widelip orchid Orchidaceae LILO; R (E. Danielsen 4/2017);

Liparis loeselii. Dave Taft. before 2016,Statin Island, NYC.

Liparis loeselii. Dave Taft. before 2016, Staten Island, NYC.

Liparis loeselii is a perennial, monocot herb 4-25 cm tall

Leaves basal, two, elliptic to lance-shaped, folded slightly along midrib, blade 5-15 cm long, 2-5 cm wide.

Flowers greenish-yellow, bilaterally symmetrical, sepals yellow-green 0.5-0.6 cm long, petals 0.5 cm long, lip 0.5 cm, flowers on stalks (pedicels) 0.3-0.5 cm long; inflorescence a loose raceme of 2-12 flowers; blooming June-July

Liparis loeselii. fruit capsules. Dave Taft. mid-winter.

Liparis loeselii. fruit capsules. Dave Taft. mid-winter.

Fruit a dry capsule, seeds minute, powder-like. All orchids need to associate with a particular fungus (often a pathogen) in order to grow.

Wetland Status: FACW

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Wet woods

Note: Like all wild orchids, Liparis loeselii cannot be transplanted as it will not live. Listed as Exploitably Vulnerable in NYS.

Malus hupehensis tea crabapple Rosaceae MAHU*; Bx, vc (Z. Wang, 4/2017);

Malus hupehensis, Arnold Arboretum tree. IMG_6008. commons.wikimedia.org

Malus hupehensis, Arnold Arboretum tree. IMG_6008. commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 4/2017).

Malus hupehensis is a small deciduous tree to 8 m. tall; branches stiff and spreading, young twigs hairy becoming smooth with age. Winter buds egg-shaped with several overlapping scales

Leaves alternate, egg-shaped 5-10 cm long, tip tapered to point, margins sharply, finely toothed; young leaves hairy on veins below, older leaves hairless; leaf stalks 1-3 cm long.

Malus hupehensis (tea crabapple).flowers. © Red Planet Inc. cirrusimage.com

Malus hupehensis (tea crabapple).flowers. © Red Planet Inc. cirrusimage.com (Accessed 4/2017).

Flowers white to slightly pink,  from deep pink buds, fragrant, 3.5-4 cm wide, flower stalks slender, 3-4 cm long, petals 5, broadly egg-shaped, widest above middle, slightly notched at top; styles 3, occasionally 4; sepals purplish, triangular to egg-shaped, tip pointed, flower stalks (pedicels) slender 3-4 cm long; inflorescences of 3-7 flowers in umbrella-like clusters.

Malus hupehensis fruit. W. Mark, J. Reimer and C. Stubler. The Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute (UFEI). selectree.calpoly.edu (Accessed 4/2017).

Fruit yellow green with red sides or entirely red, about 1 cm wide. flower parts mostly deciduous (Rehder 1990; Dirr 1990; Gargiullo personal observation).

Wetland status: NL. 

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent. 

Origin: China. 

Habitat:  Escaped from cultivation or in overgrown old house sites.

Notes: Apparently becoming invasive.

Mertensia virginica Virginia bluebells Boraginaceae NY, ct (planted reported by Regina Alvarez, Christian Liriano; R, ap (planted, E. Danielsen 2017), gb (planted by R. Lynch 1984, reported by M. Feller); h (planted, reported by E. Danielsen 2017)

Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells).Matthew Beziat. close-up Patuxent Research Refuge, MD. 4/2017

Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells).Matthew Beziat. close-up Patuxent Research Refuge, MD. 4/2017

Mertensia virginica is a perennial herb; plants dying back in summer ; colonial from a fleshy rhizome; no stipules.

Leaves alternate, 5-15 cm long, smooth, slightly fleshy, smooth, margins entire, elliptic to rounded tip rounded to blunt, lower leaves tapered to base, uppermost leaves rounded, base clasping stem.

Mertensia virginica, Virginia bluebells (Boraginaceae). MBGargiullo, yard, planted. May 2015

Mertensia virginica, Virginia bluebells (Boraginaceae). MBGargiullo, yard, planted. May 2015

Flowers light blue to lavender; 5-parted, tubular petal lobes flaring outward funnel-like, sepal small, 5-lobed; inflorescence of clusters at ends of branches; stamens 5, growing from the flower tube, mostly shorter than the petal lobes.

Fruit dry, 4 nutlets, each attached to the base of the flower (gynobase).

Wetland status: FACW.

Frequency in NYC: Very infrequent.

Origin: Native.

Habitat: Wet woodlands, edges.

Notes: Mertensia as a wild plant has apparently been extirpated from the City.

Thelypteris Genus fern Aspleniaceae

Thelypteris noveboracensis.©Thomas Kent.Flora Finder.©florafinder.org

Thelypteris noveboracensis.©Thomas Kent.Flora Finder.©florafinder.org (Accessed 3/2017).

Thelypteris is a genus of medium-sized ferns from the tips of blackish, slender, slightly scaly rhizomes.

Leaves twice pinnate or once pinnate and pinnately lobed, midrib and major veins hairy, at least on upper side, leaf stalk straw-colored,

Thelypteris leaf veins.© Gary Fewless.University of Wisconsin - Green Bay.Cofrin Center for Biology.uwgb.edu

Thelypteris leaf veins.© Gary Fewless.University of Wisconsin – Green Bay.Cofrin Center for Biology.uwgb.edu (Accessed 3/2017).

Spore cases inside leaflet margins, along veins, kidney-shaped (Cobb 1963).

Thelypteris kunthii.fertile pinnule.© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011.discoverlife.org.hardyfernlibrary.com

Thelypteris kunthii.fertile pinnule.© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011.discoverlife.org.hardyfernlibrary.com (Accessed 3/2017).

Eupatorium torreyanum (E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum) Torrey’s thoroughwort Asteraceae EUTO6; R (Z. Wang 7/2016);

Eupatorium torreyanum.Torrey's throughwort.Zihao Wang.Richmond Co. NYC, 2016

Eupatorium torreyanum.Torrey’s throughwort.Zihao Wang.Richmond Co. NYC, 2016 (Accessed 73/2017).

Eupatorium torreyanum is a perennial herb from a short root crown; stems to 1.5 m tall, solitary, rough-hairy, unbranched below middle; axils with small tufts of leaves.

Leaves opposite, sometimes in whorls of 3-4, conspicuously 3-veined, margin coarsely toothed.

Flowers dull white, 5 per head, bracteate base about 0.5 cm tall, cylindrical, finely gray-hairy; inflorescence rounded; blooms Aug.-Oct.

Fruit A plumed achene.

Wetland status: NL.

Frequency in New York City: State Threatened species (S2G5)

Origin: Native.

Habitat: Open uplands.

Eupatorium torreyanum.Richard and Teresa Ware.Copyright © 2006-2017 JK Marlow.Name That Plant.namethatplant.net

Eupatorium torreyanum.Richard and Teresa Ware.Copyright © 2006-2017 JK Marlow.Name That Plant.namethatplant.net (Accessed 3/2017).

Notes: According to Flora of North America: “Eupatorium hyssopifolium includes both diploid and polyploid cytotypes and presents a complex situation taxonomically. The diploids are placed here in var. hyssopifolium, which also includes polyploids and is characterized by relatively narrow leaves. Variety laciniatum has broader leaves and molecular data suggest that it arose through hybridization between var. hyssopifolium and E. serotinum; the name E. torreyanum has been applied to plants of similar morphology, but these are hybrid derivatives of E. serotinum and E. mohrii.”

It is mentioned in Gleason and Cronquist under E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum as being a “stable entity,” but is not treated separately.

USDAPlants gives the image from Britton and Brown without further information: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Vol. 3: 358.

Eupatorium torreyanum – Short, is mentioned under E. hyssopifolium in Native Plants of the Carolinas & Georgia (Radford et al. 1968).

Goodyera pubescens downey rattlesnake-plantain Orchidaceae (unknown location found by Dave Taft 3/2017)

Goodyeara pubescens.Dave Taft.8/3/2016 (Accessed 3/2017)

Goodyera pubescens is a small, low herb 20-40 cm tall in flower. Like all orchids, Goodyera roots are associated with specialized mycorrhizal fungi.

Leaves in a basal rosette,  each with a broad white midrib and each vein lined with white or greenish- white;   broadly elliptic to broadly egg-shaped, 2.1–6.2 cm long, 1.3–3 cm wide, tip pointed to blunt.

Flowers white, bilaterally symmetrical, overall shape rounded, about 0.5 cm long and wide, 3 white sepals 3 white petals but , upper lip hood-shaped, lower petals fused in a sack-like shape, overall however, the flower is distinctly orchid-shaped; inflorescence is a spike, densely flowered, on a stalk 11-35 cm long; blooms July-Sept (see Flora of North America www.eFloras.org 2017).

Goodyera pubescens.leaf rosette.© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011.discoverlife.org

Goodyera pubescens.leaf rosette.© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011.discoverlife.org (Accessed 3/2017)

Fruit a dry 3-parted capsule, seeds powder-like, wind dispersed. In order to germinate, a seed must join with an appropriate fungus.

Wetland status: FACU

Frequency in NYC: very infrequent.

Habitat: Woodlands with acid soil; mostly on moist humus soils in shady, upland woods. Found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. (Flora of North America www.eFloras.org 2017)

Goodyera pubescens.flowers.©Stephen Darbyshire.m3ipbase.com

Goodyera pubescens.flowers.©Stephen Darbyshire.m3ipbase.com (Accessed 3/2017).

Notes: As with all wild orchids, Goodyera should NEVER be collected from the wild since it is very slow to regenerate and will almost never survive transplanting.

Pycnanthemum Genus mountain mint Lamiaceae

Pycnanthemum is a genus of perennial, aromatic herbs (ours) with 4-sided, erect stems, colonial from rhizomes.

Leaves opposite, simple, aromatic.

Flowers white to pink, small, bilaterally symmetrical, tubular, 2-lipped, the upper lip entire or slightly notched, the lower lip 3-lobed, usually purple-dotted; stamens 4, usually longer than the petal lobes; ovary 4-lobed; flowers usually crowded in head-like clusters in leaf axils or ends of stems.

Fruit dry, of 4 nutlets cupped in the bottom of the persistent calyx.

Polygala Genus milkwort Polygalaceae

Polygala pauciflora.New Hampshire Garden Solutions.nhgardensolutions.files.wordpress.com

Polygala pauciflora.New Hampshire Garden Solutions.nhgardensolutions.files.wordpress.com (Accessed 2/2017).

Polygala is a genus of small herbs (ours).

Leaves alternate or whorled (ours).

Flowers very irregular; 5 sepals, the 2 inner (wings) larger and often petal-like, the 3 outer sepals smaller; 3 petals, fused with filaments of the at base forming a tube, the 2 upper petals alike, the lower petal keel-shaped with a fringed crest; stamens 8 or sometimes 6; the flowers of our species small in heads or dense spike-like clusters.

Fruit 2-parted capsule, each part one-seeded with a fleshy attachment (aril). Arils generally adapted to ant dispersal.

Philadelphus Genus mock-orange Hydrangeaceae

Philadelphus inodorus. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org

Philadelphus inodorus. By Arthur Haines. Copyright © 2017.New England Wild Flower Society.gobotany.newenglandwild.org (Accessed 2/2017).

Philadelphus is a genus of shrubs; twigs without stipules; bark mostly shredding or flaking.

Leaves opposite, simple, margins entire to toothed ours are all deciduous with no notable fall color.

Flowers white, all but P. inodorus are sweet smelling; 4-parted, stamens numerous, ovary inferior, 4-parted.

Fruit a dry capsule with numerous small seeds, opening along the center of each of the 4 parts (loculicidal).

Notes: Widely cultivated and hybridized, often with numerous petals replacing stamens (as in cultivated roses).