Aronia melanocarpa  (Pyrus m.) black chokeberry Rosaceae ARME; Q, j; K, m (planted?), pl; R, cb, cs, gb, h, lp, lt, sp, sv, t, x;

 

Aronia melanocarpa.commons.wikimedia.org

Aronia melanocarpa.commons.wikimedia.org (Accessed 7/2014).

Aronia melanocarpa is a shrub to 3 m tall, colonial from root sprouts, twigs smooth, winter buds hairless, dark, or red, pointed. Winter buds with second bud scale half or more length of bud.  

Leaves alternate, to 7 cm long, widest above middle, dark green above, whitish, smooth below, small dark glands along midrib above and at tips of marginal teeth. 

Flowers white, petals and sepals 5, stamens numerous, May-June, pollinated by native bees Andrena carlini carliniA. crataegiA. wheeleriA. miserabilisA. thaspiiLasioglossum cressoneHalictus sp. and European honeybees, Apis mellifera. Also visited by beetles, flies and moths. Also slightly self-fertile (Hall et al. 1978). 

Fruit fleshy, becoming red, then black, 1 cm wide, 1-5 seeded, ripens Aug.-Sept., often persistent into late autumn; seeds dispersed by birds. Seed load 6%. Pulp nutrients: water 72%, lipid 2%, protein 7%, CHO 29% (White 1989). Fruit and buds eaten by some birds, twigs eaten by deer and rabbits. Seeds eaten by mice (Martin et al 1951). 

Wetland status: FAC. 

Frequency in NYC: Occasional. 

Origin: Native. 

Habitat: Moist edges and open woods. Also on salt marsh edges and back dune woodlands (Hough 1983). Acid soil, pH 5-6.5. Tolerant of flooding, drought, salt, soil compaction. Moderately tolerant of shade (Hightshoe 1988). 

Notes: Apparently not attacked by many insects. Infected by the fungi: Gymnosporangium clavipes, quince rust (Basidiomycotina), Podosphaera cladestina, a powdery mildew (Ascomycotina) and Isariopsis sp. the conidiophore spore producing state of Mycospaerella leaf spot fungi, producing tiny clumps of dark conidiophores (Ascomycotina) (Hall et al. 1978, Agrios 1988; Sinclair et al. 1987; Raven et al. 1986).